Skip to main content

Full text of "The English flora"

See other formats


THE 



ENGLISH FLORA, 



BY 

SIR JAMES EDWARD SMITH, M.D. F.R.S. 

MEMBER OF THE ACADEMIES OF 
STOCKHOLM, UPSAL, TURIN, LISBON, PHILADELPHIA, NEW YORK, ETC. ETC. J 

THE IMPERIAL ACAD. NATURES: CURIOSORUM, 

AND 

THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AT PARIS; 

HONORARY MEMBER OF THE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY OF LONDON ; 

AND 

PRESIDENT OF THE LINNiEAN SOCIETY. 



Umbellatarura genera characteribus distinguere est re^ diflficillima. 

Linn. FrcBlect. in Ord. Nat. 51 ]. 

Umbelliferarum character generalis simplex ac facilis, difficilis generum di- 
stinctio ac distributio. 

Juss. Gen. 216. 



VOL. II. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR 

LONGMAN, HURST, IlEES, ORME, BROWN, and GREEN, 

TATERNOSTl^R-ROW. 

1«24. 









PRINTED BY ttlCHARD TAYLOR, 
SHOE-LANE. LONDON. 



BOOKS QUOTED IN VOL. II., 
IN ADDITION TO THOSE IN VOL. I. 



Act. Suec. 1 720.— Acta Literaria Suecica. Upsal. 1 720 — 1 724. 
vol. 1. quarto. 

Afzel. Ros. Suec. — Afzelius, Adam, de Rosis Suecanis Tentamen 
primwn. Upsal. 1804. Tentamen secundum. 1805. quarto. 

Alpin. Exot. — Alpinus, Prosper, de Plantis Exoticis Libri duo. Ve- 
nice. 1656. quarto. 

Amm. Ruth. — Amman, John, Stirpium Rariorum in Imperio Rutheno. 
sponteprovenientium Icones et Descriptiones. Petersburgh.1739. 
quarto. 

Anderson Tr. of L. Soc. — Anderson, George, Description of a new 
British Ruhus, &c. in Tr. of Linn. Soc. t\ 11 . 2 1 6. 

Ann. du Mus. — Annates du Museum d'histoire naturelle. Paris. 
1802 — 1813. quarto. 20 volumes. 

Berkenh. Syn. — Berkenhout, John, a Synopsis of the Natural His- 
tory of Great Britain and Ireland. London. 1/89. octavo. 2 
volumes. 

Besl. Hort. Eyst. — Besler, Basil, Hortus Eystettensis. Nuremberg. 
16)3. folio. 

Bicheno Tr. of L. Soc. — Bicheno, James Ebenezer, Observations on 
the LinncEan Genus Juncus, &c., in Tr. of L. Soc. v. 12. 291 . 

Bingl. N. Wales. — Bingley, William, a Tour round North Wales. 
London. 1800. octavo. 2 volumes. 

Br. in Ross's Voy. — Brown, Robert, in Ross's Voyage to the Arctic 
Regions. London, quarto. 2 volumes. Quoted after Dr. Hooker j 
see p. 188. 

Breyn. Cent. — Breynius, James, Plantarum Exoticarum Cenfuria 
prima. Dantzic. \ 677 . folio. 

Brot. Phyt. Lusit. — Brotero, Felix Avellar, Pki/tographia Lusila- 
nicc select ior. Lisbon. \800. folio, fasc. 1. 

Bute.—Butt\ John Earl of, Botanical Tables, containing the diffe- 
rent famih/s of British plants, quarto. 9 volumes. 

Buxb. Comm. Pe/rop .—Ikixbaum, John ('hristian, Plantce dubi(E 
ad sua genera relator, in Commentariis Academiic Pctropolita- 
n^, r.2. 369— 371. Prlcrsburgh. \729. quarto. 

Hallens. Knumcratio Plantarum accuratior in agro 

Hullensi loci.sque vicinis crrsccntinm. Halle. ]72\. octavo. 
a 2 



IV BOOKS QUOTED IN VOL. II. 

Ccesalp. — Caesalpinus, Andrew, de Plantis Libri XVI. Florence. 

1583. quarto. 
Carrier. Hort. — Cameraiius, Joachim, Hortus Medicus et Philoso- 

phicus. Frankfort. 1588. quarto. 
Chabr. Ic. — Chabraeus, Dominic, Stirpium Sciagraphia et Icones. 

Geneva. 1666. folio. 
Clus. Exot. — Clusius, Charles, Exoticorum Libri decern. Antwerp. 

1605. folio. 
Crantz Aust. — Crantz, Henry Joachim Nepomucenus, Stirpium 

Austriarum Fasciculus \ . ViennaA762. Fasc.2. 1763. Fasc.3. 

Leipsic. 1767. octavo. 

Stirp. — The same. 

Davies Tr. of L. Soc. — Davies, Hugh, A Determination of Three 

British Species of Juncus, with jointed Leaves, in Tr. of Linn. 

Soc. V. 10.10. 
Desvaux in Journ.de Bot. — Desvaux, Journal de Botanique. Paris. 

1808 — 1814. octavo. 5 volumes. 
Dicks. Tr. ofL. Soc. — Dickson, James, An Account of some Plants 

newly discovered in Scotland, in Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 2. 286. 
Dill. Indie. PL Dub. — Dillenius, John James, Indiculus Plantarum 

Dubiarum, in Phyt. Brit, et Merr. Pin. recensitarum, &c. at 

the end of his edition of Ray's Synopsis j see Ray. 
Dod. Coronar. — Dodonaeus, Rembert, Florum et Coronariarum 

Odoratarumque nonnullarum Herbarum, Historia. Antwerp. 

1569. octavo. 
Frument. Frumentorum, Leguminum, &c., Historia. 

Antwerp. 1566. octavo. 
Dodart Mem. — Dodart, Denys, Memoires pour sennr cl Vhistoire 

des Plantes. Paris. ^676. folio. 
ed. Amst. The same in quarto. Amsterdam and Leip- 
sic. 1758. 
Don Tr. of L. Soc. — Don, David, A Monograph of the Genus Saxi- 

fraga, in Tr. of L. Soc. i;. 13. 341. 
Donn Cant. ed. 5. — Donn, James, Hortus Cantabrigiensis. ed. 5. 

Cambridge. 1809. octavo. 
Dorsten. Botan. — Dorstenius, Theodoric, Botanicon. Frankfort. 

\ 540. folio. 
Duham. Cult. — Duhamel du Monceau, Henry Lewis, Traite de la 

Culture des Terres. Paris. 1750 — 1761. duodecimo. 6 vo- 
lumes. 
Ephem. Nat. Cur. — Academics Natures Curiosorum Ephemerides. 

Frankfort, Jena, Leipsic, Nuremberg, or Vienna. 1670 — 1722. 

quarto. 
Ehrh. Select. — Ehrhart, Frederick, Plantes Selectee. A collection 

of dried plants, similar to those mentioned in vol. 1 . 
Forster in Sym. Syn. — Forster, Thomas Furly, Appendix to Symons's 

Synopsis. See Sym. Syn. 
Freeman /c— Freeman, Strickland, Select Specimens of British 

Plants. London. 1797. folio. 



BOOKS QUOTED IN VOL. II. V 

Frisch Insect. — Frisch, John Leonard, Beschreihung von allerleu 

Insecten. Berlin. 1720 — 1738. quarto. 2 volumes. 
Galp. Comp. — Galpine, John, A Synoptical Compend of British Bo- 
tany. Salisbury. 1806. octavo. 
Gent. Mag. — The Gentleman's Magazine. London, octavo. 
GirardObs. — Girard, Michael, f/e Uva Ursina. Padua. \7 QA. octavo. 
Gmel. Baden. — Gmelin, Charles Christopher, Flora Badensis-Alsa- 

tica. Carlsruhe. 1805-1808. octavo. 3 volumes. 
Gouan Illustr. — Gouan, Antony, Illustrationes et Observationes 

Botanicce. Zurich. 1773. folio. 

Obs. — The same. 

Gunn. Norveg. — Gunner, John Ernest, Flora Norvegica. Dron- 

iheim and Copenhagen. 1766, ] 772. folio. 2 parts. 
Hall Tr. of. R. Soc. Ed. — Hall, W,, in Transactions of the Royal 

Society of Edinburgh, vol. 3. Edinburgh. 1794. quarto. 
Hall. All. — Haller, Albert von^ de Allii Genere naturali Libellus. 

Gottingen. 1745. quarto. 
It. Helv. dter Helveticum. 1739^ et Iter Hercynicum, 

1738. Gottingen. 1740. quarto. 

Opusc. Opuscula Botanica. Gottingen. 1749. octavo. 

Hall.jun. in Ser. Mus. — Haller, Albert von, Filius, Tentamen Syn- 

opseos Potentillarum, in Seringue Musee Helvetique.fasc. 3. 49. 
Haworth Misc. Nat. — Haworth, Adrian Hardy, Miscellanea Natu- 

ralia. London. 1803. octavo. 
Herm. Ros. — Hermann, John, de Rosa, Dissertatio Inauguralis. 

Strasburgh. 1762. quarto. 
Hill Fl. Br. — Hill, John, F/om Briiannica. London. 1760. octavo. 
Syst. Veg. Vegetable System. London. 1773 — 1775. 

folio. 26 volumes. 
Hoffm. Umb. — Hoffmann, George Francis, Plantarum Umbellife- 

rarum Genera. Moscow. 1816. octavo. 
Hunt. Evel. Sylva. — Evelyn, John, Sylva, or a Discourse of Forest 
Trees, the 6th edition with notes by A. Hunter. York. 1776. 
quarto. 
Jacq. Enum. — Jacquin, Nicholas Joseph von, Enumeratio Stirpium 

plerarumque, quce sponte crescunt in agro Vindobonensi, &c. 
Vienna. 1762. octavo. 

Fragm. Fragmenta Botanica. Vienna. \SOd. folio. 

Ilort. Vind. HortusBotanicus Vindobo7ie}isis. Vienna. 

1770 — 1777. folio. 3 volumes. 

Oxal. Oxalis. Vienna. 1/94. quarto. 

Ic. Pict. — Smith, James P^dward, Icones Pictce Plantarum Rario- 
rum. London. \790, &c. folio. 3 fasciculi. 

Introd. to Botany. Introduction to Physiological and Sy- 
stematical liolany, ed. 4. Loudon. 1819. octavo. 

Krock. Sites. — Krocker, Antony John, Eora Silesiaca renovata. 
Wratislaw. 1787, 1790. octavo. 2 volumes. 

Lam. Diet. — Lamarck, Chevalier de, Dictionnairc Encyclopedique 
de Rolanique. Paris. 1789 — 1808. quarto. H volumes. 



Vi BOOKS QUOTED IN VOL. II. 

Lapeyr. Pyren. — Lapeyrouse, Philip Picot de, Figures de la Flore 
des Pyrenees. Paris. 179c, \H0\. folio. 2 volumes. 

Lapland Tour. — Lachesis Lapponica, or a Tour in Lapland, from 
the Manuscript Journal of the celebrated Linnceus ; by James 
Edward Smith. London. 1811. octavo. 2 volumes. 

Lauremb. Appar. — Lauremberg, Peter, Apparatus Plantarius. 
Frankfort. 1632. quarto. 

Lindl. Ros. — Lindley, John, Rosarum Monographia, or a Botanical 
History of Roses. London. 1820. octavo. 

Tr. of L. Soc. ■ Observations on the Natural Group of 

Plants called Pomacece, in Tr. of Linn. Soc. v 13. 88. 

Linn. Corresp. — Smith, James Edward, a Selection of the Corre- 
spondence of Linnaus and other Naturalists, from the Original 
Manuscripts. London. 1821. octavo. 2 volumes. 

. Gen. ed. 1. — Linnseus, Carolus, Genera Plantarum. Leyden. 

\7S7. octavo. 

, Syst. Nat. ed. 10. Systema Naturce, ed. 10. Stock- 
holm. 1758, 1759. octavo. 2 volumes. 

f/'irid. Cliff. 'Viridarium Cliff ortianum. Amsterdam. 

1737. octavo. 

Lob. Obs. — Lobel, Matthias de, Stirpium Historia, sive Observa- 
tiones. Antwerp. 157 G. folio. 

Lonic. Kreuterb. — Lonicerus, Adam,A'reM^er6wc/j. Frankfort. 1582. 
folio. 

Mart. Spitzberg. — Martens, Frederick, Spitzbergische oder Groen- 
landische Reise Beschreibung. Hamburgh. 1675. quarto. 

, Ital. ed. Viaggio di Spizberga o' Grolanda. Venice. 

1680. duodecimo. 

Matth. ed. Bauh. — Matthiolus, Peter Andrew, Opera quce extant 
omnia, a Casparo Bauhino. Basil. \598. folio. 

Meyrick Misc. Bot. — Meyrick, W., Miscellaneous Botany. Birming- 
ham. \794. folio. 1 number only, with 3 plates. 

Mill. Bid. ed. 8.— Miller, Philip, The Gardener's Dictionary, edi- 
tion the 8th. London. \768. folio. 

Moehring in Eph. Nat. C7/r.— Moehring, Paul Gerard Henry, de 
Narthecio, novo plantarum genere ; see Ephem. Nat. Cur. 
vol. 6. 384—400. 

Monch Hass. — Monch, Conrad, Enumeratio Plantarum indigena- 
rum HassicB. Cassel. 1777. octavo. 

Monnier, Le, Obs. — Monnier, Le, Observations d'Hisfoire Naturelle, 
faites dans les Provinces Me'ridionales de la France. 1739. quarto. 

Montin in Am. Acad. — Montin, Laurence, Splachnum, in Linn. 
Amcen. Acad. v. 2. 263. 

Moris. Bles. — Morison, Robert, Hortus Blesensis. London. 1669. 
octavo. 

Munchh. Hausvater. — Munchhausen, Baron Otto von, Der Haus- 
vater. Hanover. 1764 — 1770. octavo. 5 volumes. 

Munt. Brit. — Munting, Abraham, de Verd Antiquorum Herbd Bri- 
iannicd. Amsterdam. \68\. quarto. 



BOOKS OUOTED IN VOL. II. vii 

Murr. Gott. — Murray, John Andrew, Prodromus Designulionis 

Stirpium Gottingeiisium. Gottingen. 1770. octavo. 
Nestl. Potent. — Nestler, C. G. Monographia de Potentilld. Paris 

and Sfrashitrgh. 1816. quarto. 
Palmberg Sert. — Palmberg, John, Serta Florea Suecana. Streng- 

ndds. 1684. octavo. 
Pass. Hort. Florid. — Passaeus, Crispin, Hortus Floridus. Arnheim. 

1614. oblong quarto. 
Penn. Tour in Wales. — Pennant, Thomas, A Tour in Wales. 

London. 1778. quarto. 
Pet. Gazopli. — Petiver, James, Gazophylaciuni Naturae et Artis, 

tab. 156. London. 1767. folio. In the 1st volume of his 

Works. 
Philos. Bot. — Linnaeus, Charles, Philosophia Botanica. Stockholm. 

1751. octavo. 
PL Ic. see Sm. 
Plot Oxf. — Plot, Robert, The Natural History of Oxford-shire. 

Oxford, \70j.folio. 
Prod. Ft. Grcec. — Smith, James Edward, Florce GrccccB (Sibthor- 

pian^J Prodromus. London. 1806 — 1813. octavo. 2 volumes. 
Ray Cat. PL AngL — Ray, John, Catalogus Plantarum Anglicc, 

ed. 2. London. 1677. octavo. 
Redout. /?0A-.— Redoute, P. J. Les Roses. Paris, 1817, &c. quarto 

voL 1,2,3, &;c. 
Reynier Mem. de la Suisse. — Reynier, L. et Struve, Memoires pour 

servir d V Histoire physique et naturelle dela Suisse. Lausanne. 

1788. octavo. 
Richard Hydroc. — Richard, Achilles jun.. Monographic du Genre 

Hydrocotyle. Brussels. 1820, octavo. 
Rose Bot. see Rose, Elem. 
Rosen Obs. — Rosen, Eberhard, Observationes Botaniccp, circa plantas 

quasdam Scanue mm ubivis obvias. Lund 1749. quarto. 
Rudb. Elys. V. 1. — Rudbeck, Olaus, pater et filius, Campi Elysii, 

Liber primus. Upsal. 1701 ? folio. 'In the Sherardian library, 

O.xford. 

Hort. Ups. pater, Hortus Upsalienus Academice. 

Upsal. 1666. duodecimo. 

//. Lapp. filius, Lappcmia lllustrata. Upsal. 1701. 

(juarto. 

Sabine 'Jr. of Hort. Sor. — Sabine, Jo.scph, Description and Account 
of the varieties of Double Scotch Ro.scs, cultivated in the Gar- 
dens of England, in Tr. (f the Hort icnlt unit Society, v. 4. 281 . 
London. 1822. <piarto. 

Salisb. Tr. of L. Soc. — Sali.sbury, Riciuinl Antony, .S'/h'<7>.s of Erica, 
in Tr. of L. Soc. v. 6. 3 16. 

Srhlcich. rV//.— Schleicher, J. C., Catalogus Plantarum m Helvetia 
sptnitc na^sccnlium. Ucx. no dale, octavo. 

Schnll. Barb. — Schollcr, Frcdrrick Adam, FL>ra liarhicnsis. I.cip- 
^i< . 1 775. octavo. 



V'm BOOKS QUOTED IN VOL. II. 

Ser. Mus. Helv. — Seringue, N. C.^ Musee Helvetique d'Histoire 

Naturelle. Berne. 1820. quarto. 
Spicil. — Smith, James Edward, Spicilegium Botanicam. London. 

1791, 1792. folio, f CISC. 1 and2. 
Spreng. Prodr. — Sprengel, Curt, Plantarum UnibeUiferarum denuo 

disponendarum Frodromus. Halle. 1813. octavo. 
Sp. Umh.^ Species Umhelliferarum minus cognitco, 

illustrates. Halle. 1818. quarto. 
Siernb. Saxifr. — Sternberg, G. Caspar, Revisio Saxifragarum ico- 

nihus illustrata. Ratisbon. ]810. folio. 
Sweert Floril. — Sweert, Emanuel, Florilegium. Amsterdam. 1647. 

folio. 
Thai. Harcyn. — Thalius^ John^ Sylva Harcynica. Frankfort. 1588. 

quarto. 
Tillands Ab. — ^Tillands, Elias, Catalogus Plantarum quce prope 

Aboam inventce sunt. Abo. 1683. octavo. 
Tracts. — Smith, James Edward^ Tracts relating to Natural History . 

London. 1798. octavo. 
Turn, and Dillw. Bot. Guide. — see Bot. Guide. 
Turr. Farset. — Turra, Antony, Farsetia, Novum Genus. Venice. 

1765. quarto. 
Upsal Trans. — Acta Societatis Regice Scientiarurn Upsaliensis. 

Stockholm. 1744 — 1750. quarto. 2 volumes. 
Ust. Annal. — Usteri, Paul_, Annalen der Botanick. Zurich. 1791. 

Leipsic. 1797. 21/asc. 
Wade Dubl. — Wade, Walter, Catalogus Systematicus Plantarum 

indigenarum in Comitatu Duhlinensi inventarum. Dublin. 

1794. octavo. 
Weihe and Nees Rub. Germ. — Weihe, A. et Nees ab Esenbeck, 

Ch. G. Rubi Germanici. Bonn. 1822. folio, fasc. \, 2. 
Wikstrcem. — Wikstroem, John Emanuel, New Species of Fritillaria, 

in Stockh. Trans, for 1821. 350. 
Willd. Enum. — Willdenow, Charles Lewis, Enumeratio Plantarum 

Horti Regii Botanici Berolinensis . Berlin. 1809. octavo. 
Winch Geogr. Distrib. — Winch, Nathaniel John, aw Essay on the 

Geographical Distribution of Plants, through Northumberland, 

&c. Newcastle. 1819. octavo. 
Woods Tr. of L. Soc. — Woods, Joseph, a Synopsis of the British 

Species of Rosa, in Tr. of L. Soc. v. 12. 159. 



ENGLISH FLORA. 



PENTANDRIA. 

Order IL DIGYNIA. Pistils 2. 

* Fl, mo7iopetalous, iiiferior. 

134-. SWERTIA. Caps, on ceW, Cor. wheel-shaped, with 
2 nectariferous pores at the base of each segment. 

135. GENTIANA. Caps, of 1 cell. Cor. tubular at the 
base, destitute of nectariferous pores. 

133. CUSCUTA. Caps, of 2 cells, bursting all round. 
Cor. bell-shaped. 

** Fl. of !") petals, inferior. 

Staphijlc.a 1 . 
### Petals wanting. Seed solitary. 

129. CHENOPODIUM. Seed lenticular, tunicated, su- 

j)erior. 

130. BETA. Seed kidney-shaped, imbedded in the flesliy 

calyx. 

131. SALSOLA. Caps, closed, imbedded in the llcshy 

calyx. Seed witli a spiral embrijo. 
12H. IIERNIAHIA. Caps, closed, membranous, invested 
with die eal}jx. St am. with 5 imjicrfect filaments. 



2 

132. ULMUS. Caps, closed, membranous, compressed, 
bordered, superior. 

Polygonum \. 

***** i^?. of 5 petals, superior. Seeds 2. Umbellatae, 

A. Fruit a single or double globe, 

152. CORIANDRUM. Fruit a single or double globe, 
smooth, without ribs. Cal, broad, unequal. Petals 
radiant. Floral Recept, none. 

B. Fruit beaked, 

14S. SCANDIX. Beak much longer than the seeds. 
Fruit somewhat bristly. Cal, none. Pet, unequal, 
undivided. Ft, Recept, 5-lobed, coloured. 

U2. ANTHRISCUS. Beak shorter than the seeds, even. 
Ft, rough with scattered prominent bristles. Cal, 
none. Pet. equal, inversely heart-shaped. Fl, Recept, 
slightly bordered. 

144. CHiEROPHYLLUM. i?^«^ shorter than the seeds, 
angular. Fr. smooth, without ribs. Cal, none. Pet, 
inversely heart-shaped, rather unequal. FL Recept, 
wavy. 

C. Fruit solid, prickly, njoithout a beak, 

136. ERYNGIUM. Fr, ovate, clothed with straight 

bristles. Cal. pointed. Pet. oblong, equal, inflexed, 
undivided. Fl. aggregate. Common Recept. scaly. 

137. SANICULA. i^^\ ovate, clothed with hooked bristles. 

Cal. acute. Pet. lanceolate, inflexed, nearly equal, 
Fl. separated, dissimilar. 

138. ECHINOPHORA. Fr. ovate, imbedded in the en- 

larged, armed receptacle. Seed solitary. Cal. spinous. 
Pet, inversely heart-shaped, unequal. Fl, separated. 

139. DAUCUS. Fr, elliptic-oblong, compressed trans- 

versely. Seeds with 4 rows of flat prickles, and rough 
intermediate ribs. Cal, obsolete. Pet, inversely 
heart-shaped, unequal. Fl. separated. 

140. CAUCALIS. Fr. elliptic- oblong, compressed trans- 

versely. Seeds with 4 rows of ascending, awl-shaped, 
hooked prickles, the interstices prickly, or ^rough. 
!?\ Cal. broad, acute, unequal. Pet, inversely heart- 
shaped, unequal, Fl. imperfectly sejiarated. 



141. TORILIS. Ft. ovate, slightly compressed laterall}'. 
Seeds ribless, rough with scattered, prominent, 
ascending, rigid prickles. Cal. short, broad, acute, 
nearly equal. Pet. inversely heart-shaped, nearly 
equal. ¥1. united. 

Myrrhis 1. 

D. Fruit solid, nearly round, unarmed, ivithout "dcings^ 

145. MYRRHIS. Fr, deeply furrowed. Cal. none. Pet. 

inversely heart-shaped, rather unequal. Fl. Recept. 
none. Flo'wers imperfectly separated. 

146. BUNIUM. Fr. slightly ribbed. Cal. small, acute, 

unequal. Pet. inversely heart-shaped, equal. FL 
Recept. none. Fl. imperfectly separated. 

153. CENANTHE. Fr. ribbed, somewhat spongy. Cal. 

large, lanceolate, acute, spreading, unequal. Pet. 
inversely heart-shaped, radiant, very unequal. FL 
Recept. dilated, depressed. Fl. separated. 

154. CRITHMUM. P;-. ribbed, coriaceous. C^/. small, 

broad, acute, incurved. Pet. elliptical, acute, in- 
curved, equal. Fl. Recept. none. Fl. united, all 
perfect. 

163. ATHAMANTA. Fr. ribbed, ovate, hairy. Styles 

short. Cal. lanceolate, acute, incurved. Pet. in- 
versely heart-shaped, broadly pointed, equal. FL 
Recept. none. Fl. imperfectly separated. 

164. PIMPINELLA. Fr. ovate, ribbed, with convex in- 

terstices. Styles capillary, as long as the fruit. Cal. 
none. Pet. inversely heart-shaped, nearly equal. 
Fl. Recept. none. Fl. either united or dioecious. 

E. Fruit solid, unarmed, xvithout "jcinfj^s, compressed, 
laterally, its transverse diameter being at least 
t'wice the breadth of the juncture, 

147. SIUM. Fr. ovate, or orbicular, ribbed, furrowed. 

Cat. small, acute, iniequal, or obsolete. Pet. in- 
versely heart-shaped, or obovatc, equal. Styles cy- 
lindrical, shorter than the petals. Fl. Recept. none. 
Fl. uniform, united. 

148. SISON. Fr. ovate, or nearly orbicular, ribbed. Cal. 

obsolete or blunt. Pet. elliptical, or inversely heart- 
shaped, with an iiivoUite point, equal. Stifles very 
short and thick. Fl. Uccept. none. /•'/. unilornj, 
uiiiu-d. 



i 



149. CICUTA. Fr, nearly orbicular, lieart-sliaped at the 
base, with 6 double ribs. Cal, broad, acute, rather 
unequal. Fet. ovate, or slightly heart-shaped, nearly 
equal. Styles scarcely tumid at the base. FL Recept. 
depressed, withering. FL uniform, nearly regular, 
united. 

151. CONIUM. F)\ ovate, with 10 acute ribs, wavy in an 
unripe state. Cal. obsolete. Pet. inversely heart- 
shaped, slightly unequal. Stijles a little tumid at the 
base. Fl. Recept. dilated, depressed, wavy, perma- 
nent. Fl. slightly irregular, united. 

155. SMYRNIUM. Fr. broader than long, concave at 

each side, with 6 acute dorsal ribs ; interstices con- 
vex. Cal. very small, acute. Pet. equal, lanceolate, 
incurved ; or inversely heart-shaped. Styles tumid 
and depressed at the base. Fl. Recept. none. Fl. 
nearly regular, partly barren or abortive. 

156. APIUM. Fr. roundish-ovate, with 6 acute dorsal 

ribs ; interstices flat. Cal. obsolete. Pet. roundish, 
with an inflexed point, very nearly equal. Styles 
greatly swelled at the base. Fl. Recept. thin, orbi- 
cular, wavy. Fl. nearly regular, united. 

157. i3]:GOPODIUM. Fr. elliptic-oblong, with equi- 

distant ribs; interstices flattish. Cal. none. Pet. 
inversely heart-shaped, broad, a little unequal. Styles 
ovate at the base. Fl. Recept. none. Fl. united, 
all perfect, slightly radiant. 

161. MEUM. iv\ elliptic-oblong, with equidistant ribs ; 

interstices flattish. Cal. none. Pet. obovate, with 
an inflexed point, equal. Styles tumid at the base, 
short, recurved. Fl. Recept. none. Fl. united, all 
perfect, regular. 

162. CARUM. Fr. elliptic-oblong, with equidistant ribs; 

interstices convex. Cal. minute, acute, often obso- 
lete. Pet. inversely heart-shaped, unequal. Styles 
tumid at the base ; subsequently elongated, widely 
spreading. Fl. Recept. annular, thin, wavy, perma- 
nent. Fl. separated, irregular. 
165. CNIDIUM. Fr. ovate, acute, with equidistant, veiy 
sharp, ribs; interstices deep, concave; juncture con- 
tracted. Cal. none. Pet. equal, obovate, or inversely 
heart-shaped. Styles hemispherical at the base ; 
subsequently elongated, spreading, cylindrical. FL 



Recept, annular, thin, undulated, erect; afterwards 
depressed. Fl. imperfectly separated, nearly regular. 

166. BUPLEURUM. iv. ovate-oblong, obtuse, with pro- 

minent, acute, abrupt ribs ; interstices flat ; juncture 
contracted. Cal. none. Pet. equal, broadish-wedge- 
shaped, very short, involute. Styles very short, not 
extending beyond the circumference of their broad, 
tumid bases. Fl. Hecept. none. Fl. all pei-fect and 
regiriar. 

167. HYDROCOTYLE. Fr. nearly orbicular, rather 

broader than long, angular, much comi)ressed; junc- 
ture very narrow. Cal. none. Pet. equal, ovate, 
spreading, undivided. Styles cylindrical, shorter than 
the stamens ; tumid at the base. Fl. Recept. none. 
Fl. all perfect and regular. 

F. Fruit solid, smarmed, compressed transversely, the 
juncture being broader than the transverse diameter. 

150. iETHUSA. Seeds ovate, convex, with 5 tumid, 
rounded, acutely keeled, ribs; interstices deep, acut- 
angular; border none. Cat. pointed, very minute. 
Pet. inversely heart-shaped, rather irregular. Fl. 
Itecept. none. Fl. all perfect, slightly radiant. 

158. IMPERATORIA. Seeds orbicular, with a notch at 
each end, a little convex, with 3 prominent dorsal 
ribs, and a dilated, flat, even border. Cal. none. 
Pet. inversely heart-shaped, very slightly irregular. 
Fl. Peccpt. none. Fl. all perfect, scarcely radiant. 

168. SELINUM. .Sm/5 elliptical, slightly convex, with 

3 acute dorsal ribs, and a dilated, flat, even border. 
Cal. minute, pointed, spreading. Pet. inversely 
heart-shai)ed, involute, equal. Fl. Rccept. obsolete. 
Fl. perfect, regular, a few occasionally abortive. 

151). ANGELICA. aScvy/5 elliptic-oblong, convex, with 3 
dorsal wings, and a narrow, flat, even border. Cal. 
none. Pet. lanceolate, ilaltish, uiulivided, contracted 
at each end, equal. Ft. Reecpt. thin, wdvv, narrow, 
])ermanent. Fl. all perfect, regiflar. 

160. LIGUSTICUM. .S'm/i- oblong, convex, wit li 3 dorsal, 
and 2 nun-ginal, ecjual wings. Cal. small, pointed, 
erect; broad at the base. Pet. eHi])tic;il, flattish, 
undiviilcd, coiUractcd at each eiul, ecjual. I'l. Rerrpt. 
none. //. all i'crfttt, regular. 



G. Fruit thin and almost Jlat, compressed trans- 
versely^ without dorsal wings, 

169. PEUCEDANUM. Seeds broadly elliptical, with a 

notch at each end, a little convex, with 3 slightly 
prominent ribs ; interstices striated ; border narrow, 
flat, even, smooth and entire. CaL pointed, ascend- 
ing. Pet. inversely heart-shaped, all very nearly 
equal. Fl. Recept, none. FL regular, imperfectly 
separated. 

170. PASTINACA. aS^^^^/s elliptic-obovate, with a slight 

notch at the summit, very nearly flat, with 3 dorsal 
ribs and 2 marginal ones; border narrow, flat, thin, 
even, smooth and entire. Cat. very minute, obsolete. 
Pet. broadly lanceolate, involute, equal. Fl. Hecept^ 
broad, orbicular, wavy, rather thin, concealmg the 
calyx. Fl. regular, uniform, perfect. 

171. HERACLEUM. 5'£?^rf5 inversely heart-shaped, with 

a notch at the summit, very nearly flat, with 3 slender 
dorsal ribs, 2 distant marginal ones, and 4 interme- 
diate, coloured, depressed, abrupt lines from the top ; 
border narrow, slightly tumid, smooth, even and 
entire. Cal. of 5 small, acute, evanescent teeth. Pet. 
inversely heart-shaped, radiant. Fl. Recept. wavy, 
crenate, obtuse. Fl. separated. 

172. TORDYLIUM. ,S^^^5 orbicular, nearly flat, rough- 

ish, without ribs; border tumid, wrinkled or crenate, 
naked or bristly. Cal. of 5 awl-shaped, unequal 
teeth. Pet. inversely heart-shaped, radiant, variously 
unequal and irregular. FL Recept. none. Fl. se- 
parated. 



Order III. TRIGYNIA. Pistils 3. 

* Fl. siipn'ior. 

173. VIBURNUM. Cor. 5-cleft. Beiry with 1 seed. 

174. SAMBUCUS. Cor. 5-cleft. Beiry with 3 seeds. 

** Fl. injerim: 

175. STAPHYLEA. Petals 3. Caps. 2 or 3, inflated. 



176. TAMARIX. Pet. 5, C«/;5. of 3 valves. Seeds im- 

merous, feathered. 

177. CORRIGIOLA. Pet. 5. ^mZl, naked, ti'iangular. 

Chenqpodium. Stellaria 2. 



Order IV. TETRAGYNIA. Fisiils 4. 

178. PARNASSIA. 2V^c/a;7V5 fringed with bristles, bearing 
globes. Cajys. of 4 valves. 



Order V. PENTAGYNIA, Pistils 5. 

180. LINUM. Pet. 5. Capsule o£ 10 cells. 

181. SIBBALDIA. Pet. 5. Seeds 5, naked. Cal. in 10 

segments. 

179. STATICE. Pet. 5. Seed 1, clothed with the base 
of the funnel-shaped calyx. 

Cer ostium 3. Spergvla. 



Order VI. IIEXAGYNIA. Pistils 6. 

182. DROSERA. Pet. 5. Caps, of 3 valves, with many 
seeds. 



OrderVII. POLYGYNIA. P/i/Z/.s numerous. 

183. MYOSURUS. Pet. 5, with tubuhir, honey-bearing 
claws. Seeds naked. Cat. spurred at the base. 
RanuNculus. 



s 



PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. 

128. HERNIARIA. Rupture-wort. 

Linn. Gen. 121. Juss. 89. E. Br. 271. Tourn. t. 288. Lam. t.lSO. 
Nat. Ord. Holer acece, Linn. 1 2. Amaj^anthi, Juss. 30. 7//^- 
cebrecB, Br. Pr. 413, Obs. 

C(flZ. inferior, of 1 leaf, in 5 deep, acute, spreading, perma- 
nent segments, internally coloured. Cor, none. Filam. 
5, awl-shaped, shorter than the calyx, opposite to its seg- 
ments, with 5 intermediate, imperfect ones. AntJi, on the 
former only, each of 2 round lobes. Germen superior, 
ovate. Styles very short. Stigmas pointed. Caps, in- 
vested with the calyx, membranous, of 1 cell, scarcely 
bursting, except in an irregular manner. Seed solitary, 
roundish, polished, pointed, filling the capsule. 

Small plants, with branched, leafy stems; opposite, unequal, 
exitixe leaves ; membranous 5^/pz^Za5/ and aggregate, axil- 
lary, small, greenish ^ow^?'5. 

1. m, glabra. Smooth Rupture-wort. 

Herbaceous. Leaves and calyx smooth. 

H. glabra. Linn.Sp. Pl.3\7. Willd.v.],\296. Fl.Br.27\. Engl. 

Bot. V. 3. t. 206. Fl Dan. t. 529. 
Herniaria. BaiiSijn.]QO. Ger. Em.569.f. Dalech. Hist. 1126. f. 
H. n. 1552. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 255. 
Empetron. Trag. Hist.:)27.f. 

Polygonum minus. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 302./. CameuEpit. 690./. 
Millegrana. Cord.Hist.9'd.2.f, 

In gravelly or sandy ground. 

About the Lizard-pointy Cornwall. Ratj. Near Newmai'ket. Rev. 
Mr. Hemsted. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root tapering, somewhat woody, and certainly perennial. Stems 
numerous^ prostrate, much branched, leafy, round, occasionally 
roughish with prominent, very short, hairs. Leaves obovate, or 
elliptical, bluntish, obscurely triple-ribbed, on short stalks ; the 
floral ones mostly alternate ; all smooth on both sides. Stipulas 
lateral, between the leaves, in pairs, minute, pointed, membra- 
nous. Fl. small, green, in dense, somewhat leafy, clusters, 
either axillary, or opposite to a solitary leaf. Col. edged with 
white. Abortive //a ,7? en ^s rather the broadest. Caps, elliptical, 
pointed.^ 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. ChenoiX)dium. 9 

2. H. hirsuta. Hairy Rupture-wort. 

Herbaceous. Leaves and calyx hairy. 

H. hirsuta. Lhm. Sp. PL3\7. Willd. v. I. 1297. Fl Br. 272. 
Engl. Bot. V. 20. t. 1379. Dill, in Baii Syn. JGl. Bauh. Hist. 
v.3.379.f. 

H. n. 1553. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 256. 

Hoary Rupture-wort. Pet. H, Brit. t. 10./. 10. 

In sandy ground^ rare. 

At Colney-hatch, near Barnet. Hudson. Preserved in Buddie's 
herbarium. Ddlenius. In Cornwall. Mr. Stackhousc. 

Perennial. Jubj, August. 

Differs from the last in having the leaves fringed with strong ])ro- 
minent hairs, as well as rough beneath, more or less, with simi- 
lar, but shorter, hairs. Tlie calyx also is hairy, and the ston al- 
ways rough. Haller says the Jiowcrs are fewer in each cluster, 
and much larger in proportion to the leafj the bractcas xery 
white. Possibly he might comprehend, under his n. 1553, //. al- 
pina of Villars and Willdenow, though the Swiss ])lant, from Mr. 
Davall, is really //. hirsuta. The late Mr. Stackhouse, wiio stu- 
died our two Herniarice in Cornwall, was persuaded of their not 
being specifically distinct. 

129. CHENOPODIUM. Goosefoot. 

Linn. Gen. \2\. Juss.So. Fl.Br.272. Br. PrAOG. rourn.t. 28S. 
Lam. t. 181. Gfprtn. t. 75. 

Nat. Ord. Holcracccc. Linn. 12. Atrij)Uccs. Juss. 29. Che- 
nopodccc. DeCand. 100. Br. Pr. 405. Two following 
genera the same. 

Cal. inferior, of 1 leaf, concave, in 5 deep, ovate, concave, 
permanent segments, membranous at the cdnes. Cor. 
none. Filam. awl-shaped, opposite to the segments, and 
about as long. Anth. of 2 round lobes. Gcnncn orbicu- 
lar, depressed. Styles short. Stigmas obtuse. Seed soli- 
tary, lenticular, crustaceous, enveloped in a very thin, 
membranous, close pellicle^ and covered by the perma- 
nent, 5-angled calyx. 

Herbaceous, mostly aimual. Pnbesccnec mealy, friable, and 
imctuous. Leaves alternntc, generally h)bed. Stipuhis 
none. Fl. numerous, small, green, chi^leretl or paniclecl. 
Seed mostly blackish. 

* Leaves awgular, 

1. Ch. Bonus Ilcnricus. Mercury Goosefoot. 

Leaves triangular-arrow-shai)cd, entire. Spike>> terminal, 
cojnj)ound, lealless. 



10 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Chenopodium. 

Ch. Bonus Henricus. Linn. Sp. PL 318. M'illd. v. 1. 1299. Fl, 
Br. 272. Engl. Bot. v. 15. t. 1033. Curt. Lond.fasc. 3. t. 17. 
Hook. Scot. 83. Ft. Dan. t.579. Bull. Fr. t. 317. 

Ch. n. 1578. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 266. 

Blitum perenne, Bonus Henricus dictum. Raii Srjn. 156. 

Bonus Henricus. Trag. Hist.3\7. f. Ger. Em. 329. f. Brunf. Herb. 
V. 1. 63./. Camer. Epit. 368./. 

Wild Spinage. Pet. H. Brit. t. 7.f. 12. 

In waste ground^ and by road sides^ frequent. 

Perennial. Maij, June. 

Root branching, fleshy. Herb dark green, nearly smooth. Stems 
a foot high, furrowed, ascending, leafy, each terminating in a 
tapering, compound, crowded cluster, or spike, of numerous 
gveenjlowers ; their stalks sometimes unctuous and mealy. Cal. 
bordered with an abrupt white membrane. Styles spreading, 
often 3. Stam. wanting in some flowers. Seed kidney-shaped. 

This, our only perennial Chenopodium, may be eaten, when young, 
like spinach, and is cultivated for the table in some parts of Lin- 
colnshire. It is insipid and mucilaginous, rather mawkish 3 and 
soon becomes tough and fibrous. 

2. Ch. urbicum. Upright Goosefoot. 

Leaves triangular, toothed. Spikes crowded, lobed, very 
long and straight, approaching the stem, almost leafless, 

Ch. urbicum. Linn. Sp. PI. 318. Willd. v.\.\ 299. Fl. Br. 273. 
Engl. Bot. V. 10, t. 7\7. Hook. Scot. 83. ^ ^ 

Ch. erectum, foliis triangularibus dentatis, spicis e foliorum alis 
plurimis longis erectis tenuibus. Dill, in Raii Sijn. 155. 

Ch. latifolium, minus ramosum, florum petiolis longissimis, ex fo- 
liorum alis confertim enascentibus. Buxb. Hallens. 69. 1. 1, good. 

Atriplex sylvestris latifolia, sive Pes anserinus. Ger. £m.328? /. 

Broad-pointed Blite. Pet. H. Brit. t. 8./. 8. 

On dunghills, and ditch banks, by way sides. 

Common in St. George's fields, Southwark 5 also in several parts 
of Norfolk, and at Gorton, near Lowestoft, Suffolk. 

Annual. August, September. 

Root fibrous. Stem erect, not much branched, leafy, angular, 
furrowed, often red. Leaves stalked, triangular, acute, bright 
green, smooth, unequally and sharply toothed, a little elongated 
at the base, 1 J or 2 inches in length. Spikes axillary, and ter- 
minal, erect, straight, lobed, and often branched, closely pressed 
to the stem as they advance to maturity, always shorter than the 
leaves. Ft. sessile, solitary, or aggregate, green. Styles 2 or 
3, imperfect in some flowers. Seed roundish, the size of Rape- 
.seed, being, as Mr. Curtis first remarked, 5 times iis large as 
that of the following, by which these two species may clearly be 
distinguished, though they have often been confounded. 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Chenopodium. 11 

3. Ch. rubrum. Red Goosefoot. 

Leaves triangular, somewhat rhomboid, deeply toothed and 
sinuated. Spikes erect, compound, leafy. Seed very 
minute. 

Ch. rubrum. Linn. Sp. PL 318. mild. v. 1. 1300. Fl. Br. 274. 
Engl Bot. V. 24. t. 1721. Curt. Land. fuse. G. ^21. Hook. Scot. 
84. Ehrh. PL Of. S3. 

Blitum Pes anserinus dictum. Raii Stjn. 154. 

Atriplex sylvestris latifolia altera. Ger. Em. 328./. 

Pes anserinus. Fuclis. Hist. 652. t. 652. Dad. Pernpt. 6\6.f. Da- 
lech. Hist. 542./. 

Sharp-pointed Elite. Pet. H. Brit. t. 8./. 6. 

/3. Blito, Pes anserinus dicto, similis. Raii Stjn. 154. 

Common in waste ground,, often in low muddy situations. 

Annual. August . 

Akin to the last, from which it differs in being generally more bushy, 
with more deeply toothed, or sinuated, leaves, considerably elon- 
gated at the base. The spikes are more spreading, and are be- 
set with several small leaves. But the most distinguishing cha- 
racter, pointed out by Curtis, as well as by Kay in the variety /3, 
consists in the comparative smallness of the seeds, which in Ch. 
rubrum are no bigger than grains of common sand. In exposed 
situations the whole herb assumes a red colour. This species 
and its allies are said to be poisonous to swine. Botanists have 
hitherto given the name of racenii, clusters, to the inflorescence 
of these plants ; but it surely consists rather of compound spikes, 
in which ih^Jiowers are aggregate, crowded into little heads or 
tufts. 

4. Ch. hotryodes. Many-spiked Goosefoot. 
Leaves tr'anirular, somewhat toothed ; the ujiper ones 

bluntish. S})ikes erect, compound, rounded, leafy. 

Ch. botryodes. EngL Bot. v. 32. t. 2241 . Comp.W. 

In moist sandy places, near the sea. 

Near \';irmouth. Mr. LUly fi'igg. Between the clitV and tlx sea 
at Lowestoft. 

Animal. August, Se])tcmhev. 

Stems sj)reading, or prostrate. Leaves very much smaller than the 
two last, flcsliv, triangular, or hastate, not rhomboid, and vory 
slightly tootlied, smooth, frequently red, as are also the eo|)i()us, 
compound, rounded, more or less leafy, sj)ikes. Cal. tumid, ob- 
tuse. Seed small, black and sliining. 

5. Ch. inuralc. Nettle-leaved Goosefoot. 

Leaves ovate, acute, many-tootlied, sliining. Spikes aggre- 
gate, panicled, cymosc, leafless. 



12 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Chenopodium. 

Ch.murale. Linn. Sp. PL 3\8. Willd.vA. 1301. FLBr.27A, EngL 
Bot. V.24. t. 1722. Curt. Lond.fasc. 6. i. 20. Hook. Scot. 84. 

Ch. n.* 1583. Hall.Hist. v. 2. 268. '' Probably including also Ch. 
ruhrum:" Davall. 

Blitum Pes anserinus dictum, acutiore folio. Rail Syn. 154 ; ex- 
cluding Gerarde's synonym. 

Atriplex, dictus Pes anserinus^ alter sive ramosior. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 
976./. good. 

Thick Shining Elite. Pet. H.Brit. t.S.f. 5. 

In waste ground, about old walls, and by way sides. 

Annual. August, September. 

Stem much branched. Whole plant fetid, of a darkish, slightly 
glaucous, green, sometimes purplish in the stem and branches. 
Leaves triangular-ovate, sharply and copiously toothed, the teeth 
rather incurved, or hooked. Panicles sub-axillary and mostly 
terminal, cymose, composed of numerous spikes or little round 
leafless heads, of green or glaucous, slightly powdery, flowers. 
Seed black, very minutely dotted, larger than in C/l ruhrum. 
The panicled cymose inflorescence decidedly distinguishes this 
from all the foregoing species. 

6. Ch. hyhridum. Maple-leaved Goosefoot. 

Leaves heart-shaped, pointed, with broad angular teeth. 
Spikes aggregate, panicled, cymose, divaricated, leafless. 

Ch. hvbridum. Linn. Sp. PL 319. mild. v. 1 . 1303. Fl. Br. 275. 

Engl. Bot. V. 27. t. 1919. Curt. Lond. fasc. 4. t. 23. Hook. 

Scot. 84. 
Ch. n. 1581. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 267. 
Ch. stramonii folio. Dill, in Rail Syn. 154. Vaill. Par. 36. f. 7. 

f.2. 
Atriplex sylvestris, majore anguloso folio. Barrel. Ic. t. 540. 
Maple Elite. Pet. H. Brit. t. 8./. 7. 

In waste ground that is rather moist j one of the rarer species. 

In Eattersea fields. Curtis. Near Northfleet plentifully. Hudson. 
On the banks of some watery pits beyond Ely. Sherard. About 
Colchester. JDaie. About Edinburgh 3 G. Don. HooAer. Be- 
tween Ipswich and Dedham. 

Annual. August. , 1 , ,1 

Herb bright green, smooth, fetid. Stem rather slender, branched 
and spreading. JLeaues broad, taper-pointed, angular rather than 
toothed ; heart-shaped, or ovate, not elongated, at the base. 
Footstalks slender. Panicles axillary and terminal, cymose, 
more slender and divaricated than tlie last ; some of thQflmcers 
stalked and solitary. Seed large, depressed, coarsely dotted, or 
pitted. 



. PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Chenopodium. 13 

7. Ch. album. White Goosefoot. 

Leaves rhomboid-ovate, jagged, mealy ; entire towards the 
base : upper ones oblong, entire. Seed quite smooth. 

Ch.album. LmK.%PZ.319. Willd.v. 1. 1302. FLBr.275. Engl. 
Bot. V. 24. t. 1723. Curt. Lond.fasc. 2. t. IT). Hook. Scot. 84. 

Ch. n. 1579. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 266. 

Blitum, Atriplex sylvestris dictum. Raii Syn. I j4. 

Atriplex sylvestris. Fuchs. Hist. 119./. 

A. sylvestris prima, Canic.r. Epit.2'\\.f. 

Frost Blite. Pet. H. Brit. t. S.f. 2. 

(5. Blitiim folio subrotundo. Dill, in Raii Sijn. 155. 

Buddie's Round Blite. Pet. H. Brit. t. S.f. 4. 

V. Chenopodium viride. Linn. Sp. PL 3)9. JVilld. v. \. \303. 

Ch. album /3. Hiuh. lOG. 

Ch. n. 1579, p. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 267. 

Atriplex sylvestris altera. Ger.Em.326.f. 

S. Chenopodium foliis integris, racemosum. Dill, in Raii Syn . 155. 

Atriplex sylvestris tertia. Canicr. E]Tit.2A3.f. 

A. sylvestris foliis integris, racemosa. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 973. f. 

E. Chenopodium crasso et obtuso oleae folio. Dill, in Raii Sijn. 15G. 

In cultivated as well as waste ground, every where. 

Annual. Julij, August. 

Herb mealy, with a silvery unctuous pubescence, which by age be- 
comes d'ry and chaffy. Stem more or less branched, furrowed, 
sometimes reddish. Leaves extremely variable in shape and 
breadth ; the lower ones generally ovate, and bluntly toothed 
or lobed, entire and elongated at the base ; the uppermost nar- 
rower and entire. In j3 most of the leaves are broad, and round- 
ed 3 in y they are narrower, greener, and the spikes are more 
lax } in d and ^ the whole of the foliage is nearly entire. The 
spikes in all are interrupted, partly leafy, oblong, cylindrical, not 
much branched. Seed perfectly even, not dotted. The young 
herb is reported to be eatable when boiled, and is known by the 
name of Fat Men in some parts of Norfolk. 

8. Q\\. ficifolium. Fig-leaved Goosefoot. 

Leaves sinuated, j'^^gged, somewhat hastate ; entire towards 
the base : upper ones oblong, quite entire. Seed dotted. 

Ch. ficifolium. El. Br. 276. Engl. Bot. v. 2 \. t. 172 1. 

Ch. viride. Curt. Land, f'asc.2. t. \6. 

Ch. scrotinum. Huds. K)(5. Sihth.HS. Abbot jj. 

Blitum ficus folio. Dill, in Raii Sijn. 155. 

Atriplex sylvestris sccunda. Matth. I'algr. v. 1. 419./; according 

to Dillenius. 
Buddies Fig Blite. Pet. //. Brit. t. S./. 3. 



U PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Chenopodiura. 

/S. Chenopodium erectum, Chrysanthemi segetum folio. Dill, in 

Rail Stjn. 155. This I have not seen, nor is any description 

given, nor any figure quoted. 
In waste ground, and on dunghills, especially about London. 
In several places about London. Buddie. Curtis. Near Yarmouth. 

Mr. D. Turner. 
Annual. August, September. 
Of a greener hue than the preceding, with a purple stain at the 

base of the footstalks. Lower leaves hastate, narrower than in 

Ch. album, from which however it is best distinguished, as Mr. 

Curtis first ascertained, by the dotted, or reticulated, seeds, an 

all-sufficient difference. 

9. Cli. glaucum. Oak-leaved Goosefoot. 

Leaves all oblong ; deeply waved at the margin ; glaucous 
and mealy beneath. Spikes compound, leafless, lobed. 
Seed very minutely dotted. 

Ch. glaucum. Linn. Sp. PI. 320. Willd. v. I. 1305. Fl.Br.277, 

Engl. Bot.v. 2[. 1.1454. 
Ch. n. 15S4. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 268. 

Ch, angustifolium laciniatum minus. Dill, in Raii Syn. 155. 
Atriplex angustifolia laciniata minor. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 972./. 973. 
Rand's Oak Blite. Pet. H. Brit. t. 8.f. 1. 

In waste ground, especially on a sandy soil. 

About London. Dillenius, and Mr. Pitchford. 

Annual. August. 

Stems from 2 inches to 2 feet long, stout, furrowed, branched, 
spreading, often prostrate. Leaves numerous, nearly uniform ; 
smooth, green, somewhat glaucous and purplish above -, mealy 
and white beneath. Spikes interrupted, with a small leaf or two 
at the base only. Cal. obtuse, smooth. Seed purplish-black, 
very minutely dotted. 

** Leaves undivided, entire, 

10. Ch. olidum. Stmkhig Goosefoot. 

Leaves ovate, somewhat rhomboid, entire. Spikes dense, 
crowded, leafless. 

Ch. olidum. Curt. Loud. fasc. 5. t. 20. mth. 273. FL Br. 277, 
Engl. Bot. V. 15. t. 1034. Hook. Scot. 83. Purton v. 3. 23. 

Ch. Vulvaria. Linn. Sp. PL 321 . Huds. 107. Woodv. Med. Bot, 
t.\45. Bull.Fr. t.323. 

Ch. n. 1577. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 266. 

Blitum foetidum, Vulvaria dictum. Raii Syn. 156. 

Atriplex olida. Ger. Em. 327. f. 

A. foetida. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 974./. 975. Moris, v. 2. 605. sect.5. 
^31./.6. 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Chenopodiuni. 15 

Garosmus. Dod.Pempt.GlG.f. 

Stinking Orracli. Pet. H. Brit. t. 7.f. 1 1 . 

In waste ground, especially among sand or rubbish near the sea. 

Annual. August. 

Root small. Stems several, branched, spreading or prostrate. Whole 
herb of a dull greyish green, covered with a greasy mealiness, 
which, when touched, exhales a strong, permanent, nauseous 
odour, like stale salt-fish. Leaves stalked, acute, entire, ovate, 
or slightly rhomboid, not an inch long. H. small, in oblong in- 
terrupted spikes. Seed dotted. 

11. Q\\, polyspermwn. Round-leaved Goosefoot. 

Leaves ovate, obtuse, entire. Stem prostrate. Clusters cy- 
mose, divaricated, leafless. 

Ch.polyspermum. Linn. Sp. PL 32\. IVilld.v.l. 1303. Fl. Br.27S. 
Eng'l.Bot.v.2\. t. 1480. 

Blitum polyspermum. Matth. ed. Bauh. 358./. 

Allseed Blite. Pet. IL Brit. t. 7.f. 10. 

On waste ground, but not common. 

In Cornwall. F. Borone. 

Annual. Juhj, August. 

Root tapering. Stems several, quite prostrate, leafy, roundish, or 
somewhat angular, various in length, scarcely branched. Leaves 
stalked, ovate, elliptical, or roundish, generally very obtuse, or 
slightly emarginate, entire, smooth, of a deep grass green. Clus- 
ters axillary, compound, large and spreading, without any small 
leaves at their subdivisions. Seed conspicuous, black, shining, 
kidney-shaped, minutely dotted, which last character cannot be 
seen till the pellicle is removed. 

12. Ch. aciilifoiuwi. Sharp Entire-leaved Goosefoot. 

Leaves ovate, acute, entire. Stem erect. Clusters si)iked, 
compound, elongated, erect, partly lealy ; lower ones 
somewhat cymose. 

Ch. acutifolium. Engl. Bof. v.2\. t. 1181. Comp.Vl. 
Ch.polyspermum. Curl. Lond.fasc.2. t. 17. With. 273. Rdh. 102. 

Sibth. 8!). Pur ton v. 3. 24. Hook. Scot. 83 ? 
Ch. n. i:>7(i. IIall.IIist.v.2.2G6. 
Ch. Betrtj folio. Raii Syn. 157. 

Atriplex sylvestris, sivc Polyspermon. Grr. Kni.32~t.f. 
lilitum minus. Dod. Prmj>f. 6\7./. 
B. sylv<'stre. Comer. Kpit. 237./. 
B. erectius, sive tertium Tragi. Bauh. Ilisf. r. 2. 907./. 

In cultivated an well a.s waste ground, in several parts of (Ireat 
Britain. 



16 PENTANDIIIA— DIGYNIA. Beta. 

About London not uncommon. Curtis. 

Annual. Juhj, August. 

The stem is solitary, square, upright, though the lower branches 
are sometimes greatly elongated, and trail on the ground, as the 
accurate Mr. Purton remarks. Leaves ovate, sharp-pointed, en- 
tire, of a thinner substance and paler hue than the last. Clus- 
ters more elongated, spiked, and upright, interspersed with small 
leaves, though the lower ones, in strong plants, are cymose and 
leafless. Cali/x spreading, as in the last, and only half covering 
the seed, which is of a reddish black, scarcely dotted, its tunic 
very discernible, being thicker than in Ch. polijspermum, or per- 
haps any other species. This is the Ch. polijspermum of all Bri- 
tish botanists, nor perhaps have they met with the real one, 
which I have received from Cornwall only. The late Mr. Davall 
first suggested their being distinct species, and 1 think they ap- 
pear to be so. 

13, Q\\, maritimum. Sea Goosefoot. 

Leaves awl-shaped, semicylindrical. Flowers axillary, 
sessile. 

Ch. maritimum. Lm«. S/).P/. 321 . WiM.v.\.\Z^l . R.Br. 278. 
Engl. Bot. V. 9. t. 633. Hook. Scot. 83. Ft. Dan. t. 489. 

Blitum, Kali minus album dictum. Raii Syn. 156. 

Kali minus. Ger. Em. 535./. Lob. Ic. 394./. 

K. album. Dod. Pempt. 81./. 

Small Glasswort. Pet. H. Brit. t. 9./ 1. 

On the sea shore, in sandy as well as muddy places, abundantly. 

Annual. July, August. 

Boot small, tapering. Stems 1 or more, erect, branched, roundish, 
clothed with numerous, sessile, alternate, narrow, thick, juicy, 
smooth leaves, about an inch long, salt to the taste, of a light 
bright green. Fl. several together, sessile, each with a pair of 
small, acute, close bracteas. Seed orbicular, black, minutely 
striated. The alkaline salt of this herb renders it serviceable in 
making glass, though supposed inferior to some kinds of Salsola, 
found in the south of Europe. 

130. BETA. Beet. 

Linn. Gen. 122. Juss.Ho. Fl.Br.279. Tourn.t.286. Lam.t.l82. 
Gcertn. t. 75. 

Nat. Ord. see ?;. 129. 

Cal. inferior, of 1 leaf, in 5 deep, oblong, obtuse segments, 
fleshy at the base, permanent. Cor\ none. Filam. awl- 
shaped, opposite to the segments of the calyx, and about as 
long. Anth, of 2 roundish lobes. Germ, sunk in the calj'x, 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Salsola, 17 

lower than the receptacle of the flower, orbicular, de- 
pressed. Styles 2, sometimes 3, very short. Stigmas simple, 
acute. Seed solitary, naked, horizontal, curved, imbedded 
in the fleshy base of the calyx, the segments closing over 
it. 
Root fleshy. Herb smooth, rather succulent, branched, 
spreading. Ft. aggregate ; their segments, as well as the 
stam, and styles, liable to be much multiplied by culture. 

1. J^. 77iarith?ia, Sea Beet. 

Stems procumbent. Flowers in pairs. Segments of the 
calyx entire at the keel. 

B. maritima. Linn. Sp. PL322. Willd. u. 1. 1309. Fl. Br. 279. 

Engl. Bot. y.4. t. 285. FL Grcec. 2;.3.49. t. 254. Hook. Scot. 84. 

Fl.Dan. t.\b7\. 
B. syh'estris maritima. Bali Sijn. 157. 
B. sylvestris spontanea marina. Lob. Obs. 125. 
Sea Beet. Pet. FL Brit. t.S.f. 9. 

On the sea shore, in a muddy soil. 

Perennial. August. 

Boot thick and fleshy, black externally, white within. Stems pros- 
trate, angular and furrowed, alternately branched, leafy, from 1 
to 2 feet long-, often reddish. Leaves deep green, flaccid, slightly 
succulent, stalked, ovate, veiny, wavy at the edges ; radical ones 
much the largest, 3 or 4 inches long j those of the stem verti- 
cal, in consequence of its position. Fl. green, usually in pairs, 
rarely solitary, sessile, in the bosoms of the leaves, of which the 
uppermost are diminished almost to bractaas. Keel of the calyx 
entire, by which it difters, according to Linnaeus, from B. vul- 
garis. 



131. SALSOLA. Saltwort. 

Linn. Gen. 122. Juss. 85. FL Br. 2/9. Lam. t.\S\. Gcertn. t. 75. 
Kali. Tourn. t. 128. 

Nat. Ord. see ii. 129. 

Cal. inferior, of 1 leaf, in .5 deep, rounded, permanent seg- 
ments. Cor. none. Filam. awl-shaped, opposite to the 
segments of the calyx, and about as long. Anfli. roundisli, 
2-lol)ed. Ger?nen globose. Styles 2 or 3, combined at 
the base. Stigmas recurved. Caps, imbedded in the 
fleshy base of the calyx, of 1 cell, horny, not bursting. 
Seed solitary, turbinate, large, with a spiral, horizontal, 
very large embryo. 



18 PENTAXDRIA^DIGYNIA. Salsola. 

Annual or perennial herbs, rarely shrubs, witli branched, 
rigid sterns^ and narrow, simple, sometimes spinous, leaves. 
Fl. axillary, sessile, solitary or aggregate. CaL often 
variously dilated, and coloured. 

1 . S. Kali. Prickly Saltwort. 

Herbaceous and decumbent. Leaves av.l- shaped, spinous- 
pointed, rough. Calyx with a dilated margin. 

S. Kali. Linn. Sp. PL 322. mild. vA.UlQ. Fl. Br. 280. Engl 
Bot. V. 9. t. 634. JVoodv. Med. Bot. t. 143. Hook. Scot. 85. FL 
Dan. f. 818. 

Kali spinosum cochleatum. RauSijn. 159. 

Tragum. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 382./. Camcr. Eplt. 7/9. f. 

On the sandy sea coast frequent. 

Annual. Jidy. 

Stem very bushy, armed in every part with rigid, prominent, chan- 
nelled,' spinous /eai'es, which are a little dilated, membranous, 
and notched, at the base. FL solitary, each with 3 leaf-like 
bracteas. CaL dilated, membranous and reddish, each segment 
with a small erect leafy appendage at the inside, converging over 
the fruit. Caps, turbinate, winged with the permanent rigid 
calyx, and filled with the spiral seed. — Used, like many others of 
its genus^ to furnish alkaline salt for the manufacture of glass. 

2. ^.fruiicGsa. Shrubby Saltwort. 

Erect, shrubby. Leaves semicylindrical, bluntish, without 
spines. 

S. fruticosa. Linn. Sp. PL 324. miJd. v. 1 . 1310. FL Br. 280. EngL 

Bot. V. 9. t. 635. Fl. Grcoc. v. 3. 50. t. 255. 
Blitum fruticosum maritimum, Vermicularis frutex dictum. Rail 

Syn. 156 ; excluding the references to C. Baiihin and Gerarde. 
Cali species, sive Vermicularis marina arborescens. Bauh. HisL 

v.3.704.f. 
Chamaepitys vermiculata. Loh. /c. 381./. 
Ch. prima Dioscoridis. Dalech. Hist. 1 IGO./. 

On the sea coast, but not common. 

First found on the Norfolk coast, by the celebrated Sir Thomas 
Brown, M.D. according to Ray, who subsequently noticed it him- 
self on Portland island, and* the coast of Dorsetshire. Lobel 
met with this plant on the islands, called Holms, in the Severn. 
Hudson gathered it in Devonshire and Cornwall ; Mr. Wood- 
ward at Southwold, Suffolk j and Mr. Lambert at Weymouth. 
It is unknown in the north. 

Shrub. July, August. 

Stem a yard high, round, with many uprij;ht leafy branches. Leaves 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Ulmus. 19 

alternate, sessile, smooth, rather glaucous, fleshy, about hjJf an 
inch long, evergreen. Fl. green, with yeWo^v anthers. Bracteas 
concave, membranous, small, 3 under each flower. 1 have never 
observed the calyx of this species in fruit, nor the capsule. The 
seed is black, rather kidney-shaped, with a less convoluted em- 
bnjo than the foregoing. 
This plant is not unworthy of a place in gardens or shrubberies, 
where it is evergreen and tolerably hardy, lasting without care 
for many years. The leaves contain some alkaline salt, and have 
an herbaceous, rather acrid, taste. 



132. ULMUS. Elm. 

Linn. Gen. 123. Juss. 408. Fl. Br. 281. Tourn. t. 372. Lam. t. 185. 
Gicrtn. t. A\). 

Nat. Ord. Scahrid/jc. Linn. oS. Ameniacecc. Juss. 99. 

Cal. inferior, of 1 leaf, turbinate, wrinkled, permanent; the 
limb in 5, in some species but 4, in others* 6, or more, 
upright segments, coloured on the inner side. Cor. none. 
Fllam. as many as the segments of the calyx, and twice 
as long, inserted hito the tube opposite to each segment. 
Anth. erect, short, with 4 furrows, and 2 cells, bursting 
lengthwise externally. Germen superior, elliptic-oblong, 
compressed, cloven at die summit. Stijles 2, terminal, 
spreading, shorter than the calyx, finally inflexed. Stig- 
mas along the inner QdgQ, downy, permanent. Caps, mem- 
branous, compressed, orbicular or somewhat oblong, widi 
a notch at the extremity, of 1 cell, not bursting. Seed 
solitary, central, roundish, slightly compressed. 

Long-lived trees, with hard -j^ood, rugged baric, and zio-zao- 
sleiuler branches, sometimes corky. Leaves alternate^ 
stalked, deciduous, in general serrated and harsh, un- 
equal at the base. Stipulas oblong, pale, deciduous. /'/. 
earlier than the leaves, tufted, copious, dark red. Caps. 
veiny, pale, chaflfy and light, serving as a wing to the 
seed, which is very often imperfect. 

Linnaeus confounded all our Kims under his campestris. 
They have since been investigated with some attention in 
England, by taking specimens at diiferent seasons from 
the same individual tree, as has been done still more 
extensively with our Willows. 15ot}j genera recjuirt' tiie 
same accurate study in Scotland. Of ihc .s))ccies of Scottish 
Khns wf h.ue no certain knowledge. See lluok. Scot, 

c 2 



20 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Ulmus. 

1. v. campestris. Common Small-leaved Elm. 

Leaves doubly serrated, rough. Flowers nearly sessile, 
four-cleft. Capsule oblong, deeply cloven, naked. 

U. campestris. Linn, Sp. PL 327. F/. Suec. ed. 2. 81 > fVilld. v. 1. 
1324. Fl. Br. 281 . Engl. Bot. v. 27. t. 1886. Camer. Epit. 70, 
nojigure. 

U. n. 1586 ^. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 269. In Reynier's Swiss herba- 
rium. 

U. minor, folio angusto scabro. Goodyerin Ger. Em. 1480./. Rait 
Syn. 469. 

Ulmus. Dod.Pempt.SZy.f. 

In woods and hedges, chiefly in the southern parts of England. 

In the New Forest, Hampshire. Mr. Goodyer. In Sussex, fre- 
quent. Mr. Borrer. The most common Norfolk species. 

Tree. March, or April. 

Trunk rather crooked, with a rugged bark, and spreading, round, 
zigzag, brown, leafy branches. Leaves about 2 inches long, and 
1 broad in the middle, doubly serrated, contracted towards each 
end ; unequal at the base, as in every known species, even the 
pumila; dark green, and very rough to the touch, on the upper 
side ; paler and smoother beneath, with a prominent midrib, 
and several transverse parallel ribs, which have each a small tuft 
of downy hairs at the origin. Fl. much earlier than the foliage, 
and from inferior buds, in numerous, dense, round, dull-purple 
tufts, each flower almost sessile, with an oblong fringed bractea 
at its base. Limb of the calyx in 4 oblong obtuse segments, of 
a light brownish red, minutely fringed. Stam. 4, equal, with 
dark-purple anthers. Stigmas a downy line along the upper edge 
of each style, which line is never elongated, but becomes in- 
curved, from the great dilatation of the opposite margin, run- 
ning down into the bordered, oblong-wedgeshaped, or nearly 
obovate, flat, pale brown, somewhat shining, capsule, which has 
a deep sinus at the extremity, bordered with the styles, and ex- 
tending towards the seed. 
The wood is hard and tough, particularly durable in wet situations. 
That of the present species is greatly preferred in Norfolk to any 
other, and sells for nearly double the price, serving more espe- 
cially for the naves of wheels. In other parts of England, and 
particularly about London, the more common kinds are used 
for coffins. 
Mr. E. Forster first hinted, what I have now no doubt of, that the 
above synonym of Gerarde and Ray belongs to this ; which by 
what is said in the Fl. Suec. and the synonym of IDodonaeus, 
should seem to be the Swedish species, but I have no specimens 
to determine that point. 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Ulmus. 21 

2. U. suberosa. Common Cork-barked Elm. 

Leaves pointed, rough, doubly and sharply serrated. Flowers 
stalked, four- or five-clett. Capsule almost orbicular, 
deeply cloven, naked. Branches spreading ; their bark 
corky. 

U. suberosa. Ehrh. Arh. 142. Willd. v. 1. 1324. Baumz. 391. 

Engl Bot. v. 3 1 . <. 2 i 6 1 . Comp. 42. 
U. campestris. fl'oodv. Med. Bot. t. 197. 

U. campestris ct Theophrasti. Duham. Arb. v. 2.367. t. 108. 
Ulmus. Matth. Vulgr.v. 1. 130./. 
U. vulgatissima, folio lato scabro. Goodyerin Ger. Em. 1480. f. 

Rati Si/n. 4C8. 
U. montana. Camer. Epit. 70, upper figure. 
Common Elm Tree. Hunt. Evel. Sylva tab. at p. 119. 

In hedges, in all parts of England. Goodyer and Ray. 

Tree. March. 

Taller and more s])reading- than the foregoing. Bark when a year 
old covered with very fine dense cork, in deep fissures ; whence 
the name first given by Mamch, and adopted by Ehrhart. Leaves 
rough on both sides, more rounded, and twice or thrice as large,, 
as in our U. campestris, very unequal at the base, strongly, 
sharply, and doubly serrated j hairy beneath, with dense broad 
tufts at the origin of the transverse ribs. Fl. much earlier than 
the foliage, stalked, reddish, with 4 or 5 rounded segments, and 
as many stamens with dull-})urple anthers. Caps, nearly oibi- 
cular, with a deep sinus reaching to the place of the seed. 

Of the value, or particular qualities, of the wood of this Elm, I 
have no information, except that it is far inferior to the former. 
There are various cultivated varieties, raised from seed, which 
Mr. Crowe, who had closely attended to the subject, always 
traced to this species. It seems to be Miller's U. saliva, n. 3, 
whose error in quoting U. minor, folio angusto scabro, of Goodyer 
in Gcrarde, led to the same misaj)plication of that writer's sv- 
nonyms, in Ft. Br. 28 1 , and Engl. Bot. 1 88G and 2101. Miller, 
moreover, thought our suberosa not a native of England. 

3. U. major. Dutch (A)rk-barked Elm. 

Leaves rough, unequally and rather bluntly serrated. 
Flowers nearly sessile, Ibur-clett. Capsule obovate, 
slightly cloven, naked. Branches drooping; their bark 



cork 



U. major. Engl. But. v. 30. /. 2542. Comp. 43, 
U. liollandica. Mill. Diet. ed. 8. n. .'). 

U, major hollandica, angustis et magis acuminatis simiaris, folio 
lalissimo scabro. Phtk. Aim. 303. 



22 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Ulmus. 

U. major, ampliore folio, ramos extra se spargens. Duham. Arh. 

t\2.368. t. 109. 
Tilia mas. Matth. Valgr. v. 1. 158./. Camer. Epit, 92. f. 

In hedges, a doubtful native. 

In the neighbourhood of London. Mr. E. Forster. 

Tree. March. 

The branches spread widely, in a drooping manner, and their bark 
is rugged, much more corky than even the foregoing. Leaves 
on short thick stalks, larger, and more bluntly serrated, than the 
last 3 rough on both sides, especially beneath, but the hairy 
tufts, at the origin of each transverse rib, are very small. Seg- 
ments of the calyx short and rounded. Stam. 4. Capsule ob- 
ovate, with a very small rounded sinus, not reaching half so far 
as the seed. 

Miller says this Elm was brought from Holland in King William's 
reign, and being recommended for its quick growth, was a 
fashionable tree for hedges in gardens, but afterwards fell into 
disuse. He adds that " the wood is good for nothing, so it is 
almost banished this country." 

4. U. 7no7itana. Broad-leaved Elm. Wych Hasel. 

Leaves pointed, rough, doubly serrated. Flowers stalked, 
loosely tufted, five- or six-cleft. Capsule somewhat orbi- 
cular, slightly cloven, naked. Branches drooping ; their 
bark even. 

U. montana. Bauh. Pin. 427. With. 279. Fl. Br. 282. Engl Bot. 
V. 27. t. 1887. Camer. Epit. 70, lower Jigure. 

U. glabra. Huds. ed.\.9o. 

U. efFusa. Sibth. 87. Abbot 55. 

U. nuda. Ehrh. Arb. 62. 

U. campestris. mild. Sp. PI. v. 1. 1324. H. Dan. t, 632. Huds. 
109,7. L^gfilf- 1094, varietij. 

U. n. 1586 ?. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 269. In Reynier's Swiss herbarium. 

U, folio latissimo scabro. Goodyer in Ger. Em. 1481./. Raii Syn. 
469. 

In woods and hedges, frequent. The most common Elm in Scot- 
land, according to Lightfoot, 

Tree. March, April. 

A large spreading tree, of quicker growth than U. campestris, and 
the wood is consequently far inferior in hardness and compact- 
ness, more liable to split. The branches are, in some individuals, 
quite pendulous, like the Weeping Willow. Their bark is even ; 
downy in a young state. Leaves larger than any of the forego- 
ing, broadly elliptical, with a longer, copiously serrated, point; 
rough on the up])er surface with minute, callous, bristly tuber- 
cles, but less harsh than most of the preceding j the under sur- 
face downy and paler, with straight, parallel, transverse ribs, co- 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYXIA. Ulmus. ^3 

piously hairy at their origins and subdivisions. Fl. rather larger 
and paler, in looser tufts, than most of the species j each in 5, 
6, or 7, oblong acute segments, and as many broad, rather heart- 
shaped, dark-purple anthers. Capsule broadly obovate, or el- 
liptical and almost orbicular, with a shallow notch at the end, 
not extending half way to the seed. Gerarde's figure represents 
ihit fruit well, as to this last very material character, but rather 
too narrow and elliptical in its outline. 

This appears to be one of the most general species of Elm through- 
out Europe, and is certainly what the older writers distinguished 
by the epithet of montana, from our first species, their campestris. 
It is sometimes called the Hertfordshire Elm, being very frequent 
and luxuriant in that county. The large hop-like /rz/i^ is abun- 
dant, and very conspicuous, in May or June, and the seeds ap- 
pear to be usually perfected. 

U. cUiata, Ehrh. Arb. 72, a native of Hanover, not yet observed in 
Britain, has leaves most resembling V. montana, but quite 
smooth on the upper side. Its capsule is deeply cloven,, strongly 
fringed v/ith coarse dense hairs. 

5. U, glabra. Smooth-leaved, or Wych Elm. 

Leaves elliptic-oblong, doubly serrated, smooth. Flowers 
nearly sessile, five-cleft. Fiuit obovate, naked, deeply 
cloven. 

U. glabra. Mill. Diet. cd. 8. ;?. -1. Culluni 97. En^l. Dot. i\ 32, 
t. 22-18. Camp. 43. 

U. montana p. >7. Br. 282. Hull cd. 2. 75. 

U. folio glabro. Ger. Em. MSI./, liaii ,SV'?2, 4CD. 

U. campestris var. 3. lf'llh.27V, 

In woods and hedges. 

Between llumfordand Stubbers, Ksr^cx. Goadycr. The most com- 
mon I'Mm in some ))arls of that county. Mr.E.Forster. 

Tn!e. March. 

A tall elegant tree, with si)reading, rather droojnng, smooth, bJack- 
ish branches, scarcely downy in their earliest stage of growth. 
Leaves smaller than any of the preceding, except campestris, as 
well as more oblong, strongly serrated, very unequal at the base, 
not elongated at tiic extremity ; their substance firm, or rather 
rigid ; tlie surface of botli sides very smooth to the touch, nor 
are tiiere any hiir.s beneath, except the axillarv j)ubesccncc of 
the ribs, which often forms a narrow downy line along the mid- 
rib. El. nearly sessile, with j short, bluntish, fringed segments, 
and as many longisii stamens, whose anthers wvq roundish-heart- 
shaped. Capsule smaller tlian most otiier species, obovate, clo- 
ven down to t!ie seed, smooth, often reddish. Cioodycr rei)ort!j 
that the wood is j)referre(l to tliat of his fir'^t species, our sube- 
rasa, for the naves of cart-wliecls ; but he was not acrpiainted 
with the sujjerior quality of our campestris, or Norfolk 101m. 



24 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Cuscuta. 
133. CUSCUTA. Dodder. 

Linn. Gen. 66. Jiiss. 135. Fl. Br.282. Toiirn. t.422. Lam. <. 88. 
Gartn. t. 62. 

Nat. Ord. Campanacece. Linn. 29 ? Allied to Convolvuli, 
Juss. 43. Co7ivolvidacece ; embryo destitute of cotyledons, 
Br. Pr. 491. 

Cal. inferior, of 1 leaf, cup-shaped, in 5, sometimes only 4, 
broad, more or less deep, permanent segments ; the base 
fleshy. Cor. of 1 petal ; tube elliptical or cylindrical ; 
limb in 5, sometimes 4, deep, spreading, equal segments, 
which, in some species, are accompanied at the base with 
as many inflexed scales, alternate with the segments, 
closing the throat. Filam. 5, or 4, alternate with the 
segments, and above each scale, if present, in tlie throat 
of the corolla, awl-shaped, erect, equal, shorter than the 
limb. Anth. roundish, 2-lobed. Germ, superior, roundish. 
Styles 2, rarely solitary, sometimes 3, shorter than the 
corolla, spreading. Stigm, either simple or capitate. Caps, 
membranous, invested with the faded corolla, elliptical, 
of 2 cells, bursting all round towards the base. Seeds 2 
in each cell, large, obovate, erect; the embryo spiral, 
making about 3 horizontal convolutions (according to 
Gaertner) round the central, globose, fleshy albumen, and 
perfectly simple, or monocotyledonous, as observed by 
Linnaeus, Sp, PL 1 80, and confirmed by various eminent 
botanists. 

Parasitical leafless herbs, with a twining stem, alternately 
branched ; and sessile lateral heads, or spikes, of pale 
Jloisoers, e^ohjlower accompanied by a bractea. 

1 . C. europcEa. Greater Dodder. 

Flowers nearly sessile. Corolla without scales. Stigmas 
acute. 

C. europsea. Linn. Sp. PI. 1 80. JVilld. v. 1 . 702. FI. Br. 282. Engl. 

Bot. V. 6. t. 378. Gent. Mag. v.\9. 349. ^. 35 1 . Hook. Lond. t. 67. 

Scot. 86. Fl. Dan. t. 199. Ehrh. PI. Of. 362. 
C. n. 654, major. Hall. Hist. t'. 1. 291. 
C. major. Bauh. Pin. 209. 
Cuscuta. Matth.Valgr.v.2.6\6.f. Camer. Epit. 984./. Ger. 

Em. 577./. 
Cassutha. Fuchs. Hist. 347. t. 348. Dod. Pempt. 554./. Dalech. 

Hist, 1683./. 
Androsaces, vulgo Curcuta. Trag. Hist. 810. / 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Cuscuta. 25 

On Tliistles, Nettles^ FlaXj and other annual or biennial herbs^ but 
rare. 

Near Aberdeen. Mr. Alexander Smith. In Cambridgeshire. Rev. 
J. Hemsted. At Shipston-upon-Stour, ^Worcestershire. Rtv. Dr. 
Jones. Found near Newbury, Berksliire, by Mr. Bicheno ; and 
at Musselburgh, near Edinburgh, by Mr. Neill. Hooker. 

Annual. August, September. 

Root simple, small and slender, soon obliterated. Stem thread- 
shaped, red, copiously branched, twining from right to left, round 
the stems of other plants, to the height of 2 or 3 feet, and ad- 
hering, at various distances, by rows of short downy radicles, 
its only source of nourishment after the original root is gone. 
Leaves none. Fl. in dense round heads, whitish, scarcely stalked, 
usually 5 -cleft and pentandrous ; and in all the Briiish speci- 
mens I have seen, as well as in Ehrhart's German ones, desti- 
tute of scales in the throat of the tube ; which Dr. Hooker con- 
firms, in contradiction to the opinion of our learned friend Mr. 
Brown, Prodr. 49 1 , who possibly examined specimens of C. Epi- 
ihymum, some of which, as in Dickson's //. Sice. fuse, lo, 6, 
often apj)roach the europcra in size, and were taken for such bv 
that excellent botanist. The cnliji is reddish. "J'ube of the co- 
rolla bell-sha])ed, and subsequently globose : limb short, con- 
tracted as it withers, permanent, as well as the stamens. Ger- 
men globular. Styles short, spreading, reddish, with acute stig- 
mas. Capsule nearly globular, pellucid, reticulated, invested 
with the dry corolla. 

2. C. EpitJnjimim, Lesser Dodder. 

Flowers sessile, witli a notched scale at the base of each 
stamen. Stigmas acute. 

C. Epithymum. Linn. Sijst. J'eg.ed. 13. 140. Fl.Br. 283. En^I. 
Bot. at p. 378. Diclis. H. Sice. fasc. 15.5. Abbot 'dQ. Hook. 
Scot. SG. Fl. Dan. t.427. 

C. curopsea. Fn'.{l. Bot. v. 1 . /. ."i."). Linn. Sp. Fl. 180 /3. TVilld.v. 1. 
702/3. IIudsAOA. Sibt/i.G3. Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc. 15. 6. 

C. n. (3;j4, minor. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 291. 

C. major. Uaii Si/n. 281. 

Epithymum. Matlh. I'algr. v. 2.G\\. f. Camer. F.pil. 0S3. f. Da- 
l€cli.Hist.\i\H2.f. Ger.Fm.b7S. 

On ('ommon Heath, Furze, Thyme, and othir small shrubbvplants, 
not unfrerpiently. 

Perennial? August. 

Smaller than the preceding, though various in that respect, having 
generally almost capillary stems, very much twisted and en- 
tangled, of a deep red. Fl. most frequently 1-cleft and tetran- 
drous. Cal. red, acute. Cor. white, with a short, funnel-shap- 
ed tube. .S7^/m. with an inflexed, crescent-sh;q)ed. linelv notched 
?>rale, close to the base of each. >V//M^ratiKT elongated, spread- 
ing, with simple stigmas. 



26 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Swertia. 

This i.« presumed to have been the only species of Cuscuta known 
to Ray, Hudson, and other British botanists, till Mr. A. Smith 
met with the true europcca in Scotland. 

134. SWERTIA. Felwort. 

Linn.Gen.\2b. Juss, 142. FLBr.2S4. Lam.t. 109. Gcertn.t. 114. 
Nat. Ord. Botacecje. Linn. 20. Gentiance. Juss. 46. 'N. 135 
the same. See Grammar 106. 

Cal. inferior, of 1 leaf, flat, permanent, in 5 deep, lanceolate 
segments. Cor. of 1 petal, wheel-shaped ; limb nearly 
flat, in 5 deep, lanceolate divisions, larger than the calyx. 
Nectaries ten, consisting of 2 small depressions, in the 
base of each division of the corolla, on the upper side, 
encompassed with short upright bristles. Filam. awl- 
shaped, rather spreading, shorter than the corolla. Anth, 
heart-shaped, deflexed. Germen superior, ovate-oblong, 
cloven at the -summit. Styles very short, distant. Stigmas 
obtuse. Caps, ovate, acute at each end, of 2 valves and 
1 cell. Seeds numerous, small, roundish, compressed, 
bordered, attached, as Gaertner remarks, to the edges of 
the valves only. 

Herbaceous, smooth, very bitter, nearly allied to Gentiana, 
but diflering in the peculiar nectaries^ as well as the dis- 
position of the seeds. Leaves opposite, undivided and 
• entire. Fl. blueish, numerous. 

tl. ^. per emits. Marsh Felwort, or Swertia. 
Flowers five-cleft. Radical leaves ovate. ^ 

S. perennis. Linn. Sp. PI.S2S. Willd. v. 1 . 1329. Fl. Br. 284. EngL 

Bot. V. 21, /. 1441 . Jacq. Austr. f. 243. 
Gentiana n. 536. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 282. 
G. palustris latifolia, flore punctato. Bank. Pin. 188. Scheuchx. IL 

Alp. C). 456. Moris, v. 3. 482. secf. 12. ^. 5./. 1 1 . 
G. punctata Pennei. Clus. Pann. 290. f. 292. 
G. duodecima, punctato flore. Clus. Hist. v. L316./. 
G. Pennei minor. Ger. Em. 433./. 
(t, cserulea punctata Pennoei. Barrel. Ic. t.9l. 
G. corollarum laciniis nectario Qemino notatis. Le Monnier Obs. 

154. 
Alisma Tossani Caroli. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. 51 9./. 
In watery alpine meadows. 

Found in Wales by Dr. Richardson. Huds. Some mistake is to be 
suspected, as no person lias confirmed this discovery, and so fine 

a plant could .scarcely be overlooked. 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYXIA. Geiulana. 27 

Perennial. August. 

Root; of several long, cylindrical, whitish, intensely bitter fibres. 
Hcr{) quite smooth, bitter. Stem erect, a foot or more in height, 
square J leafy and simple below j panicled above. Lea i^es about 
the base of the stem, opposite, stalked, ovate, acute, 1 4 or 2 inches 
long'. Panicle of about a dozen light purj)lishy/o?/'<ers, on oppo- 
site angular stalks, with a pair of elliptic-oblong bracteas at their 
origin. Cat. purplish. Cor. an inch wide, witli greenish necta- 
ries. Germen often abortive. From Swiss specimens, 

1.35. GENTIANA. Gentian. 

Linn. Gen. 12o. Juss. 141. Fl. Br. 284. Tourn. f. 40. L<an. t. 
109. Gccrtn. t. \\4. 

Nat. Ord. see 7i. 134. 

Cal. inferior, of I leaf, in 5, sometimes but 4, oblong, acute, 
j)ermanent segments. Cot\ of 1 petal; tubular in the 
lower part; limb more or less spreading, in 5, sometimes 
but 4, deep, e(|ual segments, withering, destitute of necta- 
riferous j)ores. Filam. as many as the segments, and al- 
ternate therewith, inserted into the tube, and not pro- 
truding beyond it. Anth. incumbent, obiong, sometimes 
combined. Germen oblong, nearly cylindrical, pointed. 
Sh/les short, erect, sometimes combined. Stigmas flat, 
ovate. Caps, oblong, or elliptical, nearly cylindrical, 
jiointed, slightly cloven, of 2 valves and 1 cell. Seed."; 
numerous, small, compressed, inserted into the inllexed 
marnfins of the valves. 

Herbaceous, smooth, very bitter, extremely various in size. 
Jjeaves opposite, undivided, entire. M. joanicled, whorled, 
or solitary, scentless, blue, purplish, or yeilovr, oiten dotted. 
Corolla remarkably dilterently formed in diflerent sj}ccies; 
in some wheel-shaped, but mosdy fujniel-shapetl, or tubu- 
lar; sometimes bearded at the mouth, or fringed at the 
edges. Siiflr apparently simple, though subse(jui!ntly 
divided. Slhj^mas always 2. 

1. G. PjiCitiiwjKuithc. Alarsb Cicniiaii. Ciihitbian 
Violet. 

Corolla bell-shaped, five-clei't. Flowers slalkcil. Leaves 
linear. 

G. Pneumonanlhe. Linn. Sp. Fl. WM). IllUJ.r. 1. i;i::r.. //. /;,-. 
2H;k Fn^l. Bat. v. 1. /. 20. i /. Jhni. t. 26!^ Lhrh. llrrh. 10;>. 

PI. ofr.:ir>.i. 

<;. n. fill. //nil. Unl.v. 1.28.S. 



28 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Gentiana. 

G. palustris angustifolia. Bauh. Pin. 188. Rail Syn, 274. 

G. quarta species. Clus. Hist. v. 1. 313./. 

G. minima. Camer. Epit. 4 1 8. f. 

Pneumonanthe. Cord. Hist. 1G2. 2./. Ger. Em. 438./. Loh. Ic. 

309./. Barrel Ic. 122. f. 1. 
KfavTj. Renealm. Spec. 69. t. 68. 

On moist turfy heaths. 

On several boggy heaths in Norfolk^ and especially in the northern 
counties. 

Perennial. August, September. 

Root of many long, simple, tapering, tawny fibres. Stems simple, 
square, ascending, leafy, from 4 to 10 inches high. Leaves 
sessile, numerous, deep green, single-ribbed, an inch or more 
in length, linear, or sometimes elliptic-lanceolate, more or less 
obtuse. Fl. large and handsome, erect, terminal and axillary, 
slightly stalked, rarely more than 1 or 2 on each stem. Tube 
of the cahjx membranous between the oblong acute segments, 
which are about equal to it in length. Cur. bell-shaped, or ra- 
ther funnel-shaped, of a deep but vivid blue, with 5 prominent, 
pale greenish plaits ; the limb in 5 acute lobes, with 1 or 2 
small, intermediate, unequal teeth. Jnth. pale yellow, com- 
bined, till se])arated by the swelling germen. Sftjles recurved. 
Luxuriant plants, after a wet spring, bear, as Dr. Sutton ob- 
served, 5, 6 or 7, flowers on each stem. In that case the lower 
ones are sometimes opposite, as in the Siberian specimen from 
which Linnaeus took his, rather negligent, specific character, 
*^ coroUis oppositis." 

* 2. G. acaulis. Dwarf Gentian. 

Flower solitary, five-cleft, bell-shaped, about as long as the 
quadrangular stem. 

G. acauhs. Linn. Sp. PL 330. Willd. v. 1. 1340. Sims 8^ Konig, 
jinn, of Bot. V. 2. 196. Turn. S^ Dillw. Bot. Guide 504. EngL 
Bot. V. 23. t. 1594. Comp. 43. Curt. Mag. t. 52. Jacq. Austr. 
t. 135. 

G. angustifolia. Villars Dauph. v. 2. 526. 

G. alpina. Schleich. Cat. 56. T'illars Dauph. v. 2. 526. t. 1 0, bad. 

G. n. 6^2. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 285. 

G. vel Gentianella major verna. Cuts. Hist. v. 1. 314./ 

Gentiunella verna major. Ger. Em. 436./ Clus. Pann. 284. t. 285. 

G. minima latifolia. Dalecli. Hist. 828. f. 

G. helvetica. Lob. Ic.3\0.f. 

GiXccKinS' Renealm. Spec. 70. t. 68. 

On mountains, a very doubtful native. 

Near Haverford West, South \A^ales. Mons. de St. Amans. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root fleshy, branching, crowned with many rose-like tufts, of ovate. 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Gentiana, £9 

or elliptic-lanceolate, ribbed, acute leaves, varying much in size. 
Stems solitary from the centre of each tuft, generally very short, 
and densely leafy, single-flowered. FL large, often 2 inches 
long, exquisitely beautiful, of a rich blue in the limb„ paler in 
the tube, which is dotted internally with black. Between each 
pair of the larger segments is an intermediate one, generally 
notched, very variable in magnitude. The anthers are united, 
as in the last. G. angiistifolia and G. alpina of A'illars are very 
slight varieties. The latter is exactly represented by our figure 
in Engl. Bot. 

3. G. ver?ia. Spring Gentian. 

Corolla five-cleft, salver-shaped, crenate; segments auricled 

at the base. Leaves crowded, ovate. 
G. verna. Linn. Sp. PL33\. mild. v. I. \342. FL Br. 2Sd. Engl. 

Bot. V. 7. f. 493. Sijw. Si/u. 64. Curt. Mag. ^ 491. Dicks. Dr. 

PI. 59. Don H.Br. 28. 
G. bavarica. Jacq. Obs.fasc. 3. 19. t. 71 . 
G. n. 644. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 286. 
G. sexta. Clus. Hist. v. 1.315./. 
Gentianella ulpina verna. Ger. Em. 436./. How Fhyt. 46. Merr. 

Pin. 45. Dill. Indie. PL Dub. in Raii Si/n. 
G. minor verna caerulea, stellato flore. Barrel. Ic. t. lOi)./ 1. 
HpixaAij. Renealm. Spec. 75. t. 68. 

In barren mountainous situations, but rare. 

On mountains betwixt Gort and Galloway. Mr.Henton. In Tees- 
dale forest, Durham, abundantly. Rev. J. Harriman, and Mr. 
Oliver. 

Perennial. April. 

Roofs slender, branched and creeping, each branch terminating in 
a tuft of crowded, ovate, acute leaves, which are half an inch 
long, and a central, short, simple, angular, leafy stem, bearing 
i\ aoVitnry Jlower, of a most vivid blue. Cal. with prominent 
angles and sharp teeth, shorter than the tube of the corolla, 
which is whitish. The limb is horizontal, about an inch wide, 
each segment rounded, sometimes acute, a little wavy, or notched, 
with 2 small lobes, erect or spreading, at its base. Anth. di- 
fitinct, within the tube. Sttjlcs scarcely separate. Stigmas cXo'^e 
together, crescent-shaped, fringed. I'he leaves are occasionally 
obtuse, approaching those of G. bavarica, which probably is not 
a distinct s|)ecies. iNone of the above synonyms can be marked 
as defniite varieties ; far kss as |)ermanent ones. This (ientian 
is more difTicult of culture than the last. 

4. G. 7th'alis. Small Alpine (ientian. 

Corolla riinnel-slinpod, five-clefl, with notched intermediate 



30 PENTANDIUA—DIGYKIA. Gentiar.a. 

segments. Angles of tlie calyx even, acute. Stem bear- 
ing several flowers. 

G. nivalis. Linn. Sp. PL 322. mild. v. \. 1344. FI.Bt.2S6. Engl. 
But. V. 13. t. 896. Dicks. Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 2. 290. Hook. Scot. 
86. Fl.Dan.t. 17. 

G. 11. 647. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 287. t. 17. G. omnium minima. 

G. n. 5. Hall. Enum. 475. t. 7 . 

G. undecima minima. Clus. Pann. 291. f. Hist. v. 1 . 316./. 

G. minima. Loh. /c. 310./. 

Genlianella. Tdlands. Ic. 46./. 

G. fugax minor. Ger. Em. 437 , the figure at least. 

On the loftiest mountains of Scotland. 

On Ben Lawers, near the summit. Mr. Dickson and Mr. G. Don. 

Annual. August. 

Root simple, slender. Stem erect, more or less branched, bearing 
from 2 to 10 or 12 flowers, leafy, square j wlien very weak, 
simple and single-flowered. Leaves small, elliptical, acute, often 
rounded. Fl. solitary at the end of each branch, scarcely an inch 
long. Cat. with 5 straight, even, acute, purplish angles, and as 
many awl-shaped teeth. Cor. with a greenish tube, longer than 
the calyx, and a small, spreading, bright blue limb, whose inter- 
mediate segments are inversely heart-shaped, quite distinct from 
the larger ones, which are simple and undivided. Styles united. 

T). G. AmareUa. Autumnal Gentian. 

Corolla salver-shaped, five-cleft; bearded in the throat* 
Segments of the calyx nearly equal. Stem flowering 
from top to bottom, with short axillary branches. 

G.Amarella. Linn. Sp.Pl. 334. Willd.v.X .\3\7 . Fl.Br.2S7. Engl. 
Bot. V. 4. t. 236. Dicks. Dr. PI. 5. Hook. Lond. t. 33. Scot. 86. 
Fl. Dan. t. 328. 

G. fugax Clusii. Barrel. Ic. t.5l0.f. 2. 

Gentianella fugax autumnalis elatior, centaurii minoris foliis. Rait 
Syn. 27.3. 

G. species quibusdam, an Cordo Pneumonanthe, aut Gentiana 
fugax altera Clusii. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. 526. f. 1, good. 

/3. G. fugax verna seu praecox. Rail Syn. ed. 2. 156. ed. 3. 275. 

In limestone and chalky pastures. 

In pastures on St. Vincent's rocks, Bristol j also above the rocks 
opposite to Matlock bath, plentifully ; and in various parts of 
England and Scotland, as recorded by Ray, Hooker, and others. 

Annual. August, September. /5 from April to June. 

Root tapering, twisted, yellowish. Whole plant intensely bitter. 
Stem square, erect, leafy, purplish, usually from 6 to 12 inches 
higli, with opposite, axillary, many-flowered, leafy, but rather 
short, branches, rendering the whole plant panicled, and neaily 
cyliuihical. Leaves dark green, sessile, ovate, 3-rlbbedj mostly 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYXIA. Gentlana. SI 

acute ; the lower ones stalked, and ratlier spatulate. Fl. erect, 
barely an inch long, with a whitish cylindrical tube, twice as 
long as the spreading, deeply 5 -cleft, acute, purplish-blue limb, 
which has no intermediate segments, but the mouth of the tube 
is crowned with a fine erect purplish fringe, rather shorter than 
the limb, and rising much above the stamens. The calyx has a 
turbinate, 5-angled, pale-green tube, about as long as its 5 
purplish, lanceolate, acute, erect, smooth-edged segments, 
which, though uniform, are often a little unequal in size, and 
reach somevvhat beyond the middle of the tube of the corolla. 
The limb of the latter has occasionally but 4, or even 3, seg- 
ments, and is never fully expanded but in bright sunshine. The 
stamens answer in number to the divisions of the cal. and cor. 
being almost always 5, awl-shai)ed, with roundish separate 
anthers. Styles very short. S:''gmas ovate. Mr. D. Turner ga- 
thered, on Swafl'ham heath, some diseased specimens, with 
dense dark-purple heads, of abortive flower-buds. 

P, found by the late Sir John Cullum, on a heath between Gran- 
tham and Ancaster, June (>, 1774, seems, by his specimens, a 
dwarf varietv, which had survived the winter, nor can it by any 
specific mark be distinguished from the real Amarella ; which is 
often seen much more dwarf in autumn, bearing but 1 or 2 
flowers, as represented l>v Professor Hooker,/. 1. 

G. germanica, U'iUd. v. 1. "1346, which is G. critka of Ehrhart, 
Herb. 1.52, and, according to Swiss specimens. Mailer's n. Gfjl, 
(though the latter indicat'es many wrong synonyms, and takes it 
for an English plant,) diflers from Amarella in hav'ms; flowers 
nearly twice as large, situated about the upper part of the stem, 
which is of a corymbose form of growth. It may be a good spe- 
cies, but has not yet been observed in England. Columna's 
Gentlanella purpurea minima, Ecphr. 223. t. 221, copied in 
Barrel. Ir. t. 97./. 2. is perha])s different. lUa flowers are 4- 
deft, and their calyx has no tube. Barrclier's figures, coi)ied 
and often perverted, are scarcely to be adjusted to all the known 
species, and perhaps several still remain undefined. 6'. germa- 
nica appears to be a vernal as well as autumnal plant. 

f). G. campestris. Field Gentian. 

Corolla salver-shapod, four-cleft; bcanled in the throat. 
Two outer se^rnicuts of the calyx ovate, very large. 

G. campestris. Linn. Sp. PI. 33 I. JniM. v. 1.13 IS. Fl. Br. 28S. 
Fngl. hot. V. 4. /. 237. Hook. Scot. SO. Fl. Dan. t. 307. Eluh. 
Herb. 13 1. 

G. n. r>:.0. Hall. I/tst. v. 1.2H0. 

(i. pratensis, (lore lanuginoso. Raii Syn. 27.") ; excluding the refe- 
rence to John, and perhaps to Ca'^par. Bauhin. 

In elevated pastures, or upon green hills toward.s tlu' sea coast. 



S2 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Gentiana. 

where the soil is chalky or gravelly, in many parts of England 
and Scotland. 

Annual. September, October. 

Herb rather paler than the last, and of more humble growth, vary- 
ing greatly in luxuriance. Stem somewhat corymbose, with 
^\m])\Q Jiower-stcOks of various lengths. Leaves ovate, acute, 
,3 -ribbed. FL somewhat larger and paler than in G. Amnrella, 
four-cleft, essentially distinguished by having the 2 outer and 
opposite segments of the calijx ovate and very broad, covering 
the 2 inner, w-hich are narrow and lanceolate, or even awl- 
shaped ; all deeply separated, and minutely fringed. Styles 
and stigmas like the last. None of the earlier figures express 
this form of the calyx, and therefore none of them can safely be 
referred to the present species, which appears, by various Swiss 
specimens, to be Haller's ??. 650, thought by him difficult to 
ascertain ; and which is certainly the campestris of Linnseus, 
who noticed its essential character in FL Lapp. n. 94. The 
wooden cut of Tillands, Ic. 46, appears on examination copied 
from that of Clusius and Gerarde, referred above to G. nivalis. 

The foreign species of Gentiana, notwithstanding the labours of 
several excellent botanists, still require examination, with re- 
gard to their specific differences, and especially their synonyms. 



To the end of Pentjndjiij Digynl4 is an entirely 
natural Order, 

Umhellatce, Linn. 45. Umbelliferce. Juss. 60. See Gram- 
mar, 132—135. 

[I have novv^ first attempted to arrange and characterize the 
genera of this Natural Order, by the parts of fructification 
alone, according to the wise principles taught by Linnaeus; 
but against which he himself, in this instance, transgressed. 
To understand this arrangement, of which the technical 
characters are to be found at the head of the present order, 
Pentandria Digynia, it is necessary to give a detailed ac- 
count of the parts in question. 

Calyx superior, of 5, more or less unequal, leaves, or teeth, 
permanent, and somewhat enlarged, after flowering, fre- 
quently obsolete hi the flower ; and sometimes a mere rim, 
either entire or notched ; sometimes altogether wanting. 

Corolla of 5 petals, deciduous, equal, or mostly unequal ; 
each petal either inversely heart-shaped, with an inflexed 
point between the lobes, which are sometimes unequal ; 
or roundish, or elliptic-oblong, straight or inflexed, and 
undivided; the whole petal in some cases involute, or 
rolled in upon itself, as is seen in Bupleurum. 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Umbellate. 33 

Stam, Filaments 5, equal or unequal, according as the petals 
are so, thread-shaped or awl-shaped, simple, spreading. 
Anthers roundish or oblong, incumbent, of 2 close pa- 
rallel lobes, without any appendage, and 2 cells opening 
lengthwise. 
Pistil. Germen inferior, usually simple, rarely a double 
globe ; more or less compressed, either laterally or trans- 
versely ; the surface either even, or striated longitudinally, 
smooth, hairy, or prickly. Styles 2, each proceeding from 
the inner side of a large, tumid, ovate, globular, pyramid 
dal, or depressed, permanent base, of a glandular ap- 
pearance, very seldom wanting ; the styles themselves are 
usually cylindrical, short and erect in the flower, but sub- 
sequently elongated, either spreading or strongly reflexed, 
forming a pair of hooks to the fruit ; in a few genera they 
are at every period long and capillary, in some degree 
spreading, almost invariably permanent, and hardened as 
the fruit ripens. Stigmas either simple, obtuse, or capi- 
tate, never divided. 
Floral Receptacle, or Disk, a glandular ring, under the 
tumid bases of the styles, and mostly united therewith, 
but differing in substance, and often in duration, some- 
times dilated into a thin undulated margin or ruffle, in 
general somewhat enlarged as the fruit ripens, sometimes 
withering, sometimes entirely wanting, finally separated 
into two parts, one of which accompanies each seed. 
Fruit either ovate, roundish, elliptical, cylindrical, or ob- 
long, tumid and solid, or thin and chaffy; compressed 
more or less, either laterally, that is, contrary to the por- 
tions of the Jioral receptacle ; or transversely, parallel 
thereto ; and finally separating into 2 naked seeds, each 
suspended by one branch of a capillary, upright, divided 
receptacle. 
Seeds each of the shape of half the f)i(it ; their outer skiri 
various in substance, form, and surface, giving the cha- 
racter of the /;•////; the inner thin, membranous and uni- 
form; each seed crowned with one half of llie //^rr?/ recep- 
tacle, as well as with a part of the calyx, ii' either or both 
be present, and usually with one of the styles; i\\c\r junc- 
ture, or point of union, flat, or finally concave, various in 
breadtli in those which are compressed laterally; nearly 
as broad as the seeds in tljose which are compressed 
transversely ; their margins either simple, or bordered 
with a membranous wing; their outer surface more or 

VOL. II. i> 



34 PENTANDRIA—DIGYNIA. Kryiigium. 

less convex, either naked, downy, prickly, or scaly, va- 
riously ribbed, with flat, or concave, rarely convex, in- 
terstices, the ribs sometimes compressed, acute, or winged, 
sometimes prickly, or scaly. Albumen large, fleshy, com- 
posing the bulk of the seed. Embryo dicotyledonous, in- 
verted, from near the upper end of the albumen. 

Inflorescence (except in Eryngium) a simple, or more usually 
compound, umbel, of many rays, with or without several 
bracteas at the origin of the several rays. The absence 
or presence of these bracteas, and in some cases their 
shape, is resorted to by Linnaeus for generic characters ; 
to excuse which he denominates them involucra and in- 
volucella, as being supposed a kind oi calyx, remote from 
Xhejloisoer. But they are found in practice to lead to the 
formation of unnatural genera, and to be variable in the 
same species ; affording an example of the treacherous 
nature of every thing belonging to the hiflorescence, and 
not to \}iXQ fructification, for generic discrimination. 

Umbelliferous Plants are generally herbaceous, with leaves 
for the most part repeated 1}^ compound. Floisjcrs white, 
reddish, or j^ellow. Such as grow in dry or mountainous 
places are aromatic and wholesome; the marsh or aquatic 
kmds are virulent and dangerous.] 



136. ERYNGIUM. Eryngo. 

Linn. Gen. 127. Juss.226. FLBr.288. Tourrut. ]73. Lam.(.\87. 
Gcurtn. t. 20. 

Flowers aggregate. Common Receptacle conical, scaly, many- 
flowered, having a rigid, simple or three- cleft, acute scale, 
to each sessile perfect j^oid^\ Cal. of each flower superior, 
of .5 erect, pointed, equal leaves. Pet. 5, equal, oblong, 
channelled, taper-pointed, infiexed about the middle. 
Filam. capillary, straight, prominent. Anth. roundish- 
oblong, incumbent. Germen simple, inferior, oblong- 
ovate, clothed with erect bristles. Styles thread-shaped, 
straight, nearly erect and parallel, shorter than the sta- 
mens, permanent. Stigmas simple. Fruit ovate, slightly 
compressed transversely, bristly, separable lengthwise into 
2 parts. Seeds oblong, nearly cylindrical, coated; the 
coat either permanent or deciduous. 

Herbaceous, mostly perennial, glaucous or blueish, prickly, 
very rigid, scarcely at all hairy or downy. Leaves alter- 
nate, often pinnatifid, with spinous lobes or teeth; radical 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Erynglum. 55 

ones stalked, largest, and most numerous. Fl. terminal, 
blue or whitish, inodorous, encompassed by large, lealy, 
pinnatifid, spinous hracteas^ longer than the ovate head. 

1. E. inaritimum. Sea Eryngo. Sea Holly. 

Radical leaves roundish, plaited, spinous. Heads stalked. 

Scales of the receptacle three-cleft. 
E. maritimum. Linn. Sp. PLlVil . irdl<l.v.3. 1358. Fl. Br. 2SS. 

Engt. Bof. v.]0.t.7]S. fVoodv. Med. Bot. t.]02. Hook. Scot. 87 . 

FL Dan. t. 875. Bauh. Pin. 386. 
E. marinum. Rail Syn. 222. Match. Valgr. v. 2. 42. /*. Corner. 

Epit. 448. /: Ger. Em. \\C2.f. Dod. Pempt. 730./. Lob. Ic. 

V.2. 2\.f.^Bauh. Hist. r>3.86./ 

On the saridy sea shore. 

Perennial. Juli/, August. 

Roots very long, creepine:, cylindrical, whitish, of a pungent aro- 
matic flavour, with a mixture of mucilage. Herb smooth, glau- 
cous, with an elegant blue tint. Stem a foot high, round, 
branched, leafy, furrowed. Leaves ribbed and veiny, bordered 
with sharp spinous teeth j the radical ones stalked, 3-lobed. Fl. 
solitary, terminal, with broad pinnatifid bracteas. Petals bright 
blue, erroneously drawn reflexed in Engl. Bot. 

The roots, reckoned stimulating and restorative, are either r,old 
candied, or administered in decoctions^ variously prepared. 

2. E. campestre. Field Eryngo. 

Leaves clasping the stem ; radical ones twice or thrice pin- 
natifid. Scales of the receptacle undivided. 

E. campestre. Linn. Sp. PL 337. Willi, v. 2. 1358. Fl. Br. 281 
Engl. Bot. v.\. t. 57. Winch Guide v. 1. 20. Jacq. Austr. i. 155. 
FLDan. ^554. Dod. Pempt. 730./. 

E. n. 735. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 322. 

E. vulgare. Raii Syn. 222. Bciuh. Hist. v. 3.85./. 

E. mediterraneum. Ger. Em. 1 162./. 

E. montanum, sivc campo.^tre. Matth. Falgr. v. 2.41./ Camet. 
Epit.A^:./. 

Eryngium. Fuchs. Hift. 206./. 

In waste ground, especially near the sea, but rare. 

On a rock which vou descend from Plymouth to the ferry, going 
to (.'ornwall. Ray. On the shore called Friar Goose, near 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Lawson. Also on St. Peter's quay, 
Nortlunnberland. Mr. Winch. Hy the old Roman way called 
Watling-street, opposite Brookhall, near Daveniry, as men- 
tioned bv Hay on the authority of Mr. Thornton. Rev. Mr. Woofl. 
Near the Devil ^ Point, at Stoneliouse, Plymouth. Mr. Edward 

For iter. ^7^^^4f /tr? i . •JU ^-er' - <9'T2^r/'C • ^<r7T rro^.fr AfA* f<L 

^ D 2 



3d PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Sanicula. 

Perennial. Juli/, August. 

More bushy and slender, as well as more corymbose, and of a 
paler green, than the foregoing. Radical leaves larger, often 
triply pinnatifid, with decurrent lobes. Bracteas narrow, chan- 
nelled, tapering, twice or thrice as long as the little globular 
Jiowers. Scales of the receptacle lanceolate, undivided and en- 
tire, with a simple spinous point. Pet. white or purplish, narrow, 
sharply inflexed. 

137. SANICULA. Sanicle. 

Linn. Gen. 128. Juss. 225. Fl. Br. 291. Tourn. t. \73. Lam. 
t.]9\. Gcertn.t. 20. 

Flowers separated ; the central ones barren ; marginal fer- 
tile, without stamens. Cal. superior ; that of the barren 
fl. small, 5-leavecl, acute; of the fertile larger, nearly- 
equal, internally coloured. Pet. in the barren fl. 5, nearly- 
equal, lanceolate, inflexed, channelled, compressed; in the 
fertile either deciduous, or entirely wanting. Filam. ca- 
pillary, spreading, twice as long as the petals. Anth, 
roundish. Germ, inferior, roundish, bristly; wanting, or 
scarcely perceptible, in the central fl. Styles 2, reflexed, 
awl-shaped, about as long as the calyx, permanent. 5'//^- 
mas obtuse. Fruit ovate, acute, destitute of ribs, densely 
clothed with spreading, hooked bristles, and finally sepa- 
rable into 2 seeds^ convex on the outer side, flat on the 
inner: one of which, according to Gaertner, is often 
abortive. 

Herbaceous, perennial, smooth. Leaves compound or lobed, 
with bristle-pointed serratures. Umbels irregularly aggre- 
gate, simple, many-flowered, dense, almost capitate, with 
3-lobed general bracteas, and simple acute partial ones. 
Fl. white, or reddish. 

1. S. eifropcea. Wood Sanicle. 

Radical leaves simple, deeply lobed. Flowers all nearly 

sessile. 
S.europaea. Linn. Sp. PL 339. milden. v. \. 1366. Fl. Br. 29 \. 

E gl. Bot. V. 2. t. 98. Hook. Scot. 87. Fl. Dan. t. 283. Bull. 

Fr. t. 267. 
S. n. 737. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 323. 
Sanicula. Riv. Pentap. Irr. t.3l. 
S. sive Diapensia. Raii Syn. 221. Ger. Em. 948./. 
S. mas. Fuchs. Hist. 671. f. 
Diapensia. Brunf. Herb. v. 1. 80. / Matth. Valgr. v, 2, 366. /, 

Camer. Epit.763.f. 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Echinophora, 57 
Sideritis tertia Dioscoridis. Column, Phytob. 71. t.72. ed.2. 59. 

In woods and groves abundantly. 

Perennial. May. 

Root of numerous, black, tufted, rather fleshy fibres. 5#em5 ascend- 
ing, about a foot long, some much shorter ; furrowed, slightly 
branched alternately. Leaves chiefly radical, stalked, with 3 
very deep, 3-cleft, jagged and serrated lobes ; those of the stem 
alternate, nearly sessile j all of a deep shining green, veiny. 
Umbels numerous, capitate, in an irregular, twice compound, 
partly umbellate, panicle. Fl. cream-coloured, with an occa- 
sional stain of red ; the barren ones, in the middle of each um- 
bel, most numerous. 

The herb is bitter, with an acrid, somewhat aromatic, pungency. 
Its vulnerary qualities are no longer believed. 

138. ECHINOPHORA. Prickly-Sampire. 

Linn. Gen. \29. Juss.225. H.Br. 293. Tourn.t. 423. Lam. t. \90. 
Fl. .separated; those of the circumference numerous, barren; 
the outermost irregular, often neuter; central solitary, 
fertile. Cal. superior, of 5, nearly equal, spinous-pointed, 
rigid, permanent leaves. Pet. in the outermost flowers 
unequal, each unequally heart-shaped, from the strong 
inflexion of the jagged point ; in the rest of the barren 
ones equal, inflexed ; in the central one wanting. Filam. 
in the fl. of the circumference only, longer than the j^etals, 
thread-shaped, inflexed, equal. Anth. of 2 roundish lobes. 
Germ, inferior, turbinate, in the fl. of the circumfe- 
renceabortive ; in the central one imbedded in the base 
of the flower. Styles erect, somewhat unequal ; in the 
central fl. longest, awl-shaped, a little recurved, perma- 
nent. Stigmas obtuse. Fruit ovate, imbedded in the 
enlarged receptacle^ constituting a hardened prickly coat. 
Seed solitary, ovate-oblong. 
Herbage very rigid, somewhat downy. Stem round, furrowed, 
nuich branched, leafy. Leaves doubly pinnatifid, with 
acute or spinous segments. Umbels com])ound, terminal, 
with s})inou.s-pointed, general and partial, hracteas, the 
hitter finally confluent and hardened. F)uit globose, va- 
riously armed. 

tl. Ya. sjnnosa. Sea Prickly-Sampire. SeaParsnep. 

Leaves with spinous, awl-shaped, entire segments. 

E. spinosa. Linn. Sp. PL 3AA. fHlUi. v. 1. 1370. 11. Br. 293 



:>'S PENTANDRIA-^DIGYNIA. Daucus. 

Engl. Bat. i;.34. t. 2413. FL Grcoc. v. 3. 08. t. 2(35. Turr. Far- 
set. 7. Cauan. Ic. v. 2. 24. t. 127. Jacq. Collect, v. 2. 155. 

E. maritima spinosa. Tourn. Inst. QUO. Dill, in Rail Syn. 220. 

Critbmum spinosum. Dod. Pempt. 705./. Ger. Em. 533./. Rail 
Syn. ed. 2, 1 14. 

C. secundum. Matth.Valgr.v.].445.f. Ed. Bauh.SSl.f. Camer. 
Epit.27o.f. 

P^istinaca marina. Lob. Ic. 710. f. Dauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 196./. 
Dalech.Hist.VidQ.f. 

On the sandy sea shore j not found by any recent botanist. 

Observed bv Mr. Lawson at Hoosebeck in Low Furness, Lanca- 
shire. Fuiy. Between Feversham and Sea Sfilter. Bluckstone. 
Between Whitstable and the isle of Thanet, by Sandwich, and 
near West-chestcr. Gcrarde. 

Perennial. July. 

Root spindle-shaped, long- and fleshy, reported to be eatable, bav- 
in o- the flavour of Parsnep, with a stimulating and diuretic 
quality. Herb glaucous, finely downy, copiously branched, and 
spreading in every direction 2 or 3 feet. Leaves rigid, alternate 
or opposite, doubly ))innatifid, with narrow, channelled, entire, 
spinous -pointed segments. H. white, or pale flesh-coloured, 
numerous. General bracleas undivided, numerous, about as 
long as the stalks of the general umbel; partial ones much 
smaller, finally confluent with the receptacle and with each other. 
Marginal Jiowers radiant and sometimes neuter. Fruit globose, 
encompassed with the spreading hardened partial bracleas, and 
crowned with the thickened stalks, and permanent calyx-leaves, 
of the faded barren flowers. — There are rudiments of 2 seeds, 
though only one comes to perfection. 

139. DAUCUS. Carrot. 

Linn. Gen. U\. Juss. 224. Fl. Br. 300. Tonrn.t.lGl. Lam. 
t. 192. Gartn. t.20. 

FL separated ; the outermost irregular, barren ; inner ones 
fertile ; central mostly neuter, often coloured. Cal. obso- 
lete. Pet. inversely heart-shaped, with an infiexed point, 
more or less irregular ; the lobes of the 4 lateral ones 
very unetjual, of die odd one equal and largest. Filam. 
capillary, longer than the corolla, spreading. Antli, rather 
oblong. Germ, inferior, ovate, bristly, imperfect in the 
outermost, as well as in the central, flowers. Styles thread- 
shaped, spreading, permanent, dilated at the base, and 
forming a double permanent globe. Stigmas obtuse. 
Floral Receptacle none. Fruit elliptic-oblong, trans- 
versely compressed, tumid. Seeds with 4 principal ribs, 
beset each with a row of nmncrous, flatfish, somewhat 



PEXTANDRIA—DIGYNIA. Dauciis. 39 

confluent, taper-pointed, straight or liooked, prickles ; 
the intermediate ribs slightly prominent, rougliish ; the 
inner surfaces flat and even, closely applied to each other. 
Ilool tapering, annual or biennial. Stem round, furrowed, 
branched, leafy. Ijeaflcts, repeatedly, and for the most 
part finely, divided, not spinous, flat, often hairy. Umbels 
compound, large, flat or convex while in flower, after- 
wards either concave or convex. General, and some- 
times parti ah bracieas pinnatifid, or three-cl<^ft, narrov%', 
permanent. Fl. white, or reddish, sometimes dotted, 
various in their respective degrees of perfectiou. Fruit 
adhesive, like burs. 

1. D. Carota. Wild Carrot. 

Bristles of the seeds slender. Leaflets pinnatifid, with linear- 
lanceolate acute segments. Umbels with a solitary, co- 
loured, abortive flower ; when in seed concave. 

D. Carota. Linn. Sp. PL MS. PViM. v. 1 . 1389. Fl. Br. 300. 

Engl. Bot. V. 17. ^ 1 174. fVoodv. Med. Bot. t. 16). Mart. Rust. 

t. 82. Hook. Scot. 88. Fl. Dan. t. 723. 
D. polvgamus. Gounn. Obs. 9. Jacq. Hort. Find. v. 3. 43. /. 78. 
D. n. 746. Hall Hist. v.\. 326. 
D. vulgaris. Raii Sijn. 218. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 198. 
Caucalis Carota. Huds. 114. 
Staphylinus. Riv. Pentap. Irr. t. 28. 
Pustinaca sylvestris. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 107./. bad. Camer. Epit. 

50S./. 
P. .sylvestris tenuifolia. Ger. Em. 102S./. bad. 
P. erratica. Fuchs. Hisf. 684./. 

In pastures, and the borders of fields, in a gravelly soil, common. 

Biennial, June, Julij. 

Root .slender, yellowish, aromatic and sv/cetish, resembling the 
Garden Carrot, which is only a cultivated variety. 5/e/n 2 or 3 
feet high, branched, erect, leafy, hairy or bristly. Leaves alter- 
nate, on broad, concave, ribbed footstalks, bipinnate, cut, nar- 
row, acute, distantly hairy. Umbels tcrminatiiig the long leaf- 
les.s brunches, solitarv, large, white, except the one central 
neutral7/o?r(:'r, which is blood-red. Oencral bractcas pinnatilid, 
slendiT, large, but not so long a">- the umbel ; partial undivided, 
or partly .S-clelt, mem!)rano»'-'* ^^t the cdi;es. Seeds small, jho- 
tectcd by the ir.curv.itiop of idl tlie flowcr-Btnlks, by which the 
u.mbels are rennered '-ollow, 1 ke a bird's nest. 

Tlic hcri) and seids .aH' ditiretir, and eatocmed usefid in gravelly 
or calculou-^ f^'.npIaint^i. 



40 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Caucalis. 

2. D. maritimus. Sea-coast Carrot. 

Bristles of the seeds flattened. Leaflets dilated, fleshy, pin- 
natifid, with rounded segments. Umbels convex when 
in seed. 

D. maritimus. With. 2^0. Comp. 45. Engl Bot. v. 36. t. 2560. 

D. maritimus lucidus. Dill, in Raii Syn. 218. 

On the sea coast, of the south of England. 

Near Dover. Sherard and Rand. In Cornwall. Withering. 

Biennial. July, August. 

Of a more humble stature than the former, with broad, shining, 
bluntly cut lenjlets, whose edges and ribs are hairy. The brae- 
teas are all broader ; ih^ partial ones more generally three-cleft. 
Umbels destitute of the red central abortive flower, at all times 
convex, never concave. Bristles of the seeds more flattened at 
the base, rather resembling those of some foreign species than 
the foregoing, from which this plant is surely distinct. It must 
not be confounded with D. maritimus of Gsertner, t. 20, which 
is rather, as that author himself observes, a Caucalis. 



140. CAUCALIS. Bur-parsley. 

Linn. Gen. iSO. Juss. 224. Fl. Br.296. Tourn.t.\7\. Lam.t.\92, 
Gcertn. t. 20. 

FL imperfectly separated, irregular ; the outermost fertile. 
Cal. superior, of 5 broad, acute, unequal, permanent 
leaves. Pet. more or less unequal, inversely heart-shaped, 
with a strongly inflexed point, the lobes of each almost 
equal. Filam. awl-shaped, shorter than the corolla. Anth. 
roundish. Germ, inferior, oblong, bristly. Fl. RecepL 
obsolete. Styles awl-shaped, slightly spreading, much 
shorter than the corolla, tumid and somewhat pyramidal 
at the base, permanent. Stigmas abrupt, oblique. Fruit 
elliptic-oblong, rather compressed transversely, tumid. 
Seeds with 4' principal ribs, beset each with a row of nu- 
merous, ascending, awl-shaped, hooked prickles; the 
intermediate spaces prickly or rough ; the inner surfaces 
flattish, and close together. 
Moot annual, or biennial. Stern branched, furrowed, rough- 
ish, leafy. Leaves on short stalks, doubly or triply pin- 
natifid, toothed, or finely cut Umbels lateral and termi- 
nal, stalked, of few general ra^s, and not many partial 
ones. Fl. white or reddish, severa\ of them barren, or 
abortive. Bracteas various, often broad ^nd membranous, 
alwavs undivided. Fruit adhesive. 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Caucalis. 41 

1. C daucoides. Small Bur-parsley. 

Umbels three-cleft, without general bracteas; partial ones 

with three bracteas, and ripening about three fruits. 

Leaves repeatedly subdivided. 
C. daucoides. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. v. 2. 205. ed. 14.2/0. 

3Ia}it.3D\. H'illd.v. I. \3S4. Fl.Br.206. Engl. Bot.v.S.t. 197. 

J acq. Austr. t. 157. 
C. leptophylla. IJuds. ed. 1. 99 ; not of Linn. 
C. n. 739. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 324. 
C. tenuitolia, flosculis subrubentibus. Raii Syn. 219. 
Conium Royeni. Limi. Sj). PI. 350. 
Echinophora. Riv. Pentap. Irr. t, 24. 
E. tertia leptophyllon purpurea. Column. Ecphr. 96. t. 97./. 2. 

In corn fields, on a chalky soil. 

At Marham, Norfolk. Mr. Crowe. Carlby, between Stamford and 
Bourn, Lincolnshire. Mr. Woodward. Thorp Arch, Yorkshire. 
J. Aikin, M.I). Frequent in the counties of Oxford and Cam- 
bridge. 

Annual. June. 

Root small, tapering. Herb nearly smooth, bushy. Stem deeply 
furrowed, hairy at the joints. Leavts on short membranous- 
edged foot-stalks ; thrv e-cleft at the base, then thrice com- 
pounded, with very narrow, deep-green segments. Umbels of 
3 or 4 stout, spreading, principal rays, with rarely a small so- 
litary bractea ; the partial ones of 2 or 3 fertile y/oi^ers, with 
several barren, and some that are abortive. Cat. very obvious. 
Pet. generally reddish, but slightly radiant. Partial bracteas 
from 3 to 5, lanceolate, not membranous. Fruit large, oblong, 
very prickly, as well as somewhat hairy. 

The synonym of Gerarde Em. 1021, quoted in Fl. Br., certainly 
belongs to C. grandjjlora. 

2. C. latifoVia. Great Bur-parsley. 

Umbels three-cleft, with membranous bracteas; partial ones 
ripening about five fruits. Leaves pinnate, serrated. 

C. latifolia. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. v. 2. 205. ed. 14. 276. fnild. 

V. I. 1384. FL Br. 297. Engl. Bot. v. 3. 1. 198. Jacq. Hurt. find. 

t).2.59. /. 128. 
C. n. 738. Hall. Hist. v. 1.324. 
C. arvensis echinata latifolia. Bank. Pin. 152. Raii Syn. 219. 

Mill. U. t. 85. Garid. Prov. 90. t. 22. 
Tovdylium latifolium. Linn. Sp. PI. 3\C). Huds.ed. 1.98. 
Echinophora quarta major i)latvj)hvllon purj)urea. Column. Ecphr. 

9S. t.[)7./. 1. 
Broad Bur-parsley Prf If Rrit. f. '27 f. 6. 
^. Erhinophorn laciniatu. Ddl. in Jiaii Sytt. 219. 



42 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Torilis. 

Broad Jagged Bur-parsley. Fet. H. Brit. t. 27./. 7 . 

In fields on a chalky soil, but rare. 

In Cambridgeshire not uncommon. 

Annual. July. 

Herbage rough, somewhat glaucous. Sttm taller, and less spread- 
ing, than in the foregoing, about 3 feet high, beset with minute 
ascending prickles. Leaves from 3 to 6 inches long, simply pin- 
nate ; leaflets deeply pinnatifid, or strongly serrated, the upper 
ones decurrent. Umbels lateral and terminal, on long, stout, 
furrowed, rough, upright stalks, each umbel of from 2 to 4, 
usually 3, long and firm rays ; the partial ones of many very 
short rays, several of which in the centre bear barren, almost 
regular J ^ou-'ers, and about 5 in the circumference produce per- 
fect seeds. Bracteas, both general and partial, ovate, with a 
broad, white, membranous margin. Cal. of 5 broad, short, 
spreading, permanent leaves. Pet. bright pink, inversely heart- 
shaped, the outermost, of the marginal prolific flowers, thrice as 
large as the rest. Styles short and stout, moderately spreading, 
slightly tumid at the base. Fruit beset with double rows of 
straight, rigid, upright, rough, purplish bristles, and crowned 
with the calyx and styles. 

One of the most strikinsr and handsome of its tribe. 



141. TORILIS. Hedge-parsley. 

Adans. Fam. 9f). Sjjreng. Prodr.24. Ga-rtn. v. \. 82. t. 20. f. 1, 2. 

Fl. all perfect and fertile, except from occasional abortion, 
slightly irregular. Cal. superior, of 5 short, broad, acute, 
permanent, nearly equal, leaves. Pet. nearly equal, in- 
versely heart-shaped, witli an iiifiexed point, their lobes 
equal. Filam. capillary, sprciiding, longer or shorter than 
the corolla. Anth. roundish. Germ, inferior, ovate, bristly. 
Fl. Recept. obsolete. S'ylcs av/i-shaped, somewhat spread- 
ing, much shorter than the corolla, permanent, and sub- 
sequently elongated, very tumid at the base. Stigmas 
simple. '^ Fruit ovate, tumid, crowned with the spreading 
styles. Seeds destitute of ribs, covered irregularly with 
ascending, awl-shaped, shortish, rigid prickles, or partly 
with blunt, prominent, crowded granulations ; the junc- 
ture channelled, close. 

The generic name, which is Adanson's, may possibly be de- 
rived from To^fKcy, to carve., or emboss, as I have hinted in 
Rees's Cyclopaedia. 

Root annual. Herb rough, v/ith close rigid bristles. Stem 
leafy, branched, furrowed. Leaves doubly pinnate, cut- 
Umbels terminal or lateral, compound or simple, with 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Toriiis. 43 

narrow partial bracteas, not always general ones. Fl, 
white, or reddish. Fruit small, adhesive. Qualities not 
remarkable. 

1. T. Anthrisciis. Upright Hedge-parsley. 
Umbels of many close rays, with numerous general bracteas. 

Leaflets pinnatifid. Branches nearly upright. 

T. Anthriscus. Gartn.v. \.S^. 

Caucalis Anthriscus. Huds. 1 1 4. WWd. Sp. PL v. 1 . 1388. Fl. 
Br.29S. Efigl. Bot. v. 14. t. 987. Curt. Lond.fasc. 6. t. 22. 
Lighff.\:i^. Hook. Scot. 87. 

C. n. 741. Hall. Hist. v. \. 324. 

Caucalis. Riv. Pentap. Irr. t. 32. 

C. semine aspero, flosculis vubentibus. Dauh. Pm. 153. Prodr. SO./. 

C. minor, flosculis rubentibus. Ger. Em. 1022./. RanSyn.2\9. 

Tordylium Anthriscus. Linn. Sp. PL 346. Jacq. Ausir. t.26\. 

In hedges, and the borders of fields, very common. 

Annual. July. 

Root tapering. Stem erect, stifl", 2 or 3 feet high, solid, nearly 
round, furrowed, rough with deflcxed bristles ■ the brancfws al- 
ternate, nearly erect. Leaves alternate, bipinnate;pinnati{id and 
sharply cut, rather soft than harsh to the touch ; the lowermost 
on long channelled footstalks, and much the most compound. 
Umbels lateral and terminal, on long upright stalks, of from 7 to 
10 rouf^h rays, but little spreading. Bracteas both general and 
partiairsevefal, awl-shaped, short, rough, permanent. FL small, 
either white, or flesh-coloured, the exterior ones only a little ir- 
regular or radiant j the middle ones frequently barren, or in 
some degree imperfect, but not uniformly so. Fr. small, with 
incurved bristles, often purplish, especially at the summit, where 
it is crowned by the cali/x, and the divaricated styles, much 
lengtliencd out after iinpregnaiion. 

2. T. hifcsta. Spreading Hedge-parsley. 

Umbels of many close rays. General bracteas scarcely any. 
Leaflets pinnatifid. Branches spreading. 

T. infesta. Spreng. Prodr. 21. 

Caucalis infe.sta. Curt. Land. fuse. G. t. 23. FL Br.299. Engl. Bot. 

u. H). /. 1314. Hook. Scot. H7. 
C. arvensis. Iluds. 1 13. If'illd. Sp. PL v. 1. 1387. Light/. 1J5. 
C. helvetica. Jacq. Hort. Find. v. 3. 12. /. HJ. 
C. n. 742. Hall. I list. v. 1.32.">. 
C. humilis. Riv. Pmtap.Irr. t.33. 

C. scgetum minor. Anthrisco hispido similis. Ran Syij. 220. 
Scandix infesta. Linn.Sysf. Xut. cd. 12. r.2. 732. Herb. Linn. 



44 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Anthriscus. 

In fields and by way sides^ common. 

Annual. July. 

Smaller than the last, and more spreading, from 6 to 1 8 inches 
high. Leaves pinnate, deeply cut and sometimes almost bipin- 
nate, harsh to the touch ; the terminal leaflet elongated. Um- 
bels of from 3 to 5 rather close rays, for the most part destitute 
of general bracteas, though now and then furnished with a soli- 
tary one, which, like the numerous partial bracteas, is lanceolate 
and acute. Fl. cream-coloured, or pure white ; rarely flesh-co- 
loured, j^nth. yellowish or purple. Fr. larger than that of 
T. Anthriscus, green or reddish, crowned with the white or hoary 
calyx, and red styles, but not tipped with purple. A very di- 
stinct species, well marked by the deficiency of general bracteas, 
and by the spreading branches. 

3. T. nodosa. Knotted Hedge-parsley. 

Umbels lateral, simple, nearly sessile. Stem prostrate. 
Fruit partly granulated. 

T. nodosa. Gartn. v. 1.82. 

Caucalis nodosa. Hiids. 1 14. Willcl Sp. PL v. 1 . 1388. Fl. Br.299. 

Engl. Bot. V 3. <. 199. Hook. Scot. 88. 
C. nodosa, echinato semine. Bauh. Pin. 153. Prodr. 80. Bail 

Syn. 220. Ger.Em. 1022./. 
C. ad alas florens. Riv. Pentap. Irr. t. 36. 
Tordylium nodosum. Linn. Sp. PL 346. Jacq. Austr. app. t. 24. 

On banks, and about the borders of fields ; most plentiful in a 
gravelly or chalky soil. 

Annual. May, June. 

Boot slender. Stems prostrate, branched, leafy, round, a foot long, 
rough with reflexed bristles. Leaves of a deep glaucous green, 
hairy, doubly pinnate and sharply cut, with very narrow, tolera- 
bly uniform, segments. Umbels opposite to the leaves, solitary, 
on short stalks, simple, dense, nearly globular, with several linear 
hairy bracteas. Fl. almost sessile. Cal. short and unequal. Pet. 
small, white or reddish, scarcely at all radiating or unequal. 
Stam. short. Stijles globular at the base ; straight and elon- 
gated after the flowering. Seeds ovate ; the outer one of each 
external fruit thickly clothed with long, straight, pale, rough 
bristles, minutely hooked at the tips ; the inner, as well as all 
the interior fruits, covered with dense, whitish, shining tubercu- 
lar granulations. 

142. ANTHRISCUS. Beaked-parsley. 

Spreng. Prodr. 27. 

FL all perfect, regular, and generally prolific, CaL none. 
Pet. equal, uniform, inversely heart-shaped, with a small 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Anthriscus. 45 

inflexed point. Filam. capillary, the length of the corolla, 
spreading. Anth. roundish. Germ, inferior, ovate-oblong, 
bristly; naked and angular at the summit. FL Recept. 
slightly bordered. Styles awl-shaped, short, erect, tumid 
at the base, rather distant. Stigmas obtuse. Fruit ovate 
or somewhat lanceolate, tumid, beaked. Seeds without 
ribs, covered irregularly with short incurved bristles, ex- 
cept the beak, which is angular and naked, much shorter 
than the body of the fruit, abrupt, crowned with the per- 
manent styles. 

Root annual. Herbage smooth, or somewhat hairy. Stem 
branched. Leaves repeatedly compound and finely di- 
vided. Umbels lateral and terminal, compound, of several 
slender smooth rays, without any general bracteas ; the 
partial umbels of rather more numerous rays, dense, uni- 
form, with many lanceolate undivided bracteas. Ft. white. 
Fr. adhesive. 

A. nodosa of Persoon and Sprengel wants the beak, and re- 
quires further examination, particularly as to ihejlowers. 

1. A. vu/garls. Common Beaked-parsley. 

Fruit ovate, twice the length of its beak. Leaves triply pin- 
nate, pinnatiiid. 

A. vulgaris. *' Pers. Sijn. v. 1.820." Spreng. Prodr.27. Hoffm. 

Umb. V. 1. 43. Uook. Scot. 93. 
Scandix Anthriscus. Linn. Sp. PL 368. IVdld. v. 1. 1450. Fl. 

Br. 32.5. Engl. Bot. v. 12. <. 818. Curt. Lond. fasc. \,t.\9. 

Mart. Rust. t.7:^. Jacq.Austr. t. 154. 
Caucalisscandicina. JFigg.Holsat. 23. f-Vith. 2S0. FLDan.t.863. 
C. n. 743. Hall. Hist. v. 1.325. 
C. folio cerefolii. Riv. Penfap. Irr. t.3b. 
Myrrhis sylvestris, seminibus asperis. Bnuh. Pin. ICO. Raii Syn. 

220. 
M. aequicolorum nova. Column. Ecphr. 110. t. 112. 

On banks and waste ground, chiefly near large towns. 

Annual. May. 

Root fibrous. .S'^^-rn 2 or 3 feet high, uprii^ht, leafy, round, very 
smooth and polished, swelled under each joint. Leaves of a most 
beautiful light green, especially when young ; their ultimate seg- 
ments uniform, narrow and bUintisii ; their edges, ribs, and 
stalks a little hairy. Common foof stalks bordered and woolly at 
the lower part. Umbels on rather short stalks, each of 5, or mure, 
general rays, and numerous partial ones, all smooth. General 
bracteas entirely wanting ; partial about 5 or G, ovate-lanceo- 
late, pointed, with a membranous, fringed margin. Fl. small, 



46 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Scandix. 

white, all uniform, perfect, and generally fertile. Cal entirely 
wanting. Pet. inversely heart-shaped, scarcely at all unequal. 
Fruit ovate, tumid, slightly compressed, green, covered with nu- 
merous, short, ascending, incurved bristles, and tipped with a 
double, pyramidal, smooth, angular beak, scarcely half its own 
length, which is crowned by the very short erect styles, whose 
bases are large and tumid, without any evident floral receptacle. 

The petals are inaccurately represented in Engl. Bot. as if they were 
inserted at the base, not the summit, of the beak. 

The whole herb has a sweetish aromatic flavour, approaching to 
the Garden Chervil, to which it is in habit very nearly allied. 

A.fumarioides and iiemorosa of Sprengel are the only unquestion- 
able species, besides the present, which have fallen in my way. 
His nodosa, Scandix nodosa of Linnseus, has no traces of a beak, 
and would be a Torilis, as Gisrtner makes it, but for the want 
of a calyx. 

143. SCANDIX. ShepherdVneedle. 

Linn. Gen. \ 42. Juss. 220. Fl.Br.323. Spreng.Prodr. 29. Tourn. 
t.\73. Gccrtn.t.S5. 

Chserophyllum. Lam. t.20\.f.6. 

Fl, separated ; the innermost barren. Cal. none. Pet. un- 
equal, undivided, tapering at the base, spreading. Filam. 
thread-shaped, spreading, the length of the corolla. Anth. 
roundish. Genn. inferior, oblong, somewhat compressed, 
more or less rough, with close hairs. Sti/les spreading, 
short, finally erect, permanent, swelled at the base. 
Stigmas simple ; in the barren fl. obtuse. Fj-uit rilabed, 
somewhat bristly, elliptic-oblong, with a straight, linear, 
flat, bristly beak, five times its own length, crowned with 
the permanent, enlarged, 5-lobed, coloured receptacle of 
the flower, surrounding the base of the styles. 

Annual herbs, with, more or less radiant, white Jlowers. 
Leaves finely subdivided. Umbels either simple, solitary 
or in pairs, or regularly compound, without general brae- 
teas. Partial bracteas several, oval, divided or irregu- 
larly cut, with a membranous fringed margin, all con- 
siderably longer than the very short flower-stalks. Petals 
elliptic-oblong, acute, inflexed ; or obovate; obtuse, and 
spreading ; the outermost one, of the marginal Jlowers, 
sometimes very large and radiant. 

1. S. Pecten- Veneris. Common Shepherd's-needle. 

Venus's Comb ; or Needle Chervil. 
Fruit nearly smooth, with a bristly-edged beak. Umbek 



PEXTAXDRIA— DIGYNIA. Ch.^rophyiluni. 47 

simple ; solitary or in pairs. Bracteas jagged. Petals iii- 
jflexed at the point. 

S. Pecten-Veneris. Linn. Sp. PI.SG8. mild.v. \ .1449. Fl.Br.324. 

Engl. Bot. V. 20. t. 1397. Curt. Lond.fasc. 5.t.2l. Mart. Rust. 

t.3S. Hook. Scot. 92. FL Dan. t. 844. Jacq. Austr. t.263. Dad. 

Pempt.70\.f. 
Scandix. Riv. Peniap. Irr. t. 38. 

S. semine rostrato, vulgaris. Bauh. Pin. 152. Rail Syn. 207- 
Myirhis n. 754. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 330. 
Pecten Veneris. Matth. Valgr. v. 1. 481./. Carner. Epit. 304./. 

Bauh. Hist. V. 3. p. 2. 71 ./ Ger. Em. 1040./ 

In cultivated fields common. 

Annual. June — September. 

Root tapering. Stems 1 or more, simple or bushy, spreading, a 
foot high, leafy, furrowed, smooth, or somewhat hairy, often pur- 
plish. Leaves light green, triply pinnatifid, with linear, acute, 
smooth segments. Footstalks dilated at the base, with mem- 
branous hairy edges. Umbels small, mostly terminal, stalked, 
in pairs, here and there solitary ; with very short rays, over- 
topped by the broad, cloven or jagged, white-edged bracteas. 
FL in some degree radiant, especially those of the circumference, 
which alone ripen seed, the innermost having no perfect germens. 
Petals undivided, elliptic-lanceolate, acute, inflexed. Fruithe- 
set with a few close bristles ; the hcak, which is IJ or 2 inches 
long, much more rough, especially at the edges, and crowned 
with the purplish, enlarged, 5 -cleft receptacle of the flower, over- 
topped by the straight upright sf/jles. 

This is sometimes a troublesome weed, to which, though slightly 
aromatic and acrid, no particular use is attributed. Dioscorides, 
indeed, mentions it as eatable ; but his S/caviS";^ may not be 
ours. 

144. CH/EROPHYLLUM. Chervil. 

Linn. Gen. 143. Jm55. 220. FL Br. 325. Spreng. Prodr. 30. Lam. 
f. 201./ 1,2. Gcortn. t.23. 

FL imperfectly separated; the innermost barren. O//. none. 
Pet. somewhat unequal, inversely heart-.shaped, with an 
inflexed point. Filam. thread-shaped, spreading, about 
as long as the corolla. AntJi. roundish. Genu, inferior, 
oblong, slightly compressed, smooth. Styles short, awl- 
shaped, a little .spreading, tumid at the l)ase. Stigmas 
simple. Fruit lanceolate, smooth and even, destitute of 
furrows or prominent rib.s, with a short, angular, smooth 
beak, crowned witli the depressed wavy receptacle of the 
flower, subtending the }K^rmanent, slightly recu!veil,.<^/y/t'5. 



48 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Chserophyllum. 

Annual or perennial aromatic herbs, with a sweetish taste. 
Stem upright, branched, leafy, smooth and even, or fur- 
rowed. Leaves twice or thrice pinnate, cut, smooth. 
Umbels either terminal and stalked, or lateral and sessile, 
of several general as well as partial rays. General bracteas 
none; partial several, ovate-lanceolate. Pet, white. Fruit 
polished. 

1. Ch. sativum. Garden Chervil. 
Umbels sessile, lateral. Bracteas lanceolate. 

Ch. sativum. Bauh. Pin. 152. Gcertn.v. L\07 . Sprang. Prodr. 30. 
Hook. Scot. 93. 

Chserefolium sativum. Trag. Hist. 47]. f. 

Cerefolium. Riv. Pentap. Irr. t. 43. Matth. Valgr.v. 1. 480./. Ga- 
mer. Epit. 302. f. 

C. n. 747. Hall. Hist. v.\. 327. 

C. sativum. Moris, i;. 3.31)3. sect. 9.t.\\.f.]. 

C. vulgare sativum. Ger. Em. 1038. f. 

Scandix Cerefolium. Linn. Sp. PI. 308. Willd. v. 1. 1450. With. 
307. Engl.Bot.v. 18. t. 1268. Jacq.Austr. ^.390. Lam.f. 1. 

Gingidium. Fuchs. Hist. 2\7 . t. 216. 

In waste ground ; perhaps the outcast of gardens. 

Near Worcester. Dr. Stokes. In great plenty on a bank near 

Halesworth, Suffolk, to all appearance wild. Mr. Turner and Mr. 

Wigg. Frequent near Glasgow. Mr. Hopkirk. 
Annual. June. 
Root tapering. Herbage light-green, shining, delicate and tender. 

Stem round, hollow, striated, a little hairy at the joints only. 

Leaves twice pinnate, cut, witli channelled' footstalks. Umbels 

either axillary, or opposite to the leaves, of 3 or 4 spreading ^e- 

nei'al ratjs, and several partial ones. Fl. slightly radiant. Fr. 

somewhat furrowed, not ribbed ; sometimes, according to Jac- 

quin's report, very slightly hairy. 
This herb is much used in France for salads, and is mentioned as 

a pot-herb by Gerarde, though now little regarded. 

2. Ch. sylvestre. Wild Chervil. Smooth Cow-parsley. 
Umbels terminal, stalked. Bracteas ovate, membranous. 

Ch. svlvestre. Linn. Sp. PI. 369. Willd. v. 1. 1452. Fl. Br.326. 

Engl. Bot. v.W.t. 752. Curt. Lond.fasc. 4. t. 25. Mart. Rust. 

t. 9"6. Flook. Scot. 93. Jacq. Austr. t. 149. Lam.f. 2. 
Cerefolium n. 748. Hall. Hist. v. 1.328. 
C. sylvestre. Riv. Pentap. Irr. t. 44. 
C. sylvestre perenne, seminibus laevibus nigris. Moris, v. 3. 303. 

sect. 9. t.W.fb. 



PENTANDRIA—DIGYNIA. Myrrhis. 49 

Cicutaria vulgaris. Rail Sij)2. 207i 

Myrrhis. Fuchs. Hist, 524. t 525. Dalech. Hist. 76\.f. 

In hedges, and the borders of pastures and fields^ in a rather fertile 
soil, very common. 

Perennial. April, May. 

Root spindle-shaped, a little milky. Stem about a yard high, 
branched, leafy, round, striated, hollow, somewhat swelled be- 
low the joints, especially when full grown ; the lower part downy j 
upper sleek, and generally devoid of jjubescence. Leaves triply 
pinnate J leaflets ovate,pinnatifid, rough-edged. f7m6e/5 smooth ; 
the partial ones drooping more or less when young ; quite erect 
when in full bloom, with about 5 ovate, membranous, densely 
fringed, deflexed bracteas to each. Petals unequal in the mar- 
ginal Jiowers, which alone are prolific. Fr. lanceolate, with a 
deep channel at each side, blackish, polished, quite smooth and 
even, with a short, angular, furrowed beak. Bases of the styles 
almost globular, seated on a scarcely discernible floral recep- 
tacle. 

The whole herb, having the flavour of carrots, is eaten by domestic 
cattle, and is reported to be very grateful to rabbits. The snow- 
w'hlte ^flowers, some of the earliest of their tribe, plentifully adorn 
the hedges, and bushy margins of fields, in spring, and announce 

■ the approach of summer, 

145. MYRRHIS. Cicely. 

Tourn. t. 1G6. Moris, v. 3. 301. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 329. Spreng. 
Prodr. 28. Gcertn. t. 23. 

Species of Scandix and Chcerophyllum. ZAnn. 

Fl. imperfectly separated; the innermost barren. Cal. none. 
Pet. somewhat unequal, uniform, inversely heart-shaped, 
•with an inflexcd taper point. Filam. thread-shaped, 
spreading, as long as the petals, or longer. Anth. round- 
ish. Genu, inferior, linear-oblong, somewhat club-shaped, 
al)ru})t, furrowed, smooth, slightly compressed. Shjics 
awl-shaped, a little spreading, very tumid, and almost 
globose, at the base. Stigmas obtuse, or slightly capitate. 
Floral receptacle wanting. Fruit linear-lanceolate, a litde 
curved, deeply furrowed, without a beak, altogether smooth, 
except, in some instances, a minute bristly roughness at the 
upper part, either of tlie furrows or of the angles, which 
latter are either acute and very j)romincnt, or obtuse and 
(hhited ; the sunnnit crowned with the thick bases ol' the 
s])reading, ])ermanent slijhs. 

Perennial or biennial herbs, aromatic, })ungent or sweet. 
Stem erect, branched, leafy, either rougli or suiooth ; often 

vol.. II. K 



50 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Myrrhis. 

spotted. Leaves twice or thrice pinnate, sharply cut, 
rather hairy. Ufiibeh terminal, stalked, numerous, with 
many general, as w^ell as partial, rays ; scarcely ever any 
general bracteas, but numerous spreading 'partial ones, 
which are in some degree membranous, lanceolate, and 
pointed. FL white. Fr. tawny, or blackish. 

1. M. odorata. Sweet Cicely. 

Seeds with very sharp, prominent angles, roughish towards 

the summit. 
M. odorata. Scop. Cam. v. 1 . 207. Roth Germ. v.\.\22.v.2. pA. 

314. Hofm. Umb.v. 1.29. 
M. n. 753.' Hall. Hist. v. 1.330. 
Myrrhis. Dod. Pempf. 701. f. Lob. Ic. 734./. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 

512./. Camer.Epit.S9S J. 
M. magno semine longo sulcato. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 77. f. 

Moris, r.3.301. sect. 9. t.\0.f.\. 
Scandix odorata. Linn. Sp. PI, 368. WiUd.v.l. 1449. Ft. Br. 323. 

Engl. Bof. V. 10. t. 697. Light/. 160. Jacq. Austr. app. t. 37. 

Ehrh. PL Off. 423. 
Chaerophyllum odoratum. Hook. Scot. 93. 
Cerefolium magnum, sive Myrrhis. Ger. Em. 1039./. 
Odorata. Riv. Pentap. Irr. t. 57. 

In mountainous pastures. 

In meadows betwixt Morton and Rushforth, in the west riding of 
Yorkshire, certainly a native. Dr. Richardson. Herb. Buddl. 
Near Leeds pretty common, and certainly wild. Rev. Mr. Wood. 
Abundant by the sides of rivulets in Wensley-dale, Yorkshire. 
Mr. IV. Brunton. Behind a farm house, about a mile west of 
Hafod, Cardiganshire, Frequent, as Hudson remarks, in West- 
moreland, Cumberland, and Lancashire ; and, as Lightfoot and 
others have noticed, in the lowlands of Scotland ; but generally 
near houses. It does not appear why Ray and Dillenius did not 
admit this plant as a native. 

Perennial. May. 

Root tapering, fleshy, sweet and aromatic, like the whole of the 
herb. Stem 2 or 3 feet high, round, leafy, sleek, but striated, 
hollow, like the footstalks. Leaves triply compound, with pin- 
natifid, acute, serrated, slightly hairy leaflets, of a bright green j 
the radical leaves on long cylindrical footstalks; the rest with 
very short, dilated, ribbed, membranous-edged ones, so as to be 
almost sessile. Umbels terminal, of numerous downy rays, both 
general and partial. Bracteas partial only, lanceolate, tapering, 
whitish, membranous, finely fringed. Ft. numerous, pure white j 
many of the middlemost with stamens only, nor any thing of the 
pistil but the large globular bases of the styles ; several in the 
circumference fertile, and slightly radiant. Stam. in both. 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Mynhis. 51 

Geim. oblong, a little hairy. Fruit an inch long, dark brown, 
crowned with the spreading styles. Seeds each with 3 very pro- 
minent, compressed, dorsal angles, or wings, rough, like fine 
saws, near the summit ; the inner surfaces dilated, flattish, close 
together. 

The young seeds have the flavour of Anise, and are gratefully sto- 
machic, stronger than the herbage. 

This plant miglit perhaps form the type of a separate genus ; for 
the very prominent acute ribs of the seeds accord but ill with 
those of all the following, though there is no difference in the 
rest of the fructification. 

2.W,temulenta, Rough Cicely. Rough Cow-parsley.' 

Seeds furrowed, nearly smooth. Stem rough, swelled under 
each joint. 

M. temula. Spreng. Prodr. 29. 

M. n. 750. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 329. 

Myrrhis. Riv. Pentap. Irr. t. 49. 

M. annua vulgaris, caule fusco. Moris, v. 3. 302, sect. 9. t. 10./. 7. 

ChserophvUum temulentum. Linn. Sp. PL 370. JVilld. v. 1. 145-4. 
Fl. Br.' 326. Engl. But. v. 22. ^ 1521. Hook. Scot. 93. Curt, 
Lond.fasc. t). t. 24. Fl. Dan. t. 918. Jacq. Austr. t. (jj. 

Cerefolium sylve.stre. RaiiSyn. 207. Ger. Em. 1038./. 

Anthriscus Plinii. Dalech. Hist. 791./ 

Wild Chervil. Pet. H. Brit. t. 25./ 3. 

In bushy places, and under hedges, common. 

Biennial. June, July. 

Root spindle-shaped, subdivided. Stem about 3 feet high, round, 
solid, striated, rough with short deflexed hairs, and spotted with 
dark purple 3 swelled under each leaf. Leaves dark green, hairy, 
twice pinnate 5 leaflets pinnatifid and lobed, paler beneath. 
Umbels of many hairy unequal rays ; the partial ones smooth, 
drooping when young. General bracteas either entirely want- 
ing, or solitary j rarely numerous ; partial several, ovate, 
pointed, rather membranous or coloured, finely fringed at the 
margin and keel, occasionally confluent at the base. Fl. white, 
numerous, very slightly irregular; partly barren, with the glo- 
bular bases of the styles only ; those of the circumference princi- 
pally fertile. Germ, club-shaped, smooth. Fruit linear, crowned 
with the short recurved styles and their globose bases, without 
any obvious receptacle of the flower. Stigmas somewhat caj)i- 
tate. Seeds nearly cylindrical, rather furrowed than ribbed, 
slightly roughish, or tuberculated, towards the summit, in which 
character this species apjjroac hts the foregoing ; but the ribs, 
or spaces between the furrows, arc broad and convex, not acute 
and prominent. 

The wlujle plant is sweetish and aromatic, acceptable to domestic 
cattle, nor Is any intoxicating qualitv recorded, notwithstanding 

^E 2 



52 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Myrrhis. 

the specific name. The herbage is often mildewed. Linnaeus 
asserts that all the flowers are perfect j which does not accord 
with Haller's account, nor with our English specimens. 

3. M. aurea. Tawny-seeded Cicely. 

Seeds ribbed, nearly smooth, coloured. Stem slightly swell- 
ing, anguL-ir, hairy. Leaflets pointed, sharply pinnatifid 
or cut. General bracteas few ; partial deflexed. 

M. aurea. Spreng. Prodr. 29. 

M. perennis alba minor, foliis hirsutis. Moris, v. 3. 301. sect. 9. 

f. 10./. 2. 
M. perennis alba minor, foliis hirsutis, semine anreo. Rupp. Jen. 

ed. HaU.2S2.f.D. 
M. altera parva. Lob. Ic.734. f. Ger. Em. 1039. f. 
Chserophvilum anreum. Linn. Sp. PL 370 ; but not Mant. 356. 

WiUd.'v. 1 . 1 457. Comp. 48. Engl. Bot. v. 30. ^ 2103. Hook. 

Scot. 94. Don H. Br. 207. Jacq. Austr. t. G4. 
Cerefolium n. 749. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 328. 

In the borders of fields in North Britain. 

Between Arbroath and Montrose 3 and at Corstorphine, near Edin- 
burgh. Mr. G. Don. 

Perennial, June. 

Stem three feet high, much branched, solid, angular, striated, downy 
with copious, short, deflexed hairs, intermixed with more or less 
numerous, coarser bristles j the joints more densely hairy, and 
a little swelled, crowned by the narrow annular base of each 
common footstalk. Stem-leaves remarkable for their tapering 
leciflets, with numerous, fine, sharp, parallel segments 3 their 
surfaces hairy or smooth. Umbels erect, of very numerous, 
smooth, general and partial rays. General bracteas few or none ; 
partial reflexed, coloured, ovate-lanceolate, with long points. 
Fl. cream-coloured, slightly irregular j the barren ones nume- 
rous, with only globose rudiments of styles. Fruit in an early 
state club-shaped ; when ripe linear, crowned with the length- 
ened spreading stijles, whose tumid bases are somewhat de- 
pressed, and considerably wrinkled. Seeds linear, convex, of a 
tawny yellow, each with 3 prominent obtuse ribs, which are 
often roughish upward, as well as the intermediate spaces. 

4. M. aromatica. Broad-leaved Cicely. 

Seeds ribbed, smooth. Styles elongated. Leaflets ovate, 

acute, serrated, undivided. 
M. aromatica. Spreng. Prodr. 28. 
M. foliis podagrariae. Riv. Pentap. Irr. t. 53. 
Chserophyllum aromaticum. Linn. Sp PL 37 1. fVilld. v. I. 1654. 

D. Don in Tr. of Wern. Sac. v. 3. 300. Hook. Scot. 94. Jacq. 

Austr. ^ 150, 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Buiiium. 53 

Cerefolium rugoso angelicae folio, aromaticum, Bocc. Mus. 29.^1 9. 
Sjandix tinctoria. Scop. Cxrn. u. 1.212; according id Jacquin. 
Angelica sylvestris hirsutu inodora. Bauh. Pin. 15(i. Prodr. 82. 

By road sides in Scotland, but rare. 

Near Guthrie, by the road leading from Forfar to Arbroath. Mr. 
G. Don. 

Perennial. June. 

Herb when bruised somewhat aromatic ; but the seeds, according 
to Jacquin, have scarcely any flavour. Scopoli says they stain 
the fingers, when rubbed, with a brownish red. Stem 2 or 3 
feet high, striated ; round and hairy in the lower part ; smooth 
upwards ; slightly tumid and angular below each joint. Leaves 
on narrov.'-winged footstalks, large, twice ternate : leaflets 
stalked, ovate, or elliptic-oblong, acute, copiously, sharply, and 
rather finely serrated, with an occasional notch on one side at 
the base ; their length 1 1 or 2 inches ; both sides nearly smooth j 
the serratures minutely fringed. Umbels of many smooth, slen- 
der, general and partial, rays. Bracteas lanceolate, pointed, 
reflexed, a few general occasionally, as well as several parti:il 
ones. Fl. numerous, white -, the external ones fertile, slightly 
irregular. Fruit linear, crowned with the long, slender, spread- 
ing s/y/es, whose tumid bases are rather depressed than globular ; 
the stigmas obtuse. Seeds convex, each represented by Jacquin 
with 3, not very, prominent ribs. I have not seen them in per- 
fection. 



146. BUNIUiM. Earth-nut. 

Linn. Gen. 132. Juss.223. Fl. Br. 30\. Lam.t.\97. Gcertn. f.liO. 
Bulbocastanum. Tourn.t.\6\. 

Fl. all uniform ; the innermost many of them barren. Cal, 
of a few small, acute, spreading, often obsolete, leaves. 
Pet. equal, inversely hcart-shai)ed, with an hiflexed point. 
Filaiiu thread-sliai)ed, spreading, longer than the corolla. 
Anth. roundish. Germ, inferior, ovate-oblong, ribbed, 
smooth. Styles awl-shaped ; ovate, angular, and nuich 
swelled, at the base; permanent, more or less spreading. 
Stigmas obtuse, somewhat ca})itate. Fruit ovate-lanceo- 
late, more or less strongly ribbed, crowned with the i)arlly 
obsolete calyx, without any evident //o;y// nrrj)tacl(\ and 
the permanent, either upright or ivflexed, styles. Sreds 
each with 3 slightly i)rominent, distant ribs, which are 
strongest, with intermediate furrows, at the sunnnit. 

Root tuberous, globular. Stems 1 or nu^'e, erect, leafy, ra- 
ther corymbose, with several iimljcts of white Jioivcrs. 
Leaves doubly })innatifid, ^^ith narro\N, linear, smooth 



54 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Bunium. 

segments. Bracteas bristle-shaped; the general ones 
few, or none. 
Bulbocastanum of Tournefort must be the type of this genus, 
whatever may become of the two Greek species, or any 
others, that have been added to it ; neither can I colicur 
with the learned Professor Sprengel, who cites Gouan 
erroneously, in reducing Bulbocastanum minus to Slum, 
and B. majus to Myrrhis. They cannot but be consi- 
dered as of one and the same genus, if any regard is to 
be had to natural characters. Our only British species 
perhaps is the following. 

1. 1^. Jlexuosuin, Common Earth-nut. Kipper- or 
Pig-nut. 

General bracteas scarcely three. Stem tapering and zigzag 
at the base. Fruit somewhat beaked. Styles nearly up- 
right. 

B.flexuosum. IVith. 291. Sym.70. Hull 60. Sibth. 94. Abbot 60. 

FL Br. 301. Engl. Bot. v. 14. t. 988. 
B. Bulbocastanum. Huds. 122. Relh. 1 18. Curt. Lond.fasc. 4. 

t. 24. Comp. 45. Hook. Scut. 88. 
B. majus. Gouan Illusfr. 10. IVilhl Sp. PL v.\. 1394. 
Bulbocastanum. Rail Sijn. 209. 
B. minus. Ger.Em. 1064./. Bank. Pin. 162. 
B. mas. Dalech. Hist. 773. f. 
CEnanthe prima. Camer. Epit. 609./. 

In grassy pastures, especially on a gravelly soil, common. 

Perennial. Maij, June. 

Root eatable, nearly globular, black, irregular ; internally white, 
aromatic, sweet and mucilaginous, with some acrimony ; slightly 
fibrous at the lower part. Stem a foot high, or more, roundish, 
striated, smooth ; tapering, zigzag, and whitish at the base, to 
a greater or less extent under ground ; rarely quite straight 
and short in that part, when the root happens to lie very shal- 
low. Leaves with long, very narrow, acute, entire segments ; 
the radical ones twice or thrice pinnatifid, on long foot-stalks, 
tapering and zigzag under ground ; the rest thrice ternate, 
scattered, on short, broad, ribbed, membranous, clasping foot- 
stalks. Umbels several, terminal, of 7, or many more, smooth, 
slender, straight, stiff rays j those of the partial umbels still more 
numerous. Bracteas very slender j the partial ones several; 
general from 1 to 3, short and slender, often entirely wanting. 
Fl. pure white, all regular, even those of the circumference very 
nearly so, and all furnished with stamens and pistils, though 
many of the central flowers bear no seeds. Cat. mostly wanting, 
or obsolete ; sometimes of 2 or 3 r.hort, sharp, spreading. 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Sium. 55 

permanent leaves. Fruit ovate-lanceolate, shining, minutely 
vi^rinkled, with 3 narrow distant ribs at each side, and termi- 
nating in a more strongly ribbed, and deeply furrowed, point, 
crowned by the long, slender, nearly erect, permanent stijles. 

It appears that some accidental specimens, whose roots were not 
so deep in the ground as usual, and which might or might not 
have several general hracteas, have been taken for B. Bulbocas- 
tanum; but I could never meet with any such, even where they 
have been reported to grow. The true B. Bulbocastanum how- 
ever, figured in Fl. Dan. t. 220. Moris, sect. 9. t. 2./. 1. Gcertn. 
t. 140. Lob. Ic. 745. /. 1. Ger. Em. 1064./. 2. Lauremh. Ap- 
par. 148. and which is Haller's n. 783 ; though its stem is occa- 
sionally tapering and wavy at the base, as in a specimen from 
Gerard in the Linmean herbarium ; is clearly distinguished by 
its shorter, more abrupt, /r 2/ i^, which is not elongated, nor more 
furrowed, at the point, and especially by its closely reflexed 
styles. The general bracteas are constantly present, and nu- 
merous j occasionally three-cleft 5 the umbels oi 10, la, or 20 
rays j and the whole plant much larger, often having 2 stems. 
This is Bulbocastanum majus of the Bauhins and other old au- 
thors. Gouan has well distinguished the two species, though 
he has strangely perverted their synonyms, and seems to have 
misled Sprengel. 

If this should ever be found in Britain, the shorter, more abrupt 
fruitj and rcfiexed styles, will infallibly ascertain it. 

147. SIUM. Water-parsnep. 

Linn.Gen. 138. Juss.222. Fl. Br. 3\2. Tourn,t.\62. Lam.t.\97, 
Gd'Ttn. t. 23 ? 

Fl. all uniform, and generally perfect Cal. of 5 small, 
acute, unequal leaves^ often obsolete. Pet. equal, in- 
versely lieart-sliaped, or obovate, with more or less of an 
inflexed point. Filam. thread-shaped, s}:)rcading, longer 
than the corolhi. Anth. roundish. Germ, inferior, round- 
ish-ovate, striated. Styles cylindrical, more or less spread- 
ing, moderately swelling at the base, shorter than the 
petals, permanent. Sliginus obtuse. Fruit ovate, or or- 
bicular, slightly compressed, furrowed, crowned with the 
permanent styles and withered calyx, without any pnmii- 
\\cx\i floral receptacle. Seeds tumitl, convex, each with 5 
generally strong ribs. 

Acrid and dangerous herbs, smooth in every part-, mostly 
acjuatic and pereimial. Leaves oblong, scarcely more 
than simply })innate; leaflets deeply serrated or divided. 
Umbels lateral or terminal, while, with partial, and for 
the most j)art geiieifd, hracteas. 

/ 



56 PEKTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Slum. 

1. S. iafifolkmi. Broad-leaved Water-parsnep. 

Leaves pinnate; leaflets oblong-lanceolate, equally serrated. 

S. latifolium. Linn. Sp. PI. 36\. JViUd. v. I. \43] . Fl. Br. 312. 
En^l. Bot. V. 3. t. 204. Hook. Lond. fuse. 2. ^.110. Scot. 90, 
FCDan. t. 246. Jacq. Austr. t. 66. Bauli. Pin. 154. 

S. n. 777. Hall. Hist. r. 1. 34o. 

S. latifolium, foliis variis. Rcdi Syn. 211. 

S. majus latifolium. Ger. Em. 256./. ; also angustifolium. ibid.f. 

S. verum. Camer.Epit. 265./. 

S. maximum latifolium. Baiih. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 175./ 

Slum. Riv. Pentap. Irr. t. 78. 

Coriandrum latifolium. Crantz Austr. fasc. 3. 101. Roth Germ. 
V. 1. 131. 15.2. p. 1.349. 

In rivers, ditches and fens. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root fleshy, with numerous long fibres, creeping. Stems from 3 
to 6 feet high, erect, angular and deeply furrowed, leafy, hollow, 
smooth, very little branched. Leaves from 6 to 1 2 inches in 
length, oblong, smooth, for the most part simply pinnate, with 
about 5 or 6 pair of large, opposite, lanceolate, acute leaflets, 
with an odd one, all copiously, sharply and regularly serrated j 
those leaflets only which grovv under water being often doubly 
pinnatifid, with 'very narrow segments. Footstalks of the 
lower leaves long, cylindrical, hollow, and striated j the rest 
very short -, all clasping the stem with a dilated membranous 
margin. Umbels terminal or axillary, stalked, solitary, erect, 
large, nearly flat, of numerous, smooth, general and partial 
rays. Bracteas several general as well as partial, lanceolate, 
taper-pointed, ribbed, with v/hite membranous edges. Fl. nu- 
merous, snow-white, small, the outermost a little irregular. 
Cal. of 5 acute, rather unequal leaves. Fruit elliptic-ovate, small. 
Stijles permanent, reflexed, slightly tumid at the base. Each 
seed is semi-elliptical, with 5 pale, stout, rounded, prominent 
ribs 5 the deep intermediate spaces striated. One of the seeds 
is often abortive, and the other is then much incurved. Their 
flavour is aromatic, and less acrid than the rest of the plant j 
which like all the tribe, when in growing water, partakes of a 
poisonous quality. 
Surely the habit and characters of this plant are very remote from 
Coriandrum. 

2. S. angustifolimn. Narrow-leaved Water-parsnep. 

Leaves pinnate; leaflets unequally lobed and serrated. Um- 
bels stalked, opposite to the leaves. Stem erect. 

S. angustifolium. Linn.Sp.Pl.\^72. IVilld. v. ]. 143 \. Fl.Br.3l3. 
Engl. Bot. V. 2. t. 139. Hook. Lond fasc. 2. ^.111. Scot. 90, 
Jacq. Austr. i. ^7. Ehrh. PI Off. 413. 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Slum. 57 

S. nodiflorum. Fl.Dan. t. 247. 

S. erectum. Huds.ed. 1. 103. 

S. n. 77S. Hall. Hist. V. 1.346. 

S. sive Apium palustre foliis oblongis. Bauh. Pin. 154. Rail 

Syn. 211. 
S. minus. Riv. Peniap. Irr. t.79. 
S. verum Matthioli. Dalech. Hist. 1092./. 

In ditches and rivulets, not uncommon. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root creeping extensively. Whole plant about half the size of the 
foregoing. Stem round, striated,, smooth, erect, much branched, 
hollow. Leaves simply pinnate ; leaflets seosile ; those of the 
lower leaves ovate, strongly serrated ; of the upper lanceolate, 
pointed, deeply and unequally cut, partly hastate, all very 
smooth. Umbels on lateral stalks, generally shorter than the 
leaves to which they are opposite, each of many general and par- 
tial rays, Bracteas general as well as partial reflexed, leafy, 
unequal, lanceolate, undivided, cut, or sharply 3-lobed. Cal. of 
5 minute teeth. Petals white, very slightly irregular in the 
outermost flowers. Styles more tumid at the base than the 
former, and almost ovate in that part j at length reflexed in 
their upper half, with obtuse stigmas. Fruit roundish-ovate, 
short; with 3 dorsal, not very prominent ribs, and 2 remote la- 
teral ones, to each seed. 

3. S. jiodijlorum. Procumbent Water-parsnep. 

Leaves pinnate ; leaflets ovate, equally serrated. Umbels 
nearly sessile, opposite to the leaves. Stem procumbent. 

S. nodiflorum. Linn. Sp. Pl.2>6\. UWd. v. \. 1432. Fl. Brit.3\3. 

Engl. Bot. V. 9. t. 639. fVoodv. Med. Bot. t. 182. Hook. Scot. 90. 
S. umbellatum repens. Ger. Em. 256, 258. rt.3j excluding the 

reference to Dalech. Hist. Lugd. 1092. Raii Syn. 211. 
S. aquaticum procumbens, ad alas floridum, Moris, v. 3. 283. sect, 

9./. 5./. 3. 
Creeping M'ater-parsnep. Pet. H. Brit. t. 26. f. 3. 

In ditches and rivulets frequent. 

Perennial. JuUjy August. 

Smaller than the last. Root creeping. Stems ])rocumbcnt or float- 
ing, often creeping, various in length, branched, round, hollow, 
striated. Lmves distant, each of 2 or 3 pair, with an odd one, 
of ovate, serrated, not deeply cut, lea/icfs ; the terminal one 
sometimes confluent with the two next. Foot-stalks with a 
broad membranous border. Umbels on very short stalks oppo- 
site to the leaves, eacii of about 5, 6, or 7 general rays ; the 
partial umbels of more numerous, sliort and slender ones. Ge- 
neral bracteas solitary, or more frequently wanting ; juirtial 
•cveral, ovate, concave, white witli green ribt^. Fl. small, green- 



58 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Sium. 

ish white. Cal. very short. Pet. ovate, slightly inflexed, and 
scarcely heart-shaped. Fruit like the last, but with rather more 
prominent and sharper ribs. 
The juice of this herb is recommended in cutaneous disorders. 
Tliree large spoonfuls are given, mixed with milk, twice a day. 

4. S. repens. Creeping Water-parsnep. 

Leaves pinnate ; leaflets roundish, deeply toothed. Umbels 
stalked, opposite to the leaves. Stem creeping. 

5. repens. Lmn. S?//)pZ. 181. Willd. Sp.Vl.v.\.\\Z1. Fl.Br.3\4. 
Engl. Bof. V. 20. t. 1431. Hook. Scot. 90. Relh. 1 14. Sibth. 97 
Abbot 63. Jacq. Austr. t. 260. Fl. Dan. t. 1514. 

In boggy meadows, or on watery commons. 

On Bullington Green and Cowley Bottom, near Oxford. Sibthorp. 
On Coldham Common, Cambridgeshire. Relhau. On Golding- 
ton Green, and Stevington Bogs. Abbot. At Fisher-row, and 
on Guillon Links, near Edinburgh. Dr. Hope ; confirmed by 
Mr. J. T. Mackay. 

Perennial. August. 

Still smaller than the last-described, with several slender, quite 
prostrate, creeping stems. Leaves scattered, stalked, erect j 
leaflets from 3 or 5 to 11, roundish or wedge-shaped, coarsely 
toothed, the odd one generally 3-lobed. Foot-stalks bordered at 
the base with a pointed membrane. Umbels opposite to the 
leaves, on stalks of various lengths ; their general rays from 3 
to 6, unequal^ partial rays numerous. Bracteas lanceolate} 
the general as well as partial ones from 4 to 6. Fl white, 
partly abortive. Cal. obsolete. Pet. obovate, incurved. Styles 
permanent, short, spreading horizontally. Fruit nearly orbicular, 
dark brown, small, each seed with 5 equidistant, prominent, pale 
ribs, exactly as in >S. latifoliuni. 

5. S. inundatum. Least Water-parsnep. 

Leaves pinnate, cut; the lowermost in many compound 

capillary segments. Umbels five-flowered, in pairs. 
S. inundatum. Wiggers Holsat. 24. Roth Germ. v. 2. p. 1. 336. 
S. n.780. Hall. Hist. V. 1.346. 
S. pusillum, foliis variis. Raii Syn.2\2. 

S. minimum, foliis imis ferulaceis. Moris, v. 3. 2S3. sect. 9. t. j.f.o. 
S. minimum umbellatum, foliis variis. Pluk. Phyt. i. 61./. 3. 
Least Water-parsnep. Pet.H. Brit. t. 26. f. 4. 
Sison inundatum. Linn. Sp. PL 363. Willd. v.\.\437. Engl Bof. 

t. 227. Hook. Scot.9\. Fl. Dan. t. 89. 
Hydrocotyle inundata. Fl. Br. 290. 
Meum inundatum. Spreng. Sp. Umb. 114. 
In ditches, pools^ and wet ground overflowed in winter. 



PENTANDRIA—DIGYNIA. Sium. 59 

Perennial ? May. 

Root creeping. Stems procumbent or floating, branched, round, 
leafy, throwing out fibrous radicles. Leaves on dilated clasping 
footstalks, alternate, oblong ; those above water simply pinnate, 
with 5 or 7 wedge-shaped, 3-cleft or pinnatifid, somewhat suc- 
culent, leaflets ; the immersed ones twice or thrice compound, 
and capillary. Flower-stalks opposite to the leaves, and nearly 
as long, each bearing a pair of stalked distant umbels, of ojloivers, 
with 4 or 5 unequal partial hracteas, but no general ones. Fl. 
white, all perfect and prolific. Cal. hardly discernible. Pet. 
ovate, slightly incurved. Styles very short, spreading, perma- 
nent, but not elongated after the flowering, nor is the floral re- 
ceptacle enlarged. Fruit brown, somewhat elliptical, a little 
compressed. Seeds each with 5 prominent equidistant ribs, with 
3 slender intermediate ones. 

According to Linnaean principles, founded on the inflorescence, this 
plant should belong to Hydrocotyle ; but its habit and seeds are 
surely those of a Sium. With Sison it has no connexion. Spren- 
gel says it would be a Sium, had it general hracteas. 

6. S. verticillatum. Whorled Water-parsnep. 

Leaflets in numerous, linear, almost capillary, whorled seg- 
ments. 

S. verticillatum. Lamarck Fr. v. 3. 460. Roth. Germ. v. 2. 336. 

''DeCand.Fr.v. 4.202." Fl. Br. 314. Spreng. Sp. Umb. \0\. 
Sison verticillatum. Linn. Sp. Pl.363. fVilld. v. I. 1437. Engl. Bot. 

V. 6. ^.395. Huds. 120. Lightf. 1096. ^.35. Hook. Scot. 90. 
Daucus pratensis, millefolii palustris folio. Bauh. Pin. 150. 
D. pratensis. Dalech. Hist. 718./. 
OEnanthe millefolii palustris folio. Moris, v. 3. 289. sect. 9. t. 7. 

/.lO. 

In salt marshes. 

Plentiful in the western parts of Scotland andWales. Huds. Lightf. 
Near Lane bridge, Killarney -, and between Bantry Bay and 
the river of Kenmare, Ireland, 3Ir. J. T. Mackay. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Roots fleshy, spindle-shaped, aggregate. Stem solitary, 12 or 18 
inches high, erect, round, striated, almost naked j slightly sub- 
divided, or corymbose, at the toj). Leaves chiefly radical, with 
short sheathing /bo/s^r//A".9, pinnate, with numerous pairs of ses- 
sile leaflets, each deeply cut into many narrow linear segments, 
which spread so as to form a series of whorls. Umbels few, 
terminal, of many general and partial rays, (iencral Brartras 
about six, short, ovate ; partial lanceolate, rather more nume- 
rous, /7.co])ious, white, with j)urj)lish anthers. Cal. very small, 
acute. Pet. inversely heart-shaped, partly pointed, iV//// ovate, 
crowned with the short rcflexcd styles, which arc tumid at the 



60 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Sison. 

base. Seeds each with 5 equidistant, prominent, pale ribs. Some 
Jlowers are abortive. 
The seeds are slightly, not agreeably, aromatic. There can be no 
doubt of the genus of this plant. 

148. SISON. Honewort. 

Linn. Gen. 131). Juss. 22\. F/. Br. 315. 

FL all uniform, perfect, and regular. Cal. obsolete, or 
bluntly toothed. Pet. equal, elliptic-lanceolate, or in- 
versely heart-shaped, with an involute point. Filam. 
thread -shaped, spreading, about as long as the corolla. 
AntJi. roundish. Germ, inferior, ovate, striated. Styles 
very short and thick, each with a very large, tumid, 
sometimes depressed, base, permanent. Stigmas obtuse, 
distant. Fruit ovate, or nearly orbicular, compressed, 
crowned with the permanent unaltered styles, without 
Sinyjloral receptacle. Seeds convex, with 3 dorsal ribs. 

Annual or biennial herbs, found in a chalky soil. Stems 
slender, round, rigid, tough, much branched. Leaves 
pinnate, sharply notched. Umbels terminal, numerous, 
unequal and irregular. Bracteas few, small, and narrow. 
FL white or reddish, small. Seeds pungent, nauseous. 

1. ^, Ainomum. Hedge Honewort. Bastard Stone- 
parsley. 

Leaves pinnate ; the upper ones ternate. Umbels erect, of 
about four general rays. Bases of the styles globose. 

S. Amomum. Linn. Sp.Pl. 362. Willd. v. 1. 1436. FL Br. 315, 
Engl. Bot. V. 14. t. 954. Jacq. Hort. Find. v. 3. t. 17. 

S. sive officinarum Amomum. Bauli. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 107. f. 

S. quod Amomum officinis nostris. Bauh. Pin. 154. Moris, v. 3. 
283. sect. 9. t.5.f.7. 

S. seu PetroseUnum macedonicum Dodonsei. Dalech. Hist. 709. f. 

Slum aromaticum, Sison Off. Raii Syn. 211. 

Petroselinum. Fuchs. Hist.Qoi. t.Gdo. 

P. macedonicum Fuchsii. Dod. Pempt. 697. f. Ger. Em. 1016./. 

Amomum germanicum. Trag. Hist. 461. f. 

In marly or chalky, rather moist, ground, under hedges. 

Annual, or Biennial. August. 

Root tapering, with many lateral fibres. Stem about a yard high, 
erect, with numerous, alternate, rigid, wiry branches, a little zig- 
zag, smooth. Leaves dark green, smooth, pinnate ; the odd 
leafietlobed j all somewhat ovate, deeply cut and serrated -, those 
of the upper leaves narrower, sharper, more divided, 3-lobed, 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. SIson. 61 

often pinnatifid. Umbels numerous, terminal, solitary, erect 
when in flower, each of about 4 unequal rays, the middle one 
shortest; partial ones aho of few and unequal rays. General 
Bracteas from 2 to 4, lanceolate, small and slender ; partial four, 
still smaller. Fl. cream-coloured, all nearly exactly regular, 
and fertile. Cat. scarcely discernible. Pet. inversely heart- 
shaped, with an incurved point. Fruit roundish-ovate, broad, 
short, moderately compressed. Seeds half-ovate, each with 3 
dorsal, not very prominent, ribs, at a distance from the border. 
Nojloral receptacle is, at any period, visible, but the large glo- 
bose bases of the strjles occupy all the sum.mit of the germen and 
fruit; the styles themselves being very short, or hardly any, with 
blunt, spreading, permanent stigmas. 
The dry seeds are pungent and aromatic ; but in an early state 
they have, like the whole herb, a peculiar nauseous scent when 
bruised, resembling that of Bugs. 

2. S. segetuYii. Corn Honevvort. 

Leaves pinnate; leaflets roundish-ovate, numerous. Umbels 
drooping, irregularly aggregate. Bases of the styles di- 
lated, depressed. 

S. segetum. Linn. Sp. PL 362. Willd. v. 1. 1436. Fl. Br.3\Q. 

Engl. Bot. v.A. t. 228. Hook. Scot. 9 1 . Jacq. Hort. Vind. v. 2. 

t. 134. 
Slum n. 779. Hall. Hist. v. 1.340. 
S. arvense, sive segetum. Rail Syn.2\\. 
S. terrestre, umbellis rarioribus. Moris, v. 3. 283. sect. 9. t.5.f. 6. 

bad. 
Sehnum Sii foliis. Goody er in Ger. Em. 1018./. not good. 

In rather moist fields, on a calcareous soil. 

About Mapledurham, Hants. Goodyer. At Bin ham, Norfolk. Mr. 
Crowe. Near Kelmarsh, Northamptonshire. Mr. Hanhury. At 
Walthamstow. Mr. Forster. Found by Dr. Walker, in the Scot- 
tish island of Tirey (orTiree). Hooker. 

Annual, or often Biennial. August. 

Root tapering, small, very tough. Stems spreading in every di- 
rection, \2 or 18 inches high, branched, round, striated, rushy, 
somewhat leafy. Leaves chiefly radical, long, narrow, on long 
footstalks; leapts 8 or 9 pair, besides the terminal one, which is 
often 3-lobed', all sessile, ovate or heart-shajicd, smooth, serrated, 
cut, and ])artly lobed, of a ])ale or greyisli green. General Um- 
bels very imperfectly formed, with a few narrow, often very long, 
general bracteas ; partial umbels irregularly asseml)led, drooping, 
each of a few extremely unequal rays, with 1 or f) lanceolate, or 
uwl-shaped, partial bracteas. Fl. regular, flesh-coloured, or 
white. Cal of T) minute, blunt, permanent leaves, i'e/. ovate, 
i^trongly involute. Styhn extremely short, each with a broad. 



62 PENTANDRIA-DIGYNIA. Cicuta, 

pale, depressed base, subsequently still more dilated, and crown- 
ing the oblong-ovate /rwi^, being tipped with the scarcely elon- 
gated styles and spreading blunt stigmas. Seeds oblong, strongly 
ribbed, with small intermediate ribs alternate with the 3 princi- 
pal ones. 

The whole herb is slightly aromatic ; the seeds more pungent. 

I have been anxious to preserve the natural genus of Sison, which 
Linnaeus had the skill to detect, and, according to his principles, 
to define. The fructification accurately examined will, I trust, 
suffice to distinguish it ; if not, the first species must be removed 
to Slum, where many authors have placed it, and with the se 
cond species of which, angustifulium, its fruit too nearly accords 
unless that species should be made a Sison, which is not advisa- 
ble. In either case Slson segetuin must remain -, and, if I mis- 
take not, the exotic .S'. Ammi, whose seeds likewise have inter- 
mediate ribs. 

149. CICUTA. Cowbane. 

Linn. Gen. 141. Fl. Br. 322. Spreng. Prodr. 19. 
Cicutaria. Juss. 22\. Lam. t. 195. 

FL uniform, perfect, and nearly regular. Cnl. superior, of 
5 broad, acute, somewhat unequal, permanent leaves. 
Pet. 5, ovate, or slightly heart-shaped, with an incurved 
point, all nearly equal. Filam. thread-shaped, spreading, 
about as long as the corolla. Anth. roundish. Germ, in- 
ferior, hemispherical, compressed, ribbed. Styles thread- 
shaped, short, erect, scarcely tumid at the base ; subse- 
quently elongated, spreading, and permanent. Stigmas ob- 
tuse, almost capitate. Floral Receptacle depressed, wither- 
ing. Fruit nearly orbicular, heart-shaped at the base, a 
little compressed, crowned with the permanent calyx con= 
cealing the fl. receptacle, and with the recurved elongated 
styles. Seeds hemispherical, tumid, each wuth 3 double 
dorsal ribs ; their juncture contracted. 

Perennial, fetid, poisonous, aquatic herbs. Leaves once or 
twice ternate, sharply serrated, pointed, smooth. Umbels 
lateral and terminal, large, with numerous general and 
partial rays. Bracteas linear ; the general ones few, or 
none. FL numerous, white. Fruit rather small. 

1. C vit'osa. Water Cowbane. Water Hemlock. 

Leaves twice ternate ; leaflets linear-lanceolate, decurrent. 

C.virosa. Linn. Sp. PI. 366. Willd.v.l. 1445. FLBr.322. Engl 
Bot. V. 7. ^.479. Woodv. Suppl. t.26S. Hook. Scot. 92. Fl.Dan. 
t. 208. Gunn. Norveg. p. 1, 26. /. 2. 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. yEthusa. 63 

C. aquatica Gesneri. Bauh, Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 175./, 

Cicutaria. Riv. Pentap. In\ t.77. 

Coriandrum Cicuta. Roth Germ. v. 1. 130. v. 2. p. 1. 347. 

Slum n. 781. Hall. Hist. v. 1.34G. 

S. alterum, olusatri facie. Ger. Em. 256./. Loh. Ic. 208./. Raii 

Sijn. 2\2. 
S. aquaticum, foliis multifidis longis serratis. Moris, v. 3. 283. 

sect. 9. t.D.f. 4. 
S. erucse folio. Bauh. Pin. 154. Dalech. Hist. 1094./ 

In ditches, and about the margins of rivers, not very common. 

Perennial. August. 

Root tuberous, hollow, with many whorled fibres, and several trans- 
verse internal partitions. Stem 2 or 3 feet high, hollow, leafy, 
branched, furrowed, smooth. Leaves on long footstalks, twice 
ternate, bright green ; lea/lets sharply and deeply serrated, ta- 
pering at each end, from 1 to 2 inches long, more or less re- 
markably decurrent j those of the upper leaves very narrow. 
Umbels large, many-rayed, stalked, partly terminal, ])artly op- 
posite to the leaves J partial ones of very numerous slender rays. 
General Bracteas very narrow, seldom more than 1 or 2, and for 
the most part entirely wanting ; partial several, narrow, taper- 
pointed, unequal. Jnth. and sti/les purplish. Fruit roundish, 
with a sinus at the base, smooth. Styles bowed, recurved, as 
long as the fruit, their bases finally a little tumid, and confluent 
with the receptacle. Seeds flattened at the sides ; convex at the 
back, and marked with 3 prominent double ribs, which aflbrd an 
excellent generic character hitherto unnoticed. The habit in- 
deed, and the ternate leaves, which forbid our reducing this plant 
to Sium, might well lead us to expect some essential mark of 
difl"erence in the fructification. I have not seen the fruit of C, 7«rt- 
culaia, nor of C. bulhifera. 

C. virosa is a very fatal plant to horned cattle, if they happen to 
meet with it before it rises out of the water, in which state only 
they will eat the young leaves. The whole herb is reported to 
be poisonous also to other quadrupeds, as well as to mankind, 
producing sudden inflammation in tlie stomach. See Engl. But. 
Bulliard's t. 151 is certainly not our Cicuta, but may, possibly, 
represent Angelica sf/lvestris. 

150. yETHUSA. FooFs-parsIey. 

Linn. Gen. \\\. Juss. 220. Fl.Br.323. Lam.t.]OG. Gwrtn. 
t.22. 

77. all perfect ; the inar<rlnal ones a little irrooiilar. CoL 
superior, of 5 very minute, j)ointed, sj)rcaclin<i[ leaves, 
often scarcely discernible. Fcf. 5, inversely heart-shaped, 
d(vply lobcd, willi an acute inflexcd point: tin- outermost 



64 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. ^thusa. 

ratlier the largest. Filam. thread-shaped, horizontal, 
shorter than the corolla. AntJi. roundish. Germ, inferior, 
ovate, deeply furrov/ed, rather pointed. Styles short, 
spreading, tumid and ovate at the base; subsequently re- 
flexed, scarcely elongated. Stigmas obtuse. Fruit ovate, 
crowned by the closely reflexed permanent styles, without 
any \is\h\e Jioral receptacle. Seeds ovate, moderately con- 
vex, with 5 tumid, rounded, acutely keeled, ribs, and 
deep acutangular interstices; their inner surfaces dilated, 
flat, marked vrith a pair of coloured longitudinal lines, 
and closely pressed together. 
Annual herbs, fetid and poisonous, scarcely aromatic. Stem 
branched, erect. Leaves repeatedly ternate, pinnatifid. 
Umbels terminal, stalked, of many unequal rays, both 
general and partial. General Bracteas none ; partial 
from 3 to 5, narrow, unilateral, pendulous. Fl. here and 
there abortive. 

1. M. Cynapium. Common Fool's-parsley. Lesser 
Hemlock. 

Leaves uniform ; leaflets wedge-shaped, decurrent, with lan- 
ceolate segments. 

iE. Cynapium. Lmn. Sp. PL 367. WiUd. v. 1 . 1446. FL Br. 323. 

EtigL Bot. V. 17. f. 1192. Curt. Lond.fasc. 1. t. 18. Hook. Scot. 

92. BulLFr. f. 91. 
iE. n. 7(^').. HalL Hist. v. 1. 336. 

Coriandrum Cynapium. Roth Germ. v. 1. 130. v. 2. p. 1.346. 
Cynapium. Blv. Pentap. Irr. t. 76. 
Cicutaria tenuifolia. Rail Sijn. 215. Ger.Em.l063.f. 
C. apii folio. Bauh.Hist.v.'i. p. 2. 180./. 
C. fatua. Lo6.Ic.r. 2.280./. 
Cicuta minor, petroselino similis. Bauh. Pin. 1 60. Moris, r.3.290. 

sect. 9. t.7.f.2. 

In gardens and cultivated fields, a common weed. 

Annual. Julijy August. 

Root tapering, whitish. Herb erect, of a dark lurid green, fetid and 
reckoned dangerous. Stem round, striated, leafy, often purplish, 
a foot high. Leaves with short sheathing /oo^s^a/A:^, all doubly 
pinnate, with decurrent, pinnatifid leaflets. Umbels stalked, ter- 
minal, spreading and flattish, distinguishable at first sight by 
their long, narrow, pendulous partial bracteas, and the want of 
general ones. Fl. pure white, rarely partially abortive. Fruit 
pale brown. 

Great ignorance and carelessness can alone cause this weed to be 
mistaken for the Garden Parsley ; yet such an accident some- 



PENTANDRIA-— DIGYNIA. Conium, 65 

times happens. The few long pendulous bracteas, under each 
purtial umbel, distinguish it from all its tribe. Dr. Bigelow of 
Boston in New England observed this Mthusa to be without 
scent in America ; but seeds transmitted by him produced plants 
with the same nauseous garlick flavour as those of Great Britain. 
Some curious fiicts of a similar nature have been observed. The 
flowers of Hesperis matronalis, as I have heard, lose their scent 
in America after the first generation. 

151. CONIUiM. Hemlock. 

Linn. Gen. 132. F/. Z?r. 302. Spreng. Prodr.3S. 

Cicuta. Juss. 223. Tourn.t.lGO. Lam. t. [95. Gcertn.t. 22. 

Fl. all perfect, slightly irregular. Cal. obsolete. Pet. 5, 
inversely heart-shaped, with an acute inflexed point; the 
outermost rather the largest. Filam. capillary, scarcely 
so long as the corolla. Anth. roundish. Germ, ovate, 
somewhat compressed, furrowed, wrinkled. Styles thread- 
shaped, elongated, spreading, a httle swelled at the base, 
proceeding from the dilated, depressed, wavy, permanent 
Jloral receptacle. Stigmas obtuse. Fruit ovate, slightly 
compressed, with 10 prominent, acute ribs, wavy in an 
unripe state, crowned with the dilated undulated Jl. re- 
ceptacle^ and the shortish, permanent, spreading styles. 
Seeds half-ovate, tumid, each with 5 prominent acute ribs, 
becoming finally straight and even ; the interstices flat. 

Herbaceous, fetid, witli a branched hollow stem. Leaves 
repeatedly compound. Umbels numerous, terminal, of 
many general^ as well as partial, rays. General bracteas 
several, short, ovate, unequal, reflexed; partial 3, narrow, 
short, unilateral, spreading. 

1. C. inaculatina. Common Hemlock. 
Stem polished and s}-)otted, much branched. 

C. maculatum. L'mn. Sp. PL 349. mild. v. 1. 1395. Fl. Br. 302. 

Engl. Bof. r. 17. /. II 91 . Curt. Loml. fuse. \.t.\ 7. ffoodv. Med. 

Bot. t. 22. Hook. Scot. 88. Jacq. Aixstr. M 5G. Bull. Fr. t. 53. 

Bigel.Am.Mcd.Bot. t.W. 
l^ojveiov. Fuchs. Hist. 405. t.40C). Bauh. Pin. \60. 
Cicuta. Rail Syn. 215. Ger. Em. ]06\ . f. Lob. Ic. 732./. Biv. 

Pentap. Irr. t. 75. Matth. I'al^r. v. 2. 443./. Camer. Epit. 839./. 

Dod. Pcmpt.ACA. f. 
C. n. 76(3. Flail. Hist. r. 1.337. 
C. major. Pauh. Pin. KiO. .Mnri.<i. v. 3. 290. 
Coriandruin Cicuta. Crantz. Auslr. fasc.3. 100. 
C. macuh^lum. Roth Gcrtu. v. 1 . 130. r. 2. p. 1 . 348. 

VOL. ir. r 



66 PENTANDIIIA-— DIGYNIA. Coriaiidrum. 

In hedges and waste ground, especially near towns and villages, 
frequent. 

Biennial. June, July. 

Root tap-shaped, whitish, fleshy. Stem from 3 to 5 feet high, erect, 
round, hollow, glaucous, polished, copiously spotted with pur- 
ple ; remaining long bleaching in the hedges through the au- 
tumnal months. Leaves large and repeatedly compound j leaf- 
lets ovate, closely and shar]% pinnatifid, of a deep shining green, 
and not unhandsome ; on long furrowed/oo^s^rt/A-5, sheathing at 
the base. Umbels terminal, very numerous, erect, compound, 
occasionally attended by 1 or 2 simple axillary ones, as in Engl. 
Bot. ; all many-rayed and smooth. General Bracteas with mem- 
branous edges. FL numerous, white, all prolific ; the outer- 
most very slightly irregular. Fruit abundant, at all periods of 
growth sufficiently crisped, in some part or other, to show the 
generic character. 

The herbage is fetid, narcotic and sedative, much used, in the form 
of an extract, for lowering the pulse in acute inflammatory dis- 
orders ; and still more celebrated for relieving scrofulous and 
cancerous maladies, Haller has collected every thing that has 
been said on this subject, as to the external as well as internal 
application of Hemlock. Those who are interested, should be 
careful to have the right plant 3 and not, as is frequently the case, 
some inactive, or perhaps too potent and dangerous, herb of the 
same tribe, in its stead. 



152. CORIANDRUM. Coriander. 

Linn. Gen. \A2. Juss. 220. FL Br. '320. Spreng. Prodr. 21. Tourn. 
t. 168. Lam. t. 196. Gcerfn. t.22. 

P/. all perfect; the outermost very irregular, prolific; the 
innermost regular, abortive. Cal. superior, of 5 broad, 
acute, unequal, permanent, withering leaves. Pet, 5, in- 
versely heart-shaped, with an inflexed point; those of the 
innermost flowers nearly equal and regular ; of the mar- 
ginal ones irregular; the 2 inner ones equal, deeply 
lobed ; 2 next with 2 very unequal lobes ; the odd one 
with 2 very large, equal, obovate lobes. Filam. thread- 
.shaped, spreading, as long as the smaller petals. Aiit/u 
roundish. Germ.\i single or double globe, smooth. Stales 
thread-shaped, spreading, each in length equal to the 
diameter of the fruit, their bases conical, tapering. Stig- 
7nas small, obtuse. Floral Receptacle none. Fruit a single 
or double globe, crowned with the wide-spreading styles 
and withered calyx, smooth, without ribs. Seeds semi- 
orbicular, concave. 



PENTANDRIA—DIGYXIA. CoiIaiKlrum. 67 

Annual, slender, branched Jicrhs^ with dou})ly pinnate, cut 
leaves, the u})per ones having very narrow segments. 
Umbels lateral and terminal ; general rays few ; imrtial 
more numerous. General Bracteas almost entirely want- 
ing; partial about 3, linear-lanceolate, unilateral. FL 
radiant, white or flesh-coloured. Recent i)lant, when 
bruised, odiously fetid, in every })art, though the ripe 
seeds, in our British species, are agreeably aromatic, and 
not unwholesome. The exotic one differs so widely in 
its fruit, which is a double globe, that nothing can be 
more difficult than to include both species in'onc descri}:>- 
tion, or definition, of that ]iart. Yet nothing ought to 
se])arate generically plants so closely and peculiarly allied 
in every other j^articulai". The bracteas vary. The corolla 
is radiant in both, though Linnrous reports otherwise. 

* 1 . C. sativum. Coiiinion Coriander. 

The two hemispherical seeds making one uniform globe. 
Leaflets of the lower leaves wedge-shaped. 

C. sativum. Linn. Sp. P!. 3fi7. mild. r. 1. 1448. f7. Br. 320. 

Etigl. Bot. V. 1 . t 67. Fl. Grcec. r..3. 76. t. 283. li'oodv. Med. 

Bot. t. 181. Mart. Rust. ^ 141. Dalech. Hist. 733./. Ehrh. Fl. 

Off. 302. 
C. 11. 76A. Jlall.in^t.v. 1.335. 

C, majus. Banli. Fin. 1 j8. Riv. Pcntap. Irr. t.7\. Moris, v. 3. 2C9. 
Coriandrum. Raii Si/n. 221 . Brunf. Herb. v. 1 . 203. /. Trag. HisL 

1 15. f. Fuchs. Hist. 345. /'. Matfh. Val<rr. v. 2. 121 . /'. Camer. 

Epit". b23,f. Ger. Em. 1012. f. Riv. Fentap. Irr. t. 70. Bauh. 

Hi^t.v.3.p.2.S9.f. 

In fields and on dunghills ; not really wild. 

About Ij)swich, and in Home parts of Essex. 

Annuid. Jiuie. 

Root taj)erinp^. Slew erect, 12 or 18 inches hi^h, more or less 
branched, leafy, round, striated. Lenvrs .«;carccly stalked, all 
bipinnate and cut : the lea/tcts of some of the lowermost wcdjj^e- 
shaped,()r fan-shaped ; acutely notched ; of the rest in fine linear 
segments. Umbels .stalked, of 4 or 5 ^cncrrd raifs, rarely more ; 
the partial rai/s more numerous. Fl. white, often with a reddish 
tint. ^Fruit pale brown, somewhat coriaceous. Seeds striated 
and convex at the hack ; concave within. 

There are probably two more species of this genus, obscurely in- 
dicated by J. liauhin and other old writers, whose synonyms 
require investigation. ('. sylvcstrc, which name it is desirable 
to retain, is well (igured in his work. 1 have gathered it near 
Verona, but witii unri|)e s^xds, nor is tlie structure of its /n^l/ 
any where explained. 

r 2 



G3 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. CEnanthe. 



153. CENANTHE. Water-dropwort. 

Linn. Gen. }40. Juss. 22\. Fl.Br.3l7. Spreng.Prodr.37. Toum. 

t.166. Lam. t. 203. G(Ertn.t.22. 
Phellandrium. Linn. Gen. \4d. Juss. 221. Fl. Br. 321. Toum. 

t.iei. 

Fl» more or less completely separated, or partially imperfect; 
the outermost very irregular, abortive; the innermost 
smaller, regular, and prolific. Cal. superior, of 5 large, 
lanceolate, acute, somewhat unequal, permanent leaves. 
Pet. 5, inversely heart-shaped, with inflexed points ; in 
the fertile flowers nearly equal ; in those of the circum- 
ference very unequal, but with equal lobes in each petal. 
Filam. thread-shaped, longer than the corolla. Aiith. in- 
cumbent, small, roundish. Germcii inferior, ovate-oblong, 
furrowed. Styles awl-shaped, slender, tumid at the base; 
in the barren fl. short and imperfect, with a greatly dilated 
or depressed base, in the place of \heJIoral receptacle. Stig- 
mas small, obtuse, recurved. Fruit oblong, or somewhat 
ovate, obtuse, with a corky bark, and 3 or 5 tumid, un- 
equal, rounded ribs, w4th narrow, deep, intermediate fur- 
rows, in some species intermediate ribs; the summit 
crowned with the permanent calyx, and rigid, elongated, 
somewhat spreading, styles. Seeds ovate, with a light, 
furrowed, more or less spongy, bark. 

Perennial, or biennial, fetid, often poisonous, aquatic herhs^ 
with roundish, furrowed, branched, leafy, often hollow 
and tumid, stems, and compound, much-divided leaves. 
Umbels various, rather clumsy ; partial ones dense, finally 
spherical, of very numerous rays, extremely short in the 
disk. General Bracteas linear, in some cases numerous, 
in others entirely wanting; partial numerous, narrow. 
Cal, green, conspicuous in every stage of growth. Fl. 
white, or pale purplish. 

1. CE.j^stulosa. Common Water-dropwort. 

Root sending forth runners. Stem-leaves pinnate, cylin- 
drical, tubular. General bracteas mostly wanting. 

OE. fistulosa. Limi. Sp. PL 365. WiUd. u. 1 . 1140. Fl. Br. 317. 
Eyigl. Bot. V. 6. t. 363. Hook. Scot. 91. FL Dan. t. 846. 

CE. n. 755. HalL HisL v . \ . 33\ . 

CE. aquatica. Bauh.Pin. 162. Rail Syn. 210. 

CE. aquatica triflora, caulibus fistulosis. Moris, v. 3. 289. sect. 9. 
t.J.f.S. Rail Syn. 2]0. 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. CEuanthe. 69 

CEnanthe. Riv. Pentap. Irr. t. 66. 

CE. quarta. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 22 1 ./. Camer. Epit. 611./. 

CE. sive Filipendula aquatica. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 191./. 192, 

Filipendula aquatica. Ger. Em. 1 060./. 

Juncus odoratus aquatilis. Dod. Pempt. 590./. 

Water Dropwort. Pet. H. Brit. t. 25. f. 5 S^ 6, 

In ditches, ponds, and other watery places, common. 

Perennial. Juhj, August. 

Root tuberous, propagating itself by runners. Stems erect, rising 
2 or 3 feet above the water, round, hollow, tumid, striated, 
smooth, glaucous. Radical leaves under water, doubly pinnate, 
with flat, wedge-shaped, lobed leojlets; stem-leaves on long, 
tumid, sheathing stalks, hollow as well as their cylindrical com- 
pound leajiets. Umbels on long, hollow, lateral and terminal 
stalks, the lower ones of 3, the upper of several, general raijs, 
with rarely one or two, almost capillary, general hracteas. Par- 
tial umbel's of very numerous raijs, those of the disk short, bear- 
ing fertile ^oirer*- ; of the circumference still more abundant, 
and longer, bearing hc\.rren Jlowers, with rudiments only of styles. 
In fruit the partial umbels are globose, bristly with the long rigid 
st7jles, which are very little swelled at the base. Fruit turbinate, 
abrupt, with intermediate ribs, the principal ones not very pro- 
minent or turgid. 

The variety (3 of Hudson, and of Fl. Br., indicated by the figures of 
Morison, Dodonaeus, and Petiver's n. 6, differs very slightly in 
size only, and that merely accidentally. 

2. OE. pimpinelloides. Parsley Water-dropwort. 
Leaflets of the radical leaves wedge-shaped, cloven ; of the 

rest entire, flat, linear, elongated. General hracteas linear, 

numerous. 

CE. pimpinelloides. Linn. Sp. PI. 366. MVld. v. 1 . 1 -142. Fl. Br, 
318. Engl. Bat. v. 5. t. 347. Hook. Scot. 9 1 . Jacq. Austr. t. 394. 

CE. Staj)hylini folio aliquatenus accedens. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p 2. 
191./. RaiiSyn. 2\0. 

CE. apii folio. Bauli. Pin. 162. 

a=:. secunda. Matth. J'algr. v. 2. 219./. Camcr. Epit. 610./. 

CE. aquatica, pimpinellae saxifragse divisura nostras. Pluk. Aim. 
268. Phyt. t. 49./ 4, very bad. 

In salt marshes. 

At Quaplod, near Spalding, Lincolnsliire. Phikcnct. Near Aber, 

North Wales. Rev. Hugh Davics. Cambridgeshire. Rev. J. 

Hcmsted. On the cast of Dunbar ; also in (lalloway, tlie isle of 

Arran, and other parts of Scotland. Mr. ./. Mackay. Below 

Dumbarton. Mr. Hopkirk. 
Perennial. July. 
Root of several .slender, tapering, fleshy tubercles, int«Tini.xcd with 



70 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. CEnanlhe. 

fibres. Stem nearly cylindrical, liollovv, striated, leafy, slightly 
branched. Radical leaves doubly pinnate j their lecf/iets either 
elliptical and entire, or wedge-shaped with one or two notches; 
those of the stem for the most part simply pinnate, with long, 
linear, more or less acute, flat leajiets. Umbels terminal, of 
many general rays, with about an equal number of linear hrac- 
ieas. Partial umbels many-flowered, with still more numerous 
bracteas, as long as their rays. Fl. pale flesh-coloured, slightly 
radiant. Fruit more elliptical than in the foregoing, with shorter 
styles, and a smaller calyx. 

3. CE. jjeKcedaiiifolia, Sulphur-wort Water-drop- 

wort. 

Leaflets all linear. General bracteas none. Knobs of the 
root sessile, elliptical. 

CE. peucedanifolia. Pollich Falat. v. 1 . 289. <. 3. WiUd. Sp. PL v. 1 . 
1442. H. Br. 319. Engl. Bot. v. 5. t. 348. Sibth. 98. Abbot 64. 
CE. n. 756. Hall. Hist. r. 1.331. 
CE. angustifolia. Lob. Ic. 729./. 
CE. ano:ustifolia aquatica recta vulgaris, Moris, v. 3. 289. sect. 9. 

t.r.y.?. 

Filipendula angustifolia, Ger. Em. 1059./. 
Bolbocastanum foemina, Dalech. Hist. 773./. good. 

In fresh-water ditches and bogs. 

Near Bury, Mr. Matheir. About Bedford. Abbot. On the banks 
of the Isis beyond Ifley, and in peat bogs under Headington 
Wick copse, Oxfordshire. Sibth. 

Perennial. Jutie. 

Boot of several elli])tic-oblong, fleshy knobs, crowded together at 
the base of the thick, solid, upright stem, which is taller and 
firmer than the last. Leaflets of the radical leaves, as well as 
of all the rest, linear, narrow and acute. General umbels of 
from 3 to 7 stout rays, with scarcely ever any general bracteas ; 
partial ones dense, many-flowered, with short rays, and many 
lanceolate bracteas of the same length. Cat. erect, unequal. 
Fl. often reddish. Fruit large, tumid, deeply furrowed, forming 
globular heads, bristly with the long prominent styles. The mar- 
ginal j/?0MJe7\s are often vvithout stamens. 

The roots taste like the Garden Parsnep, but are probably danger- 
ous food ; yet these three species are not reckoned poisonous, 
though the'next is perhaps the most virulent of British plants. 

4. CE. crocata. Hemlock Water-dropwort. 

Leaflets all wedge-shaped, many-cleft, nearly uniform. Fruit 

linear-oblong, with slender intermediate ribs. 
CE. crocata. Linn. Sp. PL '365, Willd. r. 1. 1441. Fl Br. 319. 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. CEnanthe. 71 

Engl Bot, r. 33. t. 2313. PVoodv. suppl. t. 267. Hook. Scot. 92. 

DonH. Br. 1 ()0. Jacq. Hort. Vinci v. 3.32. f.55. Bull Fr. t 1 13. 
CE. cicutae facie Lobelii. Rail Syn. 210. 
CE. maxima, succo viroso, cicutse facie. Moris, v. 3. 288. sect. 9. 

t.7.f.2. 
CE. cicutae facie, succo viroso croceo. Lob. Ic. 720./. 
CE, succo viroso, cicutee facie Lobelio. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 193./. 
CE. tertia. Matth. Valgr.v. 2. 220./ 
Filipendula cicutae facie. Ger. Em. 1059./ 

In watery places, osier holts, and about the banks of rivers^ in va- 
rious parts of Great Britain. 

Perennial. July. 

Root of many fleshy knobs, abounding with an orange-coloured, 
fetid, very poisonous juice, such as exudes less plentifully from all 
parts of the herb, when wounded. Stem from 2 to 5 feet high, 
much branched, somewhat forked, leafy, round, furrowed, hol- 
low. Leaves of a dark shining green, doubly pinnate, with ge- 
nerally opposite, stalked, wedge-shaped, variously cut leajlets ; 
those of the lowermost leaves rather the broadest ,• all veiny and 
smooth. Umbels large, terminal, stalked, convex, of many gene- 
ral rays, and still more copious partial ones. General as well 
as partial bracteas various in number and shape, either linear 
and undivided, or dilated, and partially leafy. Fl white, or tinged 
with purple, very numerous and crowded, slightly radiant. Fruit 
very different from the last, being smaller, almost cylindrical, 
neatly and regularly striated, with 5 principal ribs to each seed, 
and 4 intermediate ones, ratlier more slender and acute. Cal 
off) rather small, acute, erect or incurved teeth. 

Brood mares, according to Sir Thomas Frankland, sometimes eat 
the root, and are poisoned by it, Ehret, the celebrated bota- 
nical draughtsman, experienced a giddiness from the scent of 
the herb, 

Os, prolifera of Linnaeus, Jacq. Hort. J'ind. v. 3. /. ^2, seems by 
the Linnaean herbarium a mere variety of this ; but Jacquin's 
figure of the seed, if correct, proves it essentially distinct, lie 
dearly represents .0 very prominent tumid angles, with deep 
furrows between. 

5. Qv Phcllandruun. Fine-leaved ^Vater-dropwort. 

Leaflets all uniform, with narrow, wed^-e-sliapcd, cut, di- 
varicated segments. Fruit ovate, widi five broad ribs, 
and narrow intermediate furrows. 

0">. Phellandrium. Spreng. Prodr. 37. 

CE. afpuitica. Lam. Diet. v. 4. 530. 

Phellaiulriuni aquaticum. Linn. Sp. P12GG. If'ilbl r. ]. \ II \. 77. 

Br. 32 1 . Kni:l. Hot. v. 10. t. (iS4. H'oodv. suppl t. 2(i(i. Hook. 

Scot. 92. Don H. Br. 161. BullFr. I. 147. Lhrh. VI Off. 24. 



79 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Crithmum. 

Ph. n. 757. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 332. 

Ph. vel Cicutaria aquatica quorundam. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 183. 

/ 184. Raii Sijn. 215. 
Phellandrium. Dod. Pempt. 591./. Riv. Pentap. Irr. t. (jb. Dalech. 

Hist. 1093./. 
Ligusticum Phellandrium. Craniz. Justr. fasc. 3. S4. Roth Germ. 

V. 1. 123. r. 2. p. 1.321. 
Cicutaria palustris. Ger. Em. 1063./ Lob. Ic. 735./ 
C. palustris tenuifolia. Bauh. Pin. 161. Moris, v. 3. 291. 

In rivers and ditches. 
Biennial, June, July. 

Root spindle-shaped, thick, with many whorled fibres. Stem 2 or 3 
feet high, hollow, stout, furrowed, half immersed in the water, very- 
bushy, with numerous, spreading, leafy branches. Leaves stalked, 
spreading, repeatedly pinnate, cut, with innumerable, fine, ex- 
panded, dark-green, shining, acute segments. L77i&e/s opposite 
to the leaves, on shortish tumid stalks, many-rayed, v^dthout 
any general bracteas. Partial umbels very dense, of numerous 
short rays, accompanied by many narrow, taper-pointed brac- 
teas. FL white, numerous ; the outer ones largest, and most 
irregular j the innermost more certainly prolific. Fr. ovate, ra- 
ther compressed, purplish, very smooth, crowned with the 
spreading' calyx, and rather short, permanent, slightly spread- 
ing, styles. Each seed has 5 broad, tumid, scarcely corky ribs, 
separated by narrow furrows, and agrees better with the usual 
character of CEnanthe than the last species, which nevertheless 
cannot be separated from the rest. 
Dr. Roth always writes the old name Phelandrium ; which agrees 
with an etymology I have hazarded in Rees's Cyclopaedia, v. 27, 
from (pr,XBw, to be treacherous, alluding to the poisonous nature 
of the plant. (pr^AAo^, cork, is not at all satisfactory. 

154. CRITPIMUM. Satr.pire. 

Linn. Gen. 134. Juss. 223. Fl. Br. 306. Tourn. t. 169. Lam. 

t. 197. 
Cachrys. Spreng. Prodr. 20. 

FL all regular, perfect, and prolific. Cal. superior, of 5 
small, broad, acute, inflexed, concave, permanent leaves. 
Pet. 5, equal, elliptical, acute, incurved, broad at the 
base. Filam. thread-shaped, spreading, as long as the 
corolla. A7ith. roundish. Germen inferior, elliptical, fur- 
rowed. Styles very short, and thick, each finally a little 
recurved, but never equalling in length its large, tumid, 
somewhat pyramidal, base. Stigmas obtuse. FL Becept. 
none. i^;wV elliplical, crowned with the permanent calyx 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Crithmum. 73 

and styles. Seeds elliptic-oblong, convex, with a thick 
coriaceous coat, each having 5 tumid, somewhat wrinkled, 
equidistant ribs, 2 of them marginal ; the interstices nar- 
row, flat. 

Perennial, somewhat fleshy, herbs. Leaves repeatedly ter- 
nate, with thick, acute, linear or lanceolate, entire leaflets. 
Umbels terminal, stalked, compound, many-rayed, with 
several, general and partial, bracteas. Fl. white. 

Our British Crithmum^ together with Cachrys Libanotis of 
Linnaeus, which is unquestionably of the same genus, 
constitutes the 2d section of Professor Sprengel's Cachrys. 
I think they are best kept separate, whatever may become 
o^ Cachrys siciila^ Linn, figured in Fl. Grcec. t. 278, which 
is nearly allied to them in genus, but the Jloxcers are yel- 
low, an important circumstance as to habit, and the seeds 
have very remarkably toothed wings. This fine plant 
ought perhaps to form a genus. The corky, smooth, 
turgid Jruit of a real Cachrys is essentially diflcrent from 
it, as well as from our Crithmum ; and I believe other 
marks of distinction will be found in \\\e Jlo^ers. The 
styles are long and slender, with a broad depressed base; 
the calyx scarcely any ; many of the j^Ooyt'rs imperfect, or 
abortive. The woolly seeds of some ought not, perhaps, 
to cause a generic separation ; but I do not presume here 
to decide this point, which does not concern the British 
Flora. 

1. C. marit'imum. Sea Sam})lre. 
Leaflets lanceolate, fleshy. Bracteas ovate. 

C. maritimum. Li/m. % P/. 35 1. fri/W. r. 1 . 1408. F/. i?;. 306. 

l\n^]. Bot. f. 12. ^819. Dicks. 11. Sice. fuse. 12. Ifi. Hoofc. 

Scot. 81). Jacq. Ilort. Vind. v. 2. 88. t. 187. 
C. inarinum. Had Syn. 217. Ger. Em. 53'.]./. 
C. primum. Matth. Vidgr. v. 1. 4-14./. Ccnncr. F.pit. 272. f. 
C. multis, sive Fcjcniculum maiinum. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 194./. 

nioris. V.3. 289. sect. 9. t. l.f. 1 . 
Foeniculum marinum, sive Empetrum, uut Calcifiaga. Loh. Ic. 

392. /: 
Ciethainus. Cord. Hist. 201. J. 
Creta marina. Lonic. Kreutcrh. 271. C./. 
Sampirc. Pet. H. Brit. ^ 24./. 8. 
On rocky sea shores and clifls, 
PenMinial. Aw^ust. 
Root branched, creeping extcMisivcly. Herb glaucon.s, smooth, 

fleshy, ^alt and pungcntly aromatic in flavour. Stuns about a 



74 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Smyrnlum. 

foot high, ascending-, round, leafy, but little branched. Leaves 
on slieathing footstalks, twice ternate ; leaflets uniform, above 
an inch long, lanceolate, acute, tapering at the base. Umbels 
dense, of many general and partial rays. Bracteashoih. general 
and partial numerous, alike in shape, ovate, acute, spreading, 
rather short. Fl. white, with yellowish anthers. Stjjles scarcely 
discernible in the flower, with a broad, wavy, depressed, white 
base to each, in the place of a^or«?rece7)/(7r/e, which afterwards 
becomes pyramidal, and the styles a little protruded and re- 
curved, crowning the fruit. 
The herb makes an old-fashioned English pickle, as those know 
who read Shakspeare's King Lear, and it is sold in the London 
shops ; but there are many plants generally preferred for the 
same purpose. See SalicorniajV. 1. 2. 

\dd. SMYRNIUM. Alexanders. 

Linn. Sp. PL \44. Ji(ss.2\9. Fl.Br.228. Touru. t.\68. Lam. 
t. 204. Gcertn. t. 22. 

F/. nearly uniform, and regular; the innermost barren, or 
abortive. Cal. of 5 very minute, acute, permanent leaves. 
FeL 5, equal, lanceolate, acute, incurved, in some inversely 
heart-shaped. Filcoii. capillary, as long as the corolla. 
Ant/i. roundish. Germen interior, ovate, angular and fur- 
rowed. Styles thread-shaped, widely spreading, tumid, 
and somewhat depressed, at the base. Stigmas simple. 
Fruit solid, somewhat orbicular, broader than long, much 
hollowed out at each side, crowned with the styles, or 
their small pyramidal bases. Fl. Recept. none. Seeds 
turgid, with 3 prominent acute ribs ; the interstices con- 
vex ; the jimcture more or less contracted. 

Biennial, smooth, shining, aromatic 7ie7-bs, with broad, twice 
or thrice ternate, leaves; yellowish- white, or yeWov/Jioivej-s, 
in compound umbels ; without any hraeteas. Fruit black. 

1. S. Olusatrum. Common Alexanders. 

Stem-leaves ternate, stalked, serrated. 

S. Olusatrum. Linn. Sp. PL 376. WilM. v. 1. 1467. FL Br. 328. 

Engl. Bot. V. 4. ^.230. Hook. Scot.dA. 
Smyrnium. Raii Syn. 20S. Mattli. Valgr. v. 2. 130. f. Camer. 

Epit. .530./. 
Hipposelinum. Ger. Em. 1019./. Dod. Pempt. 698. f. 
H.'sive Smyrnium vulgare. Moris, v. 3. 277. sect. 9. t.4.f. 1 . 
In waste ground, about antient ruins j often on rocks and cliffs 

near the sea. 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Apium. 75 

Biennial. Mat/. 

Root large, fleshy, branching downwards. Stem stout, leafy, 
branched, solid, deeply furrowed, 2 or 3 feet high. Lower leaves 
very large, twice ternate, stalked ; upper ternate, with a short, 
broad, concave, membranous, fringed,, ribbed stalk, clasping the 
stem ; all with very large, shining, ovate, cut and serrated 
leaflets. Umbels terminal, globular, of a pale greenish white, 
with very numerous general and partial rays, but no bracteas. 
Ft. small, extremely abundant and crowded, nearly uniform, 
slightly irregular. Fruit from those of the circumference, black, 
the size of a pea, much hollowed out at each side, when ripe 
almost a double globe, highly aromatic, but too strong and bit- 
ter to be pleasant, as is likewise the whole plant in a less de- 
gree 5 resembling Celery, which seems to have taken its place 
at modern tables. 



156. APIUM. Paisley. 

Linn. Gen. \-\(J. Juss. 2\9. Fl. Br. 333. Tourn. f. 160. Lam. 
t. 196. Gcertn. t.22. 

FL uniform, and nearly regular, almost all perfect and pro- 
lific. Cal. obsolete. Pet. 5, roundish, or obovate, with 
an inflexed point, all very nearly equal. Filam. thread- 
shaped, about as long as the corolla. Anth. roundish. 
Germ, inferior, almost orbicular, somewhat compressed. 
Styles at first shorter than the stamens, nearly erect; sub- 
sequently elongated, thread-shaped, reflexed ; greatly 
swelled at the base, and subtended by a thin, orbicular, 
' wavy Jloral receptacle. Stl<rmas obtuse. Fruit ovate or 
nearly orbicular, solid, slightly comju'essed, flattened at 
the sides, crowned with tlie withered fl. receptacle, and 
spreading styles. Seeds ovate, with 3 ncutc dorsal ribs, 
and 2 niarginal ones, meeting at the juncture, wliich is 
flat and the breadtli of the seeds; interstices flat and 
even. 

Biennial aromatic herbs, with broadish, cut leaves, and com- 
})ound umf)els of small greenish-white /7our;\s with or with- 
out bracteas. Of the only two known sjiecies, which are 
A. l*etroselinuui, (nirden Parsley, and .'/. f^raveoleus. 
Celery, the ft)rmer has numerous narrow partial l)racteas, 
witli i or 2 general ones ; the latter occasionally a /:<';;r- 
ral bract ea, never any partial ones. This is a great ob- 
jection, in so natural a genus, to taking those jq^pendnges 
into the generic character; but it would be more ill-judged 
to divide the geinis on account of them. 



76 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. ^gopodium. 

1. A. graveolens. Smallage Parsley. Wild Celery. 

Leaflets of the stem-leaves wedge-shaped. Stem furrowed. 
Partial bracteas none. 

A. graveolens. L//zw.5p.P/. 379. WiUd.v.l. \47b. Fl. Br. 333. 

EngLBot.v.\7.fA2\0. Hook. Scot. 95. H. Dan. t. 790. Ehrh, 

PI Off. 443 8,- 223. 
A. Celleri. Gcertn. v. 1 . 99. t. 22. f. 9. 
A. n. 784. Hall. Hist. v. 1.348. 

A. palustre et A. officinarum. Bauh. Pin. 154. Rail Syn. 214. 
A. palustre. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 126./. bad. Camer. Epit. 527./. 

good. 
A. vulgare ingratius. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 100. f. 
Apium. Fuchs. Hist. 744./. Riv. Pentap. Irr. t.87. 
Eleoselinum sive Paladapium. Ger. Em. 1014./. bad_, copied from 

Matthiolus. 

In ditches and marshy ground, especially towards the sea. 

Biennial. August, September. 

Root tap-shaped. Herb smooth and shining. Stems widely spread- 
ing, or floating, long, branched, furrowed, leafy. Leaves pin- 
nate, or ternate, bright green ; leaflets wedge-shaped ; entire 
in their lower part, variously notched, often deeply lobed, in 
front. Umbels terminal and lateral ; frequently almost sessile, 
accompanied by 1 or 2 ternate leaves j their general rays un- 
equal ; partial equal, and more numerous. Partial bracteas al- 
together wanting ; nor are there any general ones, except the 
ternate leaves above mentioned, which are greatly diminished, 
and mostly entire. Fl. small, numerous, greenish white. Fruit 
almost orbicular, with permanent, wide-spreading, not reflexed, 
styles. 

The seeds, and whole plant, in its native ditches, are acrid, and 
dangerous, with a peculiar strong taste and smell. By culture 
it becomes the mild and grateful Garden Celery, for which, and 
its name, we are indebted to the Italians, and which has now 
supplanted our native Alexanders, Smyrnium Olusatrum. 

A. Peiroselimtm appears to have no claim to a place in a British 
Flora 3 nor have I ever seen it even apparently wild. 

157. ^GOPODIUM. Gout-weed. 

Linn. Gen. 14G. Juss. 2\9. Fl.Br.333. Gcertn. t. 140. 

Fl. all perfect and prolific, the outermost only slightly irre- 
gular. Cal. none. Pel. inversely heart-shaped, broad, 
with an inflexed point; the outer one, of the marginal 
flowers, a little the largest. Filam. thread-shaped, spread- 
mg, the length of the petals. Anth. roundish. Gey^men 
inferior, turbinate, slightly compressed, iurrowed, oblique, 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. iEgopodium. 77 

or not quite equilateral, broadest at the top. Styles at 
first short, erect, tumid and ovate at the base ; subse- 
quently elongated, thread-shaped, widely spreading and 
reflexed, reaching half the length of the fruit, permanent. 
Stigmas capitate. Floral lleceptacle none. Fruit elliptic- 
oblong, solid, slightly compressed, crowned with the re- 
flexed styles. Seeds oblong, imperfectly cylindrical, slight- 
ly incurved, each with 3 clorsal, and 2 marginal, promi- 
nent, equidistant ribs ; the interstices nearly flat ; the 
juncture close, hardly so broad as the diametei* of each 
seed. 
Herbaceous, perennial, creeping extensively. Leaves once 
or twice ternate, broad, pointed, serrated. Umbels ter- 
minal and axillary, large, with many general^ as well as 
partial, roughish raijs, entirely destitute oi^bractcas. Fruit 
rarely perfected. 

1. /E. Podagraria. Common Gout-weed. Herb 
Gerarde. 

iE. Podagraria. Linn. Sp. PI. 370. TVilld.v.X. 14/6. J7. J5r. 334. 
Engl. Bot. V. 14. ^.940. Hook. Scot. 95. FL Dan. t. C70. Ehrh. 
PI. Of. 433. 

8ison Podagravia. Sprcng. Prodr.33. 

Podagraria n. 759. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 333. Riv. Pantap. Irr. t. 47. 

P. germunica aut belgica. Lob. Ic. 700./. 

Angelica sylvestris minor, seu erratica. Bauh. Pin. 155. Rail 
Sijn. 208. 

A. sylvestris repens. Moris, v. 3. 281. sect. 9. t. 4./. 1 1. 

Hcrba Gerardi. Dad. Pempt. 320. f. Ger. Em. lOOl.f. 

In low moist cultivated ground, shady waste places, and under 
hedges. 

Perennial. May, June. 

Roots creeping to a great extent, very difficult of extirpation. 
Stems a foot or two in height, erect, leafy, hollow, furrowed, not 
much branched, smooth. Lower leaves twice ternate, stalked ; 
iij)])f'r simply ternate, almost sessile ; the uppermost opj)osite : 
lea/lets 1 or 2 inches, or more, in length, ovate, or half heart- 
shaped, taj)er-pointed, sharply serrated, smooth, dark green, 
more or less stalked. Common footstalks broadly winged at the 
b:i.se. Umbels large, convex, with numerous angular rai/s, finely 
downy, more e:-;))ecially at one side ; as are likewise the more 
coi)ious and slender rtn/s of the partial umbels. There are no 
traces o{ general or partial br<(ctc(is at any time, as far as I have 
been able to discover. /•'/. crowded, pur*; wiiite. Petals broader 
than long, their ])oints excepted. 

The root is pungenlly aromatic, with sonu* aniniony, of uhiih fla- 



7S PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Imperatoria. 

vours the herb partakes. The former has been used as a cata- 
plasm in the gout, whence the specific name. 
The whole habit of this plant, with its broad ternate, not pinnate. 
Leaves, many-rayed naked umbels, and long styles, so little 
agrees with Sison, that one cannot but be glad of the slightest 
generic mark to keep them asunder. 

158. IMPERATORIA. Masterwort. 

Linn. Gen. \AZ. Jiiss. 220. Fl. Br. 327. Lam. t. 199. GcErtn. 
t.2\. 

Fl. all perfect and prolific, the outermost only very slightly 
irregular. Cal. none. Pet. inversely heart-shaped, with 
a slender incurved point ; those of the outermost flowers 
only a little irregular. Filam. thread-shaped, spreading, 
longer than the petals. Antli. almost globular. Germ. 
inferior, nearly orbicular, compressed, ribbed. Styles short, 
distant, ovate and very tumid at the base. Stigmas capi- 
tate. Fl. Recept. none. Fruit orbicular, crowned with 
the bases of the styles, having a sinus at top and bottom, 
and a rounded, dilated, closely compressed, margin. Seeds 
convex, with 3 prominent dorsal ribs, and a broad, flat, 
even border, as wide at each side as the body of the seed. 

Herbaceous, perennial. Leaves once or twice ternate, or 
pinnate and ternate, broad, lobed, serrated. Umbels ter- 
minal, large, of extremely numerous, angular general, as 
well as partial, ^ctyh with a few bristle-shaped partial 
hracteas, but scarcely ever any general ones. Fl. white, 
small. 

1. I. Ostruthmm. Great Masterwort. 

Leaves twice ternate, undivided or three-lobed, rough-edged. 
Flower-stalks alternate. 

I. Ostruthium. Lmn. Sp. PL 371. mild. v. I. 1458. Fl. Br. 371 . 

Engi.Bot.v. 20. t.]380. Lighff.l68. Huds. 649. Hook. Scot. 94. 

Woodv. Med. Bat. t. 35. Lob. Ic. 700. f. 
I. n. 805. Hall. Hist. d. 1. 357. 
Imperatoria. Riv. Pentap. Irr. t.7 . Ger. Em. 1001./. Camer. 

Epit. 532./. Moris, v. 3. 2/8. sect. 9. t. 4. /. 1. 
I. major. Bank. Pin. 15G. Garid. Prov. t.bb. 
Laserpitium germanicum. Fuchs. Hist. 763. f. 
Astrantia. Dod. Pempt. 320. f. Clus. Hist. v.2. 194. f. 
Smyrnion. Trag. Hist. 433./. 

hi rather moist meadows in Scotland. 

On the banks of the Clyde in several places, particularly about 
Ardencaple^ and in the isle of Bute, near Mountstuart, but whe- 



PENTAXDlilA— DIGYXIA. Anodic 



o 



ther indigenous or not is uncertain. Lightfoot. Haller says it 
is altogether an alpine plant. Professor Hooker mentions seve- 
ral stations in Scotland, chiefly about antient residences, indi- 
cating its being a naturalized plant. 

Perennial. June. 

Root fleshy, tuberous, somewhat creeping, of an aromatic and acrid 
quality/ long supposed a sovereign counter-poison, and cele- 
bratecl as a powerful external, as well as internal, remedy, in 
numerous disorders. Stem 1 to 2 feet high, erect, hollow, round, 
striated, smooth, leafy, slightly branched. Lower leaves on long 
stalks, twice ternate ; up])cr less compound, on shorter stalks, 
with a sheathing, membranous, sometimes jagged, dilatation at 
the base. Leujhts 2 or 3 inches long, and broad in j)roportion, 
veiny, smooth on both sides, rough-edged, finely and sharply ser- 
rated, partly cut or lobed, the middle one, sometimes all three, 
deeply three-cleft ; the uppermost often very narrow. Umbels 
broad, flattish, of about 40 smooth [.general rays, 8 or 10 inches 
wide when in seed ; the partial rays still more numerous. Ft. 
small, white, or pale flesh-coloured, almost perfectly uniform 
and reg-ular. 

Sprengel has referred 5 new species to this genus, which originally 
consisted of but one ; and nevertheless he makes the want of 
general hracteas the only diflerence between Impcratoria and Se- 
llnum. Of these 5 plants, Selinum Chabrcei is, like other true 
species of Selinum, so widely different in its pinnate, very nar- 
row, leaves, short styles, Jiural receptacle, and ribs of the secd^ 
from Imperatoria, that no good principles can bring them to- 
gether. Selinum caucasicuni I know nothing of; nor have I 
seen Imperatoria angustifolia of Bellardi. Angelica lucida and 
verticillaris of Linnaeus do indeed appear to be justly removed by 
Professor iSprengel to Imperatoria, and I have therefore given 
to our British species a discriminating specific character. The 
great breadth of the wings in Imperatoria, each of which is nt 
least as broad as the disk or body of the seed ; the deep sbius at 
the base ; and the ribs being not bordered or winged, distin- 
guisli this genus from Angelica. 

150. ANGELICA. Angelica. 

Linn. Gen. \3S. Juss. 222. Fl.Dr.'M]. Lam. t. \9S. Gcvrtn. t.S:>. 

Fl. all perfect, prolific, ami re«riilar. (\iL iidiic. Pet. 5, 
c(iiial, lanceolate, flattish, with an inilexetl })()int ; their 
base contracted. J')7tnn. llnvad-shapetl, spreading, longer 
than the corolla. Aul/i. ronnilish. Crrrntt'n inferior, ovate, 
strongly furrowed. S/i/lcs in the flower very short, erect, 
broad and tnniid at the base; subse(juently elongated, 
recurveil. S/i^mus capitate. Floral licn'/darlt' thin, wavVf 
projecting a little bi-yond the bases of die styles as tlie 



80 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Anoelica, 



p) 



fruit advances to maturity. Fruit elliptical, slightly com- 
pressed, bordered, crowned with thej^. rccept. and spread- 
ing styles. Seeds convex and oblong, with 3 elevated, lon- 
gitudinal, dorsal wings, a little distant from their lateral 
flat border, which scarcely exceeds the wings in breadth; 
interstices more or less wrinkled. 
Large, herbaceous, aromatic and wholesome plants, with 
round, hollow stems ; repeatedly compound, pinnate, very 
large, serrated leaves ; and terminal, many-rayed umbels. 
General hracteas few or none ; 'partial numerous ; all 
linear and narrow, though the latter occasionally become 
leafy and serrated. Fl. greenish, or white, numerous, 
rather small. 

*1. A. ArchangeUca. Garden Angelica. 
Terminal leaflet lobed. 

A. Archangelica. Linn. Sp.PL360. Willd.v. 1. 1428. Fl.Br.^U. 
Engl. Bot. V. 36. t. 2561. M^ith. 297. IVoodv.Med. Bot. t. 50. 
Winch Guide V. 1. 27. 

A. n. 807. Hall. Hist.v. 1.358. 

A. sativa. Bauh. Pin. 155. Bank. Hist, v. 3. p. 2. 140./. Ger. 
Em, 999./. Dill, in Raii Sijn. 208. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 513./ 
Fuchs.Hist.\2^.f. 

Angelica. Biv. Pentap. In: M 5. Pet. H. Bril. t. 24. f, 9. Lob, 
Ic. 698./ Camer.Epit. 899. f. Trag. Hist. 421. f. 

A. major. Dod. Pempt. 318./ 

In watery places, rare, apparently a naturalized plant. 

At Broadmoore, about 7 miles north-west from Birmingham. With. 
About the Tower of London, and on the banks of ditches, fre- 
quent. Doody. In marshes, among reeds, by the side of the 
Thames, between Woolwich and Plumstead, very abundantly. 
Mr. Girard. In the county of Durham. Mr. W. Backhouse. 

Biennial. June — September. 

Root large, fleshy, branched, resinous, pungently aromatic. Stem 
erect, 4 or 5 feet high, and from 1 to 2 inches in diameter, leafy, 
branched in the upper part, striated, polished, a little glaucous. 
The foliage, stalks, and even the flowers, are all of a bright green. 
Leaves 2 or 3 feet wide, ternate, then pinnate, very smooth j 
le aflets ovate-lanceolate, acute, cut and sharply serrated, partly 
decurrent , the odd one deeply 3-lobed. Footstalks, at the base, 
excessively dilated and tumid, pale and rather membranous, with 
many ribs . Umbels, both general and partial, nearly globose, 
the rays of both very n uraerous, spreading, downy. General 
Bracteas few, linear, deciduous, often wanting ; partial about 8, 
linear-lanceolate, short; occasionally enlarged, leafy, and notch- 
ed, as in the figure named Archangelica, in Dod. Pempt. 318, 



PENTANDRIA—DIGYNIA. Liousticiim. 81 



to' 



Ger. Em. 1000, Cliis. Hist. v. 2. 195, and Bauh. Hist. v.3. p. 2. 
143, which may very probably be this species. 
The candied stalks are acceptable to most people, being, when 
BO prepared, not too powerfully aromatic. Of the antipestilen- 
tial virtues of the root, those vvho wish to be informed, will find 
amusement, at least, in old Gerarde. 

2. A. si/lvestris. Wild Angelica. 
Leaflets equal, ovate, serrated. 

A. sylvestris. Linn. Sp. PL 361. Willd. y. 1 . 1 429. Ft. Br. 311. 

Engl. Bot. V. \6.t.\ 128. Woodv. suppl t. 265. Hook. Scot. 90. 

Raii Syn. 208. Ger. Em. 999./. Dod. Pempt. 3 1 8./. Trag. 

Hist. 422./. Fuchs. Hist.VIb.f. Matth. Valgr. v.2. i)]4.f. Ca- 

mer.Epit. 900./. 
A. n. 806. Hall. Hist. i\ 1. 358. 
A. sylvestris major. Bauh. Pin. 155. 
A. palustris. Riv. Pentap. Irr. t. 17. 
Water Angelica. Pet. H. Brit. t. 24. f. 10. 

In watery places, alder cars, and the margins of rivers, common. 

Perennial. Jnlij. 

Much smaller than the foregoing. Root large and fleshy. Stem 
leafy, round , polished, often purple, with wide-spreading branches. 
Leaves doubly pinnate, a little glaucous • leajiets ovate, or ovate- 
lanceolate, sharply, often unequally, serrated, their ribs and veins 
sometimes downy. Footstalks, of the stem-leaves especially, in- 
flated like the last. Umbels convex, with numerous, downy, 
general and partial rays. General bracteas very few, long and 
narrow -, partial similar, but smaller and more numerous. Ft. 
white, or more generally flesh-coloured. Styles purple. 

The flavour is more bitter, and less grateful, than the ^rchangelica, 
but the virtues of both are similar. 

160. LIGUSTICUM. Lovage. 

Linn. Gen. 137. Juss. 222. Fl. Br. 309. Tourn. t. 171. Lam. 
/. 198. Gcertn. t.So. 

Fl. all perfect, prolific, and regular. Cal. of 5 small, i)oint- 
ed, erect, permanent leaves ; broad at the base. Pet. 5, 
elliptical, ilatlish, with an inflcxed })oint; their base con- 
tracted. Filani. thread-shaped, spreading, shorter than 
the corolla. Ant/i. rountlish. Crcrm. oblong, abrupt, 
moderately comjiressed, furrowed. Styles in the flower 
scarcely longer than the calyx, erect, stout, angular, tumid 
at the l)ase; subsecjuently a little elongated, spreading, 
permanent. Sti<j[mas simple. Ft. Rccrpt. none. Fruit 
elliptic-oblong, rather compresseil, crowned with the calyx 
VOL, II. a 



B2 PENTANDllIA—DIGYNIA. Lio-usticiim 



» 



and styles. Seeds oblong, each with 3 dorsal and 2 mar- 
gmal, equal, longitudinal wings. 
Perennial aromatic herbs, with smooth, compound, ternate 
or pinnate, notched or deeply cut, lectves. Umbels termi- 
nal, compound, of numerous, general and partial^ angular 
rays» Bracteas ge?ieral and partial, membranous at the 
edges. Fl. white, or reddish. 

1. L. scoticum, Scottish Lovage. 
Leaves twice ternate. 

L scoticum. Linn. Sp. PL 359. Willd. v.\.\ 424. Fl. Br. 309. 

Engl Bot. V. 17. t. 1207. Hook. Scot. 89. Fl. Dan. t. 207. 
L. scoticum, apii folio. Raii Syn. 214. 

L. humilius scoticum k maritimis. Pluk. Alm.2\7. Phyt. t. 96./. 2. 
Imperatoriae affinis umbellifera maritima scotica. Sibb. Scot. p. 2. 

32. ^. 12./. 3, bad. 
Seseli maritimum scoticum humile, foliis Imperatoriae. Herm. Pa- 

rad.227.f. 
S. scoticum. Riv. Pentap. Irr. t. 59. 
Scotch Parsley. Pet. H. Brit. t. 26./. 1 1. 

On the sea coasts of Scotland, and the north of England. 

About the Frith of Forth, in many places j also on the western 
coast. Fl. Brit. Very frequent on the rocky coasts of Scotland. 
Hooker. At Dunstonburgh castle, Northumberland. Mr. Winch. 

Perennial, July. 

Root tap-shaped, warm and pungent. Stem a foot high, round, 
striated, smooth, somewhat leafy ; slightly branched in the up- 
per part. Leaves stalked, twice ternate -, the uppermost sim- 
ply ternate ; leaflets rhomboid, broad, acute, rather fleshy, veiny, 
smooth, serrated, sometimes unequally notched ; entire towards 
the base. Footstalks bordered, with a purplish compressed mem- 
brane, at the base. Umbels smooth, not very large. General 
bracteas oblong, unequal, partly leafy, entire 3 partial more nu- 
merous, lanceolate, somewhat unequal. Fl. white, with a red- 
dish tinge. Anth. red. 

The herb is eaten, either crude or boiled, by the natives of Scot- 
land and its isles. The flavour is highly acrid, and though aro- 
matic, and perhaps not unwholesome, very nauseous to those 
who are unaccustomed to such food. 

2. L. coimubiense. Cornish Lovage. 

Radical leaves twice or thrice pinnate, rough-edged, cut ; 

stem-leaves ternate, lanceolate, entire. Ribs of the seeds 

bluntish. 
L. cornubiense. Linn. Sp. PL 359. Willd. i?. 1. 1426. Fl. Br. 310- 

Engl Bot. V. 1 0. t. 683. Ic. Pict. t.W. With. 297. 



PENTAXDRIA— DIGYNIA. Ligusticum. 8J 

Smyrnium tenuitblium nostras. liaii Hist. v. 3. 25 4. Dill, in Rati 

Syn. 209. t. S. 
Cornwall Saxifrage. Pet. H. Brit. t. 2G.f. 9. 

In bushy fields in Cornwall. 

First found by Mr. Stevens. Dill. About Bodmin, Mr. Penning- 
ton. Dr. JTithering, Mr. K. Forster, and others. 

Perennial. July. 

Root spindle-shaped, contracted at the crown, descending to a 
great depth ; when wounded, discharging a yellow resinous 
juice. Stem 2 or 3 feet high, solitary, erect, branched, round, 
striated, roughish, purple at the base, slightly leafv. Leaves 
deep green ; the radical ones on long, purplish, angular, rough- 
ish footstalks, twice or thrice pinnate, broader than thev are 
long ; lea/lets wedge-shaped, sharply cut, rough at the nerves 
and margin with minute, depressed, bristly points. Stem-leaves 
(mistaken by Linnaeus, in Dillenius's figure, for radical ones) 
of o linear-lanceolate, acute, entire leaflets : the uppermost of 
all simple. Umbels terminal, erect, of several general, as well as 
partial, smooth, angular rays. General bracteas from 4 to 8, 
lanceolate, or somewhat ovate, acute, much shorter than tlie 
rays; partial ones similar, equal to tiie partial rays. Calyx some- 
what coloured, concave, conspicuous. Petals white, very slightly 
irregular in the outermost flowers only, obovate, or inversely 
heart-shaped, with an incurved, notched point. An(h. yellov/. 
Ft. Rece.pt. none. Styles tumid, and almost globular, at the 
base, erect, shorter than the petals ; subsequently spreading, 
and finally horizontal, almost as long as the half-ripe fruit, per- 
manent. Stigmas bluntish. Fruit, which I have not seen quite 
ripe, solid, ovate, a little compressed, abrupt, crowned with the 
whitish calyx, and spreading styles, and having o stout, promi- 
nent, equal ribs, with deep intermediate furrows, to each seed. 
Juncture apparently very narrow. Seeds ovate, flattened at the 
inner side ; externally convex. All the Jlowers appear to be per- 
fect and prolific. 

This rare plant, wiilch remained, for half a centurv after its first 
discovery, entirely unobserved, has been confidentlv asserted to 
be the identical Danaa of AUioni, Pliysospermum of Cusson and 
of Sprengel, Prodr. 19. The herbage of the two ])lants is in- 
deed so very similar, that it is hardly j)ossible to believe them 
generically distinct. Physosjwrmum however has separated 
jlowers, tlie barren ones most numerous, antl is cssentiallv cha- 
racterized, as the excellent name imports, by having a loose, 
bladdery, inflated .s7i/» to the .vtv'f/.v ; the /V///7 being, in every 
stage of growtli, a double glol)e, smooth, polished, at length ac- 
quiring slightly prominent ribs, and being crowned with the 
strongly recurvecl styles. The seeds within are solid, nearly hemi- 
spherical, irregularly furrowed. Of this genus there are 2 spe- 
rics. Isi Pfx, arjiiil, uif'olimn, which is .Mlioni's D-man ; Laser' 

o 2 



84 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Memn. 

pitium aquilegi folium of Willdenow ; Sison sylvaticum of Brotero, 
Phyt. Lusit. 3o ; and 2nd Suujrnium ntuUcaule, Marsch. Taur. 
Caucas. v. 1 . 238. The first bars rough-edged leaves, and is much 
stouter in every part than the second. Our Cornish plant has 
been improperly confounded with these two, and, as far as its 
fruit is known^ answers best to Ligiisticum. 

161. MEUM. Spignel, or Fennel. 
Tourn. Inst.3[2. f. 165. Fl. Br. 308. Spreng. Prodr.32. Gartn. 

t.23. 
Foeniculum. Tourn. t. 164. Gartn. t. 23. 

Fl. all uniform, perfect, and prolific. Cat. none. Pet. 5, 
equal, obovate, with an inflexed point. Filam. about the 
length of the petals, spreading, incurved. Anth. roundish. 
Germ, inferior, ovate, striated, abrupt, a little compressed. 
Styles tumid at the base, very short in the flower, after- 
wards a little elongated and recurved. Stigmas simple. 
Fl. Recepf. none. "Fruit elliptic-cblong, very slightly com- 
pressed, contracted at the summit, and crowned with the 
permanent styles. Seeds convex, with 3 dorsal and 2 
marginal, equidistant prominent ribs, the interstices nearly 
flat and even. Juncture nearly as broad as the seeds. 

Herbaceous, aromatic, with finely divided leaves. Umbels 
compound. Bracteas various. Fl. cream-coloured, or 
yellow. 

1. \iV. athamanticuin. Spignel, Men, or Bald-money. 

Leaflets all in numerous, deep, bristle-like, segments. Brac- 
teas both general and partial. 

M. athamanticum. J acq. Austr. v. 4. 2. t. 303. Spreng. Prodr. 32. 
FL Br. 308. Engl. Bot. v. 32. t. 2249. Gcertn. v. 1. 105. 

Meum. Raii Syn. 207. Ger. Em. 1 052./. Dod. Pempt. 305./. 
Matth. Valgr. v. 1 . 22. f. Camer. Epit. 1 . f. Riv. Pentap. Irr. 
f. 63. 

M. foliis anethi. Bauh.Pin. 148. 

"M. vulgare tenuifolium. Moris, v. 3.2/0. sect. 9. t. 2./ 2. 

Athamanta Meum. Linn. Sp. PL 353. Huds. 1 16. Dicks. H. Sice, 
fasc. 11.7. 

A. n. 761. Hall. Hist. V. 1.334. 

^thusa Meum. Linn. Si/st. Veg. ed. 13. 237. ed. 14. 287. mild. 
Sp.Pl.v. 1. 1447. lVith.305. 

Ligusticum Meum. Crontz Austr. fasc. 3. 82. Sm. in Rees's Cycl. 
v.2\. Comp.46. Hook. Scot. 89. 

Daucus creticus. Trag. Hist. 44b. f Fuchs. Hist. 231. f. 

In mountainous pastures in the North. 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Meum. 85 

In Westmoreland, the north of Yorkshh-c, and Merionethshire. 
Ray. In Lancashire 3 and abundantly in the Highhmds of Scot- 
land. 

Perennial. May, June. 

Root thick and woody, crowned with tlie fibrous remains of old 
footstalks. Stems erect, from 1 to 2 feet high, round, hollow, 
leafy, striated, not much branched. Lenvca oblong, doubly pin- 
nate, dark green, smooth ; leaflets opposite, in numerous, ca- 
pillary, very delicate, pointed segments. Foo f stalks dilated and 
membranous at the base. Umbe/s erect, of numerous general 
and partial rays. General hracteas fe\v, linear or lanceolate, 
mostly three-cleft, often wanting ; partial more numerous, either 
entire or cut. Fl. numerous, yellowish-white, occasionally red- 
dish. Petals sometimes inversely heart-shaped, but s'i'ghtly. 
Fruit l-4th of an inch long, somewhat curved, smooth. 

The whole plant, and especially the root, is highly aromatic, with 
a flavour like Melilot, which it communicates to milk and butter, 
from the cows feeding upon its herbage, in spring. A strcwig 
infusion of this herb is said to give cheese the taste and odour 
of the Swiss Chapziegar. See Engl. Bot. 

This plant, concerning whose genus botanists have been so various 
and uncertain, was thought by Tournefort very nearly akin to 
his Fijcniculuni, which comprises, among many other things, our 
common, or sweet. Fennel. The presence of hracteas forms the 
chief objection, as to habit 3 but this is rather an instance of 
their uncertainty for a generic character. 

2. M. Foemculam. Common Fennel. 

Leaves trij)ly pinnate; leaflL-t;? awl-sha})ct], drooping. Brae- 
teas none. 

M. Foeniculum. Spreng. Prodr.?>2. 

Anethum F(jL'niculum. Li)iu. Sp. PI. 377 . If'illd. v. I . ]i6[). Fl. 

Br. 329. Engl. Bot. v. 17. t. 1208. Mill, lllustr. t. 13. U'oodv. 

Med. Bot. t. IGO. Ehrh. PL Off. 213. 
Famiculum. Matlh. Falgr. v. 2. 13[). f. Camcr. Epit.:)34. f. Fuchs. 

Hist. 501. /. Riv. Pentap. Irr. t. O) . 
F. n. 760. Hall. Hist. v. 1.333. 
F. dulce. Bank. Pin. 147. 
F. vulgare. Uaii Si/n.2\7. (ier. Em. 1032./. Gartn. v. 1. 105. 

On chalky clifts, very plentiful. 

Biennial. July, August. 

Root tap-shaped. Ilcrh smooth, of a dec]), glaucous ;;-iTen. Stem 
3 or 4 feet high, erect, copiously branched, solid, round, striated, 
smooth, leafy. Leaves triply pinnate ; le<i/lets thread-like, acute, 
long, more or less dro()j)ing. FootstaUcs with a broad, firm, 
sheathing base. Uinhrls terminal, very broad, flat, of very nu- 
merous, smooth, angular, rather stout, KINS; \\\v fxirt'ial rays 



86 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Carimi. 

much more slender, short, very unequal. Bracteas entirely- 
wanting. Calyx none. Petals obovate, with a broad, obtuse, 
inflexed point, altogether of a golden yellow, as well as the sta- 
mens. Styles very short, with a large, ovate, pale-yellow base, 
Nojioral receptacle. 
The taste and aromatic qualities of this, our garden Fennel, are 
well known. The sweet and warm seeds are a comraon carmi- 
native medicine for infants. 

162. CARUM. Caraway. 

Linn. Gen. 145. Juss.2l9, Fl. Br. 330. Gcertn. t.23. 

Carui. Tourn.t. 160. 

FL separated, rather irregular; the innermost barren; those 
of the circumference perfect and prolific. Cat. of 5 very 
minute, acute leaves, often obsolete. Pet. 5, somewhat 
unequal, inversely heart-shaped, Avith inflexed points. 
Filam. about as long as the petals, straight, spreadmg. 
Anfk. roundish, 2-lobed. Germ, inferior, ovate, abrupt, 
more or less oblique. Sfj/Ies tumid at the base, very short 
in the flower, afterwards elongated, thread-shaped, widely 
spreading. Stigmas bluntish. Fl. Recept. annular, thin, 
wavy, extending beyond the bases of the styles, perma- 
nent. Fruit elliptic-oblong, moderately compressed, crown- 
ed with the floral recept. and styles. Seeds nearly cyhn- 
drical, contracted at each end, with 3 dorsal, and 2 mar- 
ginal, acute, slender ribs, the interstices somewhat con- 
vex, smooth. Juncture close, as broad as the seeds. 

Herbaceous, biennial, smooth, with oblong, doubly pinnate, 
finely cut leaves. Umbels terminal, compound, with un- 
equal rays. Partial bracteas either numerous or none; 
general 1, 2 or 3, often membranous at the base, fre* 
quently wanting. Fl. white. Seeds aromatic. 

1. C. Carui. Common Caraway. 

Stem branched. Partial bracteas none. 

C. Carui. Linn. Sp. PL S7S. H'illd.v. \. 1470. Fl. Br. 330. Engl. 

Bot. r. 21. t. 1503. Hook. Scot. 95. Mart. Rust. t. 55. Woodv. 

Med. Bot. t. 45. Jacq. Austr. t. 393. 
C. n. 789. Hall. Hist. V. 1.351. 
Carum. Dod. Pempt. 299./. Matth. Valgr. i\2. l\4.f. Camer. 

Epit. 516./. Riv. Pentap. Irr. t. 55. Moris, v. 3. 296. sect. 9. 

t. 9./. 1, Cuminum. Leaves bad. 
C. seu Careum. Rail Syn. 213. Ger. Em. 1034. f. 
Caros. Trag. Hist. Abb. f. Fuchs. Hist. 396. f.^ Bauh. Hist. v. 3. 

p. 2. 69./ 
In meadows and pasture,^ ; a naturalized plant. 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Athamanta. 87 

Biennial. June. 

Root tapering. Stem about 2 feet high, erect, branched, leafy, 
angular and furrowed. Lower leaves nearly a span long, stalked, 
doubly pinnate, with numerous, opposite, finely cut leaflets, of 
which the pairs next the midrib cross each other : those on the 
stem much smaller, opposite, very unequal, one of them on a 
dilated, lax, ribbed, membranous-edged footstalk; the other 
sessile. Umbels numerous, erect. General bracteas, if present, 
capillary, connected, when more than one, by a membranous 
base. Fl. numerous, white, or pale flesh-coloured ; the marginal 
(not central) ones only, perfect and prolific. Cal. always ex- 
tremely minute, and not constantly complete, or discernible. 
Pet. small, convex, in the middle flowers nearly equal, Fl. Re- 
cept. white, undulated, very distinct from the bases of the styles. 
Seeds greyish-brown. 

This plant is cultivated for tlie sake of its seeds, which are in daily 
use as a grateful and wholesome aromatic. 

163. ATHAMANTA. Stone-parsley. 

Linn. Gen. 133. Jiiss. 223. Fl. Br. 303. Spreng. Prodr. 25. Lam. 
t. 194. 

Fl, imperfectly separated, regular, the innermost more or 
less abortive. Cal. of 5 spreading, ascending, lanceolate, 
acute, permanent leaves. Pet. 5, almost perfectly equal, 
inversely heart-shaped, with a broad inflexed point. 
Filam. thread-shaj^ed, spreading, incurved, longer than 
the petals. Anth. roundish. Germen inferior, ovate, fur- 
rowed, downy, abrupt. Styles in the flower short, erect, 
each with a large, tumid, ovate base ; subsequently spread- 
ing as far as the calyx, or further ; fliially rcflexed, per- 
il lanent. Stigmas simple, bluntish. 7'/. Recept. wanting. 
Fruit ovate, scarcely compressed, ribbed, clothed, more 
or less, with loosely s})reading, shortish hairs, and crowned 
by the .calyx and styles. Seeds ovate, each with 5 equi- 
distant, prominent, stout ribs. Jtinctnre close, as broad 
as the seeds. 

Stem angular, dce})ly furrowed. Feaves oblong, repeatedly 
pinnate, finely cut, flat. Umbels terminal, com})ound, of 
numerous, furrowed, downy 7ai/s, with <re)icral and par- 
tial, narrow bracteas. Fl. white or leddish. Seeds small, 
somewhat aromatic. 

From this genus, of which our British species forms the 
type, and to which A. jujrenaica of Jac(juin (perhaps the 
same species), with some others, certainly belongs, the 
lyibnuotis of CutTtncr ought, I think, to be removed, a% 



88 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Pinipinella. 

having an elliptic-oblongyjz^//, and no calyjc. The foHage 
moreover is of a very different character, I am not en- 
tirely convinced that the kind of hairiness observed on the 
fruit of Atliamanta^ is a good generic, or even a specific 
mark, liowever important the prickles oi fruits, properly 
termed armed, in this natural order, may be. 

1. A. Libanotis. Mountain Stone-parsley. 
Leaves doubly pinnate, cut. Umbels hemispherical. 

A. Libanotis. Linn. Sp. PL 351 . mild. v. 1. 1400. FL Br. 304. 

Engl. Bat. v. 2. t. 138. Huds. ed. 1. 100. Relh. ed. I. 113./. 

With. 283. Jacq. Austr. t. 392. FL Dan. t. 754. Spreng. Spec. 

Umb. 37. 
A. Oreoselinum. Huds. ed.2. 115. With. 283. Not of Linnaeus. 
Ligusticum n. 7^7. Hall. Nomencl. Q9 . 
Libanotis. Rlv. Pentap. Irr. t. 37. 
L. n. 744. HalL Hist. v. 1. 325. 
Apium petrseum, seu mcntanum^ album. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 

105./. Raii Syn. 2\8. 
Daucus montanus, pimpinellse saxifragae hircinse folio^ nostras, Du- 

briensis. Pluk. Almag. 129. Phijt. L 173./. 1. 

In elevated chalky pastures, but rare. 

On Gogmagog hills, Cambridgeshire. Ray, Relhan. Between St. 
Albans and S ton ey Stratford. Hudson. 

Perennial, August. 

Root taperingv a little woody, bitterish and pungent, crowned with 
the fibrous remains of old footstalks. Herbage extremely vari- 
able in luxuriance. Stem from 1 to 2 or 3 feet high, firm, erect, 
angular and deeply furrowed, solid, smooth, leafy principally in 
the lower part. Radical leaves stalked, twice or thrice pinnate, 
in foreign specimens still more compound ; leajiets opposite, 
deeply and sharply cut, smooth ; the lowermost crowded, and 
often crossing each other. Umbels terminal, on long, upright, 
furrowed stalks, convex, of many stout, angular, downy general 
rays, and still more numerous partial ones. Bracteas both ge- 
neral and partial numerous, linear-lanceolate, taper-pointed, 
downy. FL crowded, white or reddish. The styles and their 
tumid bases assume a violet hue after the flowers are past. The 
umbels are sometimes proliferous. Whether the hairiness of the 
fruit be an essential character or not, this plant cannot belong- 
to Ligusticum, as the ribs of that part are not winged. 

164. PIMPINELLA. Burnet-saxifrage. 

Linn. Gen. \Ab. Juss.2\d. FL Br. 331. Lam. t. 203. 
Tragoselinum. Tourn. t. 163. 

Ft. regular, either perfect, or dioecious. Cat. none. Pet. 5, 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Pimpinella. 89 

equal, or very nearly so, inversely heart-shaped, with an 
inflexed point. Filam. capillary, spreading, longer than 
the corolla. Anth. roundish. Germ, inferior, ovate, a 
little compressed, smooth, finely ribbed. Styles capillary, 
somewhat spreading, short in the flower, afterwards as 
long as the fruit, or longer ; tumid, and nearly globular, 
at the base. Stigmas obtuse, somewhat capitate. Fl. 
Becept. none. Fruit ovate, crowned widi the long, ca- 
pillary, slightly spreading, permanent styles. Seeds ovate, 
each with 5 rather sharp, not very prominent, ribs ; the 
interstices convex. Jnneture contracted, linear. 
Perennial, rather harsh and rigid, herbs, with a very pun- 
gent, slightly aromatic, flavour. Leaves usually pinnate, 
oblong, wdtli roundish, or finely cut, leaflets, excessively 
various in their subdivisions. Umbels compound, droop- 
ing when young. Bracteas none. 7^7. white, or reddish. 

1. P. scLvifraga. Cominon Burnet-saxifrage. 
Leaves pinnate ; leaflets of the radical ones roundish ; of 
the uppermost in various linear segments. 

P. saxifraga. Linn. Sp. PL 378. fVillcl v.\.\47\. FL Br. 331 . 
EngLBot. V. G. t. 407. Mart. Rust. t. 127. Slhth. 102. Abbot 68. 
Hook. Scot. 9 :). FLl)an.t.G69. Jacq. Austr. t.SOo. Spreng. 
Spec. Unib. 115. 

P. saxifraga minor. Bauh. Pin. ICO. Baii Sijn. 213. 

P. saxifraga minor, foliis sanguisorbai. Rail Syn. 213. 

P. saxifraga vulgaris, pimpincllae minoris folio 3 also minor foliis 
dissectis. Moris, v. 3. 285. sect. 9. t. 5./. 6 8^7. 

P. minor. Camer. Epit. 77G.f' Riv. Pentap. Irr. t. 83 5 and P. me- 
dia, t. 82. 

P. dis.secta. Retz. Obs.fasc.^.^^. t.2. Sibth. \02. Abbot GS, 

Tragosclinum n. 7SG, 7S7. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 350. 

Bipinella, sive Saxifraga minor. Ger. Em. 101-1./. 

In dry gravelly or chalky pastures. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root tough and woody, highly aromatic and j)ungent, not unplea- 
sant. Stems from 1 to 2 feet high, solid, round, striated, downy, 
branched, leafy. Leaves stalked, ol)long, pinnate ; Icajtels, of 
the lowermost especially, ovale, veiny, deeply serrated and cut j 
of the upper ones, and sometimes of all, simply or doubly pin- 
natifid, with acute, spreading, decurreiit segments ; nor are 
these dilVerences so constant as to mark even a distinet variety ; 
they are all comjirehended under the above synonyms. Cmbcls 
of xnixny gentrnl and parl'uil smooth rays, drooping when young, 
without any bracteas. I'L while, small, a> well as tlu- seeds. 
Tumid basco of the styles reddish. 



90 PENTANDKIA— DIGYNIA. Pimpinella. 

2. P. magna. Greater Burnet-saxifrage. 

Leaves pinnate: leaflets all ovate, serrated, somewhat cut; 
the terminal one three-lobed. 

P. magna. Linn. Mant. 2. 219. Wdld. v. 1. 1471. Fl. Br. 331. 

Engl.Bot.v. 6. t. 408. Spreng.Sp. Umb. 117. Ehrh. PL Of. 433. 
P. major. Huds.127. Jacq. Austr. t. 396. Fuchs. Hist. 608./. Lob. 

Ic. 720./. 
P. saxifraga. Rail Syn. 213. Ger. Em. 1044./. MaMh. Falgr. v. 2. 

379. f. bad. Camer. Epit. 77 5. f. 
P. saxifraga major, umbella Candida. Moris, v. 3. 284. sect. 9. t. 5./. 1. 
Tragoselinum n. 785. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 349. 

In shady places and under hedges, on a chalky, or limestone, soil, 
in several parts of England. 

In Scotland. Herb. Bruce. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root weaker in flavour than the preceding. Flerb taller, larger in 
all its parts, especially the leaflets, which, in Britain at least, 
are not subject to be subdivided ; they are ovate-oblong, smooth, 
shining, sometimes slightly lobed, or cut, always strongly ser- 
rated ; the odd one always, more or less deeply, three-lobed. 
Umbels of many slender rays, without any bracteas. Fl. white j 
we have not the elegant alj)ine rose-coloured variety. Styles 
capillary, sometimes even longer than the fruit. Some^ozfers 
seem to be abortive, in the central part of the partial umbels. 

3. P. dioica. Dwarf Burnet-saxifrage. 

Leaflets all nearly linear. Umbels panicled. Flowers 
dioecious. 

P. dioica. Linn. Syst. Feg. ed. 13. 241 . Willd. v. 1 . 1474. P7. Bt. 
332. Engl. Bot. v. 17. t. 1209. fVade PL Rar. Hibern. 22. 

P. pumila. Jacq. Enum. Find. 52. 227. Austr. t. 28. 

Seseli pumilum. Linn. Sp. PL 373. 

Tragoselinum n. 788. HalL Hist. v. 1 . 350. 

Peucedanum minus. Bauh. Pin. 149. Raii Syn.2\7. Huds. ed. 
1.101. 

P. pumilum. Ger. Em. 1054./. 

P. facie, pusilla planta. Lob. Ic. 745. f. 

Selinum montanum pumilum. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 200./. Bauh. Hist. 
v.3.]J.2.\7.f.\S. 

Saxifraga montana minor, foliis peucedani. Moris, y. 3. 274. sect. 9. 
t.2.f.\o. 

On limestone rocks in a warm exposure, but rare. 

On St. Vincent's rock, near Bristol. Ray. Above Uphill, Somer- 
setshire. Hudson. In pastures near the church of Athboy, 
County of Meath, Ireland, in great quantities. Dr. Wade, 

Perennial. Maii, June, 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Cnidium. 01 

Root tapering, fleshy. A^'hole herb smooth and glaucous. Barren 
plant's most humble in size, and less spreading ; fertile ones 
about a foot high. Stem erect, branched from the very bottom, 
leafy, angular, furrowed, purplish. Leaves oblong, doubly pin- 
nate ; radical ones on \or\g footstalks, the rest with only short, 
dilated, membranous ones 3 leaflets uniform, linear-lanceolate, 
or quite linear, entire ; three occasionally combined at the end 
of the leaf. Umbels numerous, simple or compound, panicled, 
erect without any bracteas; their raijs angular, smooth. Fl. 
cream-coloured, numerous, small ; the barren ones mostly with- 
out even the rudiments of a germen ; fertile furnished with im- 
perfect anthers. Stigmas capitate, almost globular. Fruit ellip- 
tic-ovate, often deprived of the styles, which, when permanent, 
are small and inconspicuous. 

165. CNIDIUM. Pepper- saxifrage. 

Cusson Mss. Spreng. Proclr. 39. f 3. 

Fl. nearly regular, imperfectly separated, the innermost more 
or less abortive. CaL none. Pet. 5, equal, obovate, or 
inversely heart-shaped, with an inflexed point. Filam. 
thread-shaped, rather spreading, as long as the petals. 
Ant/i. roundish. Ger7n. inferior, ovate, obtuse, slightly 
compressed, ribbed. Sfi/les in the flower very short, at- 
tcrwards elongated, spreading, cylindrical, half the length 
of the fruit, tumid and nearly hemispherical at die base. 
Stigmas blunt. Fl. Recept. annular, thin, undulated ; at 
first erect; subsequently depressed by the swelling bases 
of the styles. Fruit ovate, a little compressed, somewhat 
contracted at the ii})per part, crowned with the floral re- 
ce})tacle, and permanent, spreading or recurved, styles. 
Seeds ovate, solid, with 5 equidistant, acute, slightly 
winged, ribs; the interstices deep, concave, or obtusan- 
gular. Juncture channelled, contracted. 
Branching, acrid or fetid, herbs, with repeatedly compound, 
cut, narrow leaves. Umbels terminal, of several general 
and partial rays. General bracteas few, or none ; par- 
tial several, linear-lanceolate. Fl. white or yellowish. 
Seeds acrid, nauseous. Tlie name is an antient appella- 
tion of some hot kind of grain. 

1. Q. Silaus. Meadow Pepper-saxifrage. 

Leaflets dee})ly ])innati(i(l ; their segments opposite, decur- 

rent. General bracteas one or two. 
C. Silaus. Sprov^. Vioar. \0. 



92 PENTANDRIA—DIGYNIA. Bupleurum. 

Peucedanum Silaus. Linn. Sp. PL 354. Willd. v. 1. 1406. Fl. 

Br. 305. Engl. Bot. v. 30. t. 2142. Mart. Rust. t. 128. Hook. 

Scot. 88. Jacq. Austr. t. 15. Ehrh. PL qf.373. 
P. n. 797. HalL Hist. v. 1. 354. 
Seseli pratense. Bauh. Pin. 1 62. JJiy. Pentap. Irr. t. 58. Dalech. 

Hist. 7 52./. 
S. pratense nostras. RaiiSijn.2\6. Moris.v.3.287.sect.9. t.6.f.\0. 
S. pratense monspelliensium. Lob. Ic. 738. f. 
Saxifraga anglicana^ facie Seseli pratensis. Ger. Em. 1047./. 
Meadow Saxifrage. Pet. H. Brit. t. 28. f. 5. 

In rather moist meadows and pastures. 

Perennial. August, September. 

Root spindle-shaped. Herb smooth, dark green. Stem erect, 
branched, leafy, round, furrowed, solid, tough, from I to 2 feet 
high. Leaves doubly pinnate ; leajiets elliptic-lanceolate, mi- 
nutely pointed, entire j either undivided, or separated, almost 
to the base, into 2 or 3 segments, of the same shape and mag- 
nitude. Umbels on long stalks, erect, of several unequal general 
rays, those of the partial umbels much more numerous. General 
bracteas white-edged, linear, 1 or 2, rarely 3, most frequently 
none at all ; when present, lasting, not deciduous ; partial ones 
several, of the simie shape, equal to the partial rays. FL yel- 
lowish or greenish-white, with a thin floral receptacle, at first 
green and erect, but as the fruit advances, spreading, depressed, 
confluent with the broad convex bases of the styles, and assum- 
ing their reddish colour. Fruit roundish-ovate. 

The whole plant, being fetid when bruised, is supposed in some 
parts of Norfolk to give a bad flavour to milk and butter ; but 
cattle certainly do not eat it ; except accidentally, or in small 
quantities, sufficient perhaps to have the effect in question. 
Where this herb abounds in pastures, it may be found partially 
cropped, though generally left almost entire. 

Peucedanum alsaticum of Linnseus, having a calyx, and a flattened 
bordered /riuf, is really of that genus, and no Cnidium, though 
resembling our present species in habit. 

166. BUPLEURUM. HareVear. 

Linn. Gen. 129. Juss. 224, Fl. Br. 292. Spreng. Prodr. 38. Tourn, 
t. 163. Lam. t, 189. Gcertn. t.22. 

Odontites. Spreng. Prodr. 33. 

Fl. all regular, perfect and prolific. Cal. none. Pet, 5, 
equal, broadish wedge-shaped, very short, with a broad 
involute point. Filam, thread-shaped, spreading rather 
beyond the corolla. Ardh. roundish. Germen inferior, 
ovate- oblong, furrowed. Styles very short, spreading, not 
extending beyond the circumference of their broad, tu- 
mid, rather depressed, bases. Stigmas simple, minute. 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Bupleurum. 93 

Fl. Recept. none, unless the dilated margin of tjie tumid 
bases of the styles may be taken for such. Fruit ovate- 
oblong, obtuse, solid, a little compressed, crowned with the 
very short permanent styles. Seeds somewhat cylindrical, 
each with 5, prominent, acute, or slightly bordered, ribs ; 
the interstices flat, either smooth, granulated, or irregu- 
larly wrinkled ; the summit of each rib abrupt, or angular. 
Juncture narrower than the seeds. 
Smooth, rigid, branched, leafy, either herbaceous or shrub- 
by. Leaves firm, all simple, alternate, undivided and 
entire. Umbels compound, or simple, often irregular. 
Bracteas sometimes general, always partial ; the latter 
usually 5, large and conspicuous, longer than the partial 
umbels. Fl. yellow. Qiialities slightly aromatic, rather 
acrid. 

1. B. rotundifolium. Common Hare's-ear. Thorovv- 

wax. 
General bracteas wanting. Leaves perfoliate. 

B.rotundifolium. Linn. Sp. PL 3-10. mild. v. 1. 13G9. F/. Dr. 292. 
Engl. Bot. V. 2. t. 99. Ehrh. PL Off. 1G2. 

B. n. 767. Hall. Hist. V. 1.312. 

B. perfoliutum lotundifolium annuiim. Tourn. Inst. 310. Pud 
Sim. 22\. 

Perfoliata. 3/a<i/t. F«/o-r. i;. 2. 499./. Camer. Epif. SSS.f. DocL 
Pempt. 104./. Piv. Pentap. Irr. t. 46. 

P. vulgaris. Ger. Em.DSG.f. Moris, v. 3. 299. sect. 9. t. 12./ 1. 

P. vulgatissima, sive arvcnsis. Bauh. Pin. 277. 

Pcrfoliatum vulgatius, flore lutco, folio umbilicato. Loh. ic. 39G./. 

In corn-fields, especially on a chalky soil. 

Annual. July. 

Root rather small, tapering. Stem erect, round, leafy, branched 
alternately in the upper part, and somewhat corymbose. Emve^ 
all perfoliate in a remarkable degree, alternate, broadly ovate, 
scarcely pointed, rather glaucous, often purplish at the margin, 
as the stem is in the lower i)art. Umbels terminal, comj)ound, 
solitaiy, of about G frcneral raijs, and rather more, very short, 
partial ones. Partial bracteas large, thrice as long as tlie llowers, 
ovate, ribbed, yellowish-green, eacii with a minute bristly i)oint. 
FL of a full yellow, witli remarkably siiort petals. 

This plant has been reckoned among tiie vulnerary herbs ; but its 
virtues, whether ever experienced or not, are recorded in old 
herbalti only. 

2. B. Odontites, Narrow-lea vcd Hare's -tar. 
Partial bracteas live, ovale, aeulc, ihn e-rihhed ; geuiial 



94 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Bupleurum. 

three or four. Branches widely spreading. Umbels all 
stalked. Leaves lanceolate. 

B. Odontites. Linn. Sp. PI. 342. WiUd. v. 1. 1373. Comp. 44. 

E?igl. Bot. V. 35. t. 2468. Prodr. Ft. Grcec. y. 1 . 1 77. Jacq. Hort. 

Find. V. 3.47. t. 91. 
B. n. 772. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 344. 
B. annuum, longis et angustioribus foliis, Moris, v. 3. 300. sect. 9. 

t.\2.f.3. 
Odontites lutea. Spreng. Prodr. 33. Dalech. Hist. 1068./. 
Perfoliata minor angustifolia, bupleuri folio. Bauh. Pin. 277. 
P. minima, bupleuri folio. Column. Ecphr. v. 1. 84. 
Perfoliatum angustifolium montanum. Ibid. t.247.f. 1. 
Auriculae leporis affinis. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 201. f. 

On rocks in Devonshire. Rev. Aaron Neck. 

On the marble rocks about Torquay, Devonshire, unquestionably 
wild. Rev.H.Beeke,D.D. 

Annual. July. 

Root tapering. Stem wiry, from 1 inch to 4 or 5 in height, (in 
southern countries much taller,) branched, v»'idely spreading, 
leafy, slightly angular, polished. Leaves linear-lanceolate, ses- 
sile* acute, from 1 to 2 inches long, erect j lowermost stalked, 
somewhat spatulate. Umbels lateral and terminal, erect, on 
spreading stalks. General bracteas lanceolate, with .5 ribs, of 
which the lateral ones are close together ; partial bracteas 
ovate, with usually 3 ribs, sometimes accompanied by 2 more, 
near the margin. Flowers cream-coloured, with a tinge of red. 
Anth. large, yellow. Styles scarcely discernible in the flower, 
proceeding from a broad, depressed, greenish base. Germen, as 
well as the fruit, with 3 very evident angles at each side, in 
every stage of growth, the 2 marginal ones, of each seed, meet- 
ing at the juncture, which is rather of less diameter than the 
seeds. 

Like the rest of its genus, this herb is astringent, with some bit- 
terness. 

Gsertner's incorrect figure, if his plant be ours, seems to have 
misled Professor Sprengcl to describe the fruit as destitute of 
ribs. It appears very improbable that this should be Pliny's 
Odontites, Vvith the description of which it does not agree. 

3. B. tejiuisshuu7)i. Slender Hare's-ear. 

Umbels simple, alternate, of about three flowers, with five 

awl-shaped bracteas. 
B. tenuissimum. Linn. Sp. PI. 343. Willd.v. \. 1375. Ft. Br.292, 

Engl. Bot. V. 7. t. 478. Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc.]2. 15. 
B. n. 774. Hall. Hist. V. I. 344. 
B. minimum. Raii Syn. 221 . 
B. tertium minimum. Column. Ecphr. v. 1. 85. t. 247./. 2, 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Ilydrocotyle. 9.0 

B, annuum minimum. Moris, v. 3. 300. sect. 0. t. 12./. 4. 

Agostana tcnuissima. Bute v. 8. 299. 

Odontites tenuissima. Sprcng. Proclr. 33. 

Auricula leporis minima. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 201./. 

In muddy salt-marshes. 

On the shore near Worthing, Sussex. Mr. T. F. Forsfer. At 
Lynn, Wisbeach, Cley, Holkham, &c. m salt-water ditches, or 
muddy places overflowed by the tide. 

Annual. August, September. 

Root z\gzng. Stem slender, erect, wiry, smooth, from 3 to 12 
inches high. Leaves linear-lanceolate, tapering at each end, 
erect, three-ribbed, rather glaucous. Umbels axillary, solitary, 
nearly sessile, sometimes disposed in an interrupted spike ; each 
. of about 3 small yellowish^oii-^?.?. Bracteas 5, awl-shaped, acute, 
ribbed, nearly equal, rising much above the flowers. Fruit 
roundish-ovate, with 3 very prominent angles or ribs, besides 
those at the juncture, to eacli seed, the whole intermediate sur- 
face covered with fine granulations, as in B. semicompositum , 
Fi. Grcec. ^ 261 ; to which circumstance Professor Sprengel al- 
ludes, when he says the fruit of his genus Odontites is " some- 
what downy." But these granulations are not common to all 
the species of Bupleurum which are otherwise most strictly 
allied, nor are they found in B. Odontites itself. I would rather 
therefore preserve this most natural genus, Bupleurum, un- 
disturbed. 



107. HYDROCOTYLE. White-rot. 

Linn. Gen. 127. Juss. 226. LI. Br. 290. Tourn. t. 173. Lam. 
t. 188. Gartn.t. 22. 

FI. all perfect, prolific and regular. Cal. none. Pet. 5, 
equal, ovate, sjireading, undivided. Filam. awl-shaped, 
s})readin<r, shorter than the corolla. u4nih. roundisli. 
Grrni. nearly orbicular, conij)ressed, ribbed, smooth. 
»S7y/t\<? cylindrical, moderately s})readi:]p:, tumid and some- 
what ovate at the base, shorter than the stamen.s, perma- 
nent. Stigmas simple. Ft. Rccejit. uouc. Fruit nearly 
orbicular, rather broader than lontr, compressed, hollowed 
out at the sides, crowned with the j^rmanent, scarcely 
enlaj'ged, styles. Seeds hemispherical, tumid, each with S 
prominent dorsal annrles. Juncture linear, very narrow. 

Creeping herbs, usually inhabiting wet or boggy ground. 
Ijeavcs simple, stalked, roundish, or kidney-shaped, or 
peltate, seldom much divided. {/wZ^r/.v axillary, sim})le; 
rarely proliferous, or compound. Bracteas lew, small, 
Fl. whitish. 



96 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Selinum. 

1. H. vulgaris. Common White-rot. Marsh Penny- 
wort. 
Leaves orbicular, peltate, smooth ; cloven at the base. 
Umbels somewhat aggregate. Flowers nearly sessile. 

H. vulgaris. Lmw. % P/. 338. JVillcL v . \ . \^Q0 . FL Br. 290. 

Engl. BoL V. 11.^.751. Curl. Lond. fasc. 6. t. 19. Hook. 

Scot. 87. Richard Hijdroc. 25./. 1. FL Dan. t. 90. Lind. Hort. 

2G6. t. 12. Rail Sijn. 222. 
H. n. 812. Hall.Hi6t.v.l.36\. 

Ranunculus aquaticus, cotyledonis folio. Bank. Pin. 1 80. 
Cotyledon palustris, Dod.Pempt. 133./. Ger. Em. 529./. 
Aquatica Cotyledon acris septentrional ium. Lob. Ic. 387./. 

On moist heaths, boggy commons, and the margins of little clear 
rivulets, very frequent. 

Perennial. May, June. 

Roots fibrous. Stems creeping to the extent of 2 or 3 feet, slender, 
smooth, often subdivided, quite prostrate. Leaves solitary or 
aggregate, on upright simple footstalks 2 or 3 inches high ; ho- 
rizontal, nearly orbicular, doubly crenale, smooth, light green, 
with 8 or 9 branching ribs, radiating from the centre, and a 
notch, more or less deep, at the base Floicer-stalks axillary, 
1 or more accompanying each group of leaves, shorter than the 
footstalks, with a pair of broad bracteas at the base. Umbel very 
small, its rays so short as to be scarcely observable, usually 
about 5, with 3 or 4 thin lanceolate bracteas at their base. Fl. 
small, white or reddish. Fruit somewhat wrinkled, compressed, 
like all the preceding, laterally, that is, contrary to l\\e juncture ,• 
and not much more "so than several of the foregoing genera or 
species. 

This herb is acrid, and probably, like others of the umbelliferous 
tribe, growing in w^et places, poisonous. But whether it causes 
the rot in sheep, and indeed whether those animals ever touch 
it, is doubtful. Too moist a pasture is known to produce that 
disease, and there the Hydrocotyle is generally to be found. 

168. SELINUM. Milk-parsley. 

Linn. Gen. 133. Juss.22S. Fl. Br. 303. Spreng. Prodr. 15. Lam. 

t.200. Gcertn. t.2\. 
Thysselinum. Tourii. Inst. 319. Spreng. Sp. Umb. 70. 

FL all perfect and regular ; some of the innermost only oc- 
casionally abortive. CaL of 5 minute, spreading, some- 
what pointed, permanent teeth. Pet. involute, pointed, 
inversely heart-shaped, equal. Filam. thread-shaped, 
spreading, about the length of the corolla. Antli. round- 
ish. Gcnucn inferior, ovate, compressed, ribbed, some- 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Selinuni. 97 

what bordered. Styles sliort and close in the flower ; sub- 
sequently elongated, reflexed, flattened ; their bases tu- 
mid, hemispherical. Stigmas obtuse, or capitate. FL Be- 
cept. obsolete. Fruit elliptical, transversely compressed, 
crowned with the calyx and styles. Seeds nearly elliptical, 
almost flat, each with 3 longitudinal, more or less acute, 
dorsal ribs ; the margin dilated, flat, even, smooth, and 
entire, at least half as broad as the body of the seed. 
Juncture broad, flat, close, parallel to the seeds, and of 
the same width, not extending to their wings. 
Perennial or biennial herbs, with rather tall, upright, fur- 
rowed sterns^ and large, repeatedly pinnate, fmely divided, 
leaves. Umbels of many, general as well as partial, an- 
gular rays, with narrow, lanceolate, pointed, genei^al 
and partial hracteas. FL white, numerous. Seeds pale 
brown. 

1 . S. palustre. Marsh Milk-parsley. 

Milky. Root generally single. Leaves triply pinnate; 
leaflets pimialifid, with elliptic-lanceolate segments. Rays 
of the umbel rou"h. Ribs of the seeds broad and obtuse. 

o 
S. palustre. Linn. Sp. PL 350. Willd, v.\. 1397. FL Br. 303. 

EmrL Bot.v. 4. t. 220. Hook. Scot. 88. Sprang. Frodr. 15. Ehrh. 

PL Of. 363. FL Dan. t. 257. Crantz. Austr. fasc. 3. 39. t. 4. 
/. 1 . ? perhaps a starved plant. 
S. sylvestre. Jctcq. Auslr. t. 152. 
S. n. 799. Hall. Hist. v. 1.355. 
S. palustre lactescens. Bank. Pin. 1G2. Prodr. 85./. Moris, v. 3. 

317. 
Thvssclinum palustre. Tourn. Inst.3\9. 
Th'. Plinii. Sprcng. Sp. Unib. 09. Loh. Ic. 711./. Moris, v. 3. 317. 

serf. 9. t. 17./. 2. 
Tiiysselium ane^ustiiolium. Biv. Pent. Irr. ^ 20. 
Ai)ium svlvestre, sive Thyssoliuin. Dod. Pcnipt. (199. /'. Ger. 

Em. 1020./ Dalech. Hist. 701 ./. Bauli. Hist. r. 3. /). 2. 188, 

dcscr. not the Jigurc. 

In marshes and boggy meadows. 

In several parts of Yorkshire and Lancashire ; first noticed by 
Mr. Hudson near Uoncaster. Found in some alilcr swam[)s 
near Yarmouth, i)y Mr. Lilly Wi.LC.q;, and between Norwich and 
Heigham, towards the river, by Mr. l*it(htord. The present 
Bishop of Carlisle noticed it near Prickwillow bank, in tlie Isle 
of Klv, and Mr. Ilopkirk in a ditch at Arilencaj)lc wood, in the 
south of Scotland. 

Perennial ; some sav biennial, .hihi. 



98 PENTANDRIA^DIGYNIA. Selinum. 

Roof, with us, tapering, simple, with many long fibres. Stem so- 
litary, crecL^ 4 or 5 feet high, hollow, deeply furrowed, not 
hairy j branched and corymbose in the upper part j bright purple 
at the base. Leaves about 5 or 6 on the stem, alternate, remote, 
twice or thrice pinnate ; leajleis opposite, deeply pinnatifid, dark 
green, smooth, their segments elliptic-lanceolate, never quite 
linear, rather acute, slightly decurrent, entire ; the terminal 
ones longest. Footstalks branched, striated, smooth; dilated 
and sheathing at the base, witli a reddish membranous margin. 
Umbels large, horizontal, of numerous, rough, angular, general 
and partial rays. General Iracleas several, lanceolate, pointed, 
dependent, not half the length of the rays, their margins mem- 
branous, and partly coloured ; partial ones similar, rather longer 
in proportion. Fl. white, numerous, uniform, with involute 
2-)etah. Seeds elliptical, light brown, paler at the edges ; their 
ribs broad, obtuse, with narrow linear i)iterstices. There are 
several barren or uhortiv ejloicers in each partial umbel. 

The root serves the Russians for Ginger; and the whole herb 
abounds with a white, bitter, fetid juice, of the consistence of 
cream, which soon dries to a brownish acrid resin. This milky 
exudation is the only character by which Tournefort distinguishes 
his Thysseliniun from his Oreose'imum, The ingenious Sprengel 
has, more scientifically, endeavoured to found a generic differ- 
ence on the broader ribs, and somewhat thicker coat, of the seeds, 
compared with other species of Selinum. But I think these cha- 
racters are scarcelydiscernible, and by no means sufficient to au- 
thorize a division of so natural a genus. The true name in 
Pliny is, moreover, Thysselium, which most authors, except the 
learned Rivinus, have negligently corrupted -, but which must be 
restored, if it were wanted, to avoid clashing with Selinum. See 
Philosophia Boianica, sect. 225. 

There appear to be two varieties of Selinum palustre, one of which, 
well represented by Dalechamp, is here described ; and the other, 
with more numerous roots and stews, as figured in Dodonseus, 
(ierarde, Lobel and Morison, is o.^ten taken for the Linnsean 
sylvesire. Professor Sprengel has, with great accuracy and 
judgement, proved them one and the same species. But the 
- ^\ sylvesire of Linneeus, cultivated at Upsal, and preserved in his 
herbarium, is really distinct, having still more compound leaves, 
whose leajlets have perfectly linear and very narrow segments, 
running down into a winged mid-rib, and the aspect of the whole 
leaf, as well as its paler hue, is remarkable. Of this I can dis- 
cover no synonyms. Haller's no. 800, Thysselium of Rivinus, 
t. 19, always mistaken for S. sylvesire, proves by Reynier's her- 
barium, and Haller's description, totally distinct from both these 
Linnsean species, having a bristly stem, and leaves much lesJi 
compound, with far broader segments, than either. No wonder 
that the Swiss botanists have always been in uncertainty respect- 
ing these plants, as appears from Mr. Davall's notes. 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNTA. Peucedamim. 99 
169. FEUCEDANUM. Sulphur-wort. 

Linn. Gen. ]34. Juss. 223. Fl. Br. 304. Tourn. t. 1 69. Spreng, 
Prodr. 13. G(erin.t.2\. 

FL regular, uniform, imperfectly separated ; the innermost 
barren or abortive. CaL of 5 acute, ascending, perma- 
nent teeth. Pet. 5, all very nearly equal, inversely heart- 
shaped, with inflexed points. Filam. capillary, spread- 
ing beyond the petals. Anth. roundish. Germ, inferior, 
oblong, a little compressed laterally, with a rib at each 
side. Sfj/les small, recurved, tumid and ovate-oblong at 
the base; at length somewhat enlarged, permanent. Stigmas 
obtuse, notched. Fl. Recept. none. Fruit broadly ellip- 
tical, nearly orbicular, transversely compressed, crowned 
with the calyx and styles. Seeds broadly elliptical, with 
a notch at eacli end, nearly flat, each with 3 slightly 
prominent ribs, the interstices striated ; the margin di- 
lated, with a flat, even, smooth, entire, narrow wing, or 
border, about one third as broad as the body of the seed. 
Juncture broad, flat, close, parallel to the seeds, each of 
which is marked, on its perfectly flat inner side, with a 
pair of dark brown, continued, converging, longitudinal 
lines. 

Perennial, fetid, resinous, smooth herbs, with round, stri- 
ated, branching, leaty, solid stems. Leaves rejieatcdly 
compound, with extremely narrow, acute, entire leajiets. 
Umbels large, concave, or flat, of numerous, general and 
jyartial, smooth rays. Braeteas several, both general and 
partial^ linear or lanceolate, rather small ; not mem- 
branous at the edges. Fl. yellow. Fruit flrst reddish, 
then of a tawny brown. 

1. V. ojicinalc. Sea Sulphur-wort. Hog's Fennel. 

Leaves five times tleeply three-clelt; loaflols linear, undi- 
vided, flat. Braeteas linear, almost ca})illary. 

\\ officinale. Lmn. Sp. /V.3.j3. //'^/A/. r. 1 . 1 lo:.. Fl. lir. 30 1. 
Ell^L liiil. 7-. 2.'). /. l/f)/. 

P. n. 4. Gmd. Sih. v. I.) 88. /.ll. 

Peuredanum. Rnii S,/u. 206. Truii. Hist. 8S0. /". 88 I . Dod. Pcmpt. 
?>\7.f. Crr. Em.\{)ri4.f. A/(/////. (V//;^r. r, 2. ir>0,/; bad. Co- 
mer. Ejilt. ')'){)./; not ii^ood. 

P. germanirun]. hauli. P'ni. \V.). 

P. majus itulicuni. Il/ul. 

P. luimis e^ernianifuin, ft niajiiv ilaruuiu. liauh. ///>/. r. .>. j). 1. 

II 2 



100 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Pastinacsr, 

Peucedaniis. Fuchs. Hist. 599. f. 
Hog's Fennel. Pet. H. Brit. t. 24./. 7. 

In salt marshes ; very rare. 

In ditches near Shoreham, Sussex j and at Walton, near Harwich, 
Essex. Bay. About a quarter of a mile below Feversham, by 
the river side. Sherard. It still grows there, as well as on a 
cliff, by the sea^ at Hearn, 6 miles from Whitstable. Mr. Crow 
of Fever sham. Never found in Norfolk. 

Perennial. July — September. 

Herb smooth, tough, slender, 3 or 4 feet high, with a resinous juice, 
and a strong sulphureous smell. Leaves copious, their ultimate 
segments, or leaflets 3 together, either quite linear and almost 
capillary, or linear-lanceolate, flat, though very narrow, pointed, 
3-ribbed, 1 }j inch long. Umbels erect, 3 or 4 inches broad. 
Floivers numerous, of an uniform buf^" yellow. Many stimulat- 
ing qualities have been attributed to the root, but it should seem 
to be rather dangerous for internal use. 

170. PASTINACA. Parsnep. 

Linn. Gen. 144, Juss. 2\9. Fl. Br. 328. Tourn.t.]70. Spreng. 
Prodr. 14. Lam. t.206. Gccrtn. t.2\. 

FL all regular, uniform, perfect, and generally prolific. 
Cal. of 5 very minute, obsolete teeth, permanent, con- 
cealed by the floral receptacle. Pet. 5, broad-lanceolate, 
pointed, involute, equal. Sta7n, thread- shaped, spreading, 
about the length of the petals. Anth. roundish. Germen 
inferior, ovate, compressed transversely, obscurely stri- 
ated. Styles in the flower very short, erect; subsequently 
spreading, recurved, moderately elongated; greatly di- 
lated, rather depressed, at the base, and confluent with 
the broad, orbicular, wavy, rather thin, Jl. recept, Stig- 
mas capitate. Fruit broadly elliptical, somewhat obovate, 
compressed transversely, crowned with the fl. recept. and 
styles. Seeds of the same form, with a slight notch at the 
summit ; very nearly flat at the back, with 3 dorsal ribs, 
and 2 distant, more prominent and broader ones, at the 
circumference, beyond which is a thin, narrow, even, 
acute border ; their inner surface flat, marked with a 
pair of continued, converging, browni lines, shorter than 
the seed. Juncture close, flat, parallel to the seeds, and 
nearly as broad. 
Large, broad-leaved, biennial or perennial, sweetish or 
bitter, aromatic plants, with more or less roughness on 
their surface. Fl. yellow. Seeds light brown, darker be- 
tween the ribs. 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Heracleum. 101 

1. P. sativa. Common Wild Parsnep. 

Leaves simply pinnate ; downy beneath. 

P. sativa. Linn. Sp. PL 376. mild. v. I. 1466. n.Br.328. Engl. 

' Bot. v.S. t. 556. Mart. Rust. t. 83. 
P. sylvestris. Iluds. 125. Ilelh. 123. Sibth. 101. Abbot 67 . 
P. n. 808. Hall. Hist. v. 1.359. 

P. sylvestris latifolia. Raii Syn. 206. Ger. Em. 1025./. Bauh. 
Pin. 155. Dod. Pempt. 680./. Moris, v. 3. 314. sect. 9. t. 16. 

Pastinaca. Trag. Hist. 439./ 440. Riv. Pentap. Irr. t. 6. 

P. domestica. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 106./. Camer. Epit. 507. f. 

Siser sylvestrc. Fuchs. Hist. 753./ 

About the borders of fields,, on hillocks and drybanks^ in a chalky 
soil. 

Biennial. July. 

7?oo^ spindle-shaped^ white, aromatic, mucilaginous and sweet, with 
a degree of acrimony which it loses by cultivation, becoming tlie 
eatable garden Parsnep. Stem a yard high, erect, branched, 
leafy, angular, deeply furrowed, roughish. Leaves oblong, pin- 
nate, with footstalks dilated and concave at the base ,• left/lets 
from 3 or 5 to 9, opposite, ovate, serrated and cut^ bright green, 
downy at the back j the terminal one 3-lobed. Umbels termi- 
nal, erect, of several unequal, angular, downy rays^ partial ones 
of more numerous rays. Both are usually naked ; but there is 
occasionally a solitary lanceolate bractea, under the general, as 
well as partial, umbels, Fl. yellow, small, some of the inner- 
most not unfrequently abortive. Fruit large, pale brown when 
quite ripe. 

171. HERACLEUM. Cow-parsnep. 

Linn. Gen. 137. Juss. 222. Fl. Br. 306. Spreng. Prodr. 12. Lam- 

t. 200. 
Sphondylium. Tourn. t. 170. Gcertn. t.2\. 

FL incompletely separated; the inner ones barren, or 
abortive; those of the circumference perfect and prolific. 
CaL of 5 small, acute teeth, obliterated in the fruit. Pet. 
5, inversely heart-shaped, with an inflexed point ; in the 
innermost flowers smallest, nearly e(jual and re^idar; in 
those of the circiunfercnce much larger, irregular, and 
radiant, the outer one lar<;est, with ecjual lobes, the rest 
more or less uncfjualiy divided ; the '2 inner ones smallest. 
Filcivi. thread-shaj)ed, longer than the corolla, spivacling, 
a little incurved. Anth. roundish. Germ, inferior, ovate, 
slightly compressed transversely. Stijh's at lir:^t erect, 
rather short; subse(iuently llalleiied, spreading, and some- 



102 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Heracleiun. 

what elongated ; broad and pyramidal at the base. Stig- 
mas obtuse, notched. Floral Recejpt. undulated, crenate, 
obtuse, a little broader than the bases of the styles, to 
which it is united. Fruit inversely heart-shaped, some- 
what elliptical, compressed transversely, nearly flat, 
crowned with the fl. recept. and styles. Seeds of the 
same form, deeply notched at the summit, more or less 
evidently at the base ; flat in the disk, with 3 slender 
dorsal ribs, and 2 distant marginal ones, the interstices 
occupied, in their upper half, by 4 intermediate, coloured, 
slightly channelled, parallel lines ; border narrow, some- 
what tumid, smooth, even and entire ; inner surface flat 
and even, with a pair of obtuse coloured lines, extending 
from near the summit to the middle. Juncture close, flat, 
parallel to the seeds, and nearly as broad. 
Robust perennial or biennial plants, hairy or roughish, aro- 
matic with some sweetness ; their stems hollow, furrowed; 
their leaves variously pinnate, with broadish, jagged, ser- 
rated, often decurrent and radiating, leciflets. Umbels 
large, broad and flat. General bracteas deciduous, or 
wanting; partial lanceolate, taper-pointed. FL large, 
numerous, white or reddish. Seeds straw-coloured, with 
brown lines. 

1 . H. Sphondyliuvi. Common Covv-parsnep. Hog- 
weed. 
Leaves pinnate ; leaflets pinnatifid, cut and serrated, 

H. Sphondylium. Lum. Sp. PL358. mild.vA. 1421. Fl.Br.S07. 
Engl. Bot. V. 11. t. 939. Hook. Scot. 89. Ehrh. PI. Of. 383. 
Spreng. Prodr. 12. Spec. Umh. 41. 

Sphondylium. Rail Syu. 205. Ger. Em. 1009./ Matth. Valgr. 
v.2.\47.f. Camcr.Epit.5iS.f. Dod. PempL307.f. Riv. Pen- 
tap. Irr. t. 4. 

S. n. 809. Hall. Hist. v. 1.360. 

S. vulgare hirsutum. Bauh. Pin. 157. Moris, v. 3. 313. sect. 9. 
M6./.1. 

Acanthus germanica. Fuchs. Hist. 53./. 

Cow Parsnep. Pct.H. Brit. t.24.f. 1. 

(5. Huds.Wr. mth.296.var.2. Relh.\\2. 

Heracleum angustifolium. Fl. Br.2,07 . Abbot 6\. Jacq. Enum.45. 

217. t. 2. Austr. V. 2. 46. t. 173. Not of Linnaeus. 
Sphondylium majus aliudj laciniatis foliis. Raii Syn. 205. 
S. hirsutum^ foliis angustioribus. Bauh. Pin. 157. Prodr. 83. 
S. hirsutum minus, foliis tenuiter Inciniatis^ semine lato. Pluk, 

Almag. 3.35. Phyt. f.63.f.3. 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Tordylium. 103 

Jagged Cow Favsncp. Pet. H. Brit. t. 24./. 2. 

In hedges, the borders of fields, and rather moist meadows, very 
common*. 

Biennial. Jiihj. 

Root tap-shajjed, whitish, aromatic, sweetish and rather mucilagi- 
nous. Stem 4 feet high, erect, branched, leafy, furrowed, rough 
with white s])reading hairs. Leaves large, ternate or pinnate 5 
lea/lets usually broad, rather heart-shaped, lobed, serrated, veiny, 
hairy, paler beneath ; varying occasionally very much in breadth, 
and in the variety /3, which that excellent observer the late Mr. 
Woodward found gron'ing on the same root with the common 
kind, deeply pinnatifid, the 2 lowest lobes elongated and spread- 
ing in a radiating manner, as delineated by Jacquin and Pluke- 
net. Footstalks hairy ; dilated, ribbed, concave, and sheathing, 
at the base. Umbels flattish, of many angular rays, which are 
downy at one side, like the more numvrous, partial rays. Brac- 
teas lanceolate, membranous, finely fringed, with long taper 
points, the general ones few, soon falling off, or altogether want- 
ing. Fl. more or less conspicuously radiant, white, or reddish ; 
many, in the central portion of each partial umbel, barren, with 
no traces of a germeii. Fruit abund^mt, light brown^ with 4 
puri)lish-brown lines at each side. 

The whole plant is wholesome and nourishing food for cattle ; and 
is gathered in Sussex for fattening hogs, being known by the 
name of Hog- weed, as I have learned from Sir Thomas Frank- 
land. 

Tu'o very able botanists having compared a Yorkshire narrow- 
leaved specimen, with one from Sweden of the true Linna^an 
//. angustifulium, they assured me of its being indubitably the 
same. Hence I admitted //. a)igusfifulium into the Flora Bri- 
tannica, with a description made from the plant in the Linniuan 
herbarium, which is clearly a diyLinct species ; but on seeing the 
Yorksliire specimen, I at once perceived the mistake, which is 
corrected in Engl. But. Jacquin's angustifulium is doubtless our 
variety, wliatever his longijoliuni, Fl. Austr. i. j 74, a much larger 
plant, nuiy be. 

172. TORDYLIUM. Hait-uort. 

Finn. den. 1.30. Juss.22\. Fl. Br.2\)\. Spnng. Frodr. II. Tourn. 
/. 170. Lam.t.\[\'6. (iccrln.t.2\. 

Fl. in<nc or less jierfcctly separated, irregular; those of the 
circuinference fertile. CV//. of 5 awl-shaj)e(l, unequal, tle- 
ciihious or ])erniaiieut teeth. Pet. .'3; in the innermost 
flowers sniailest, nearly ecpial and unitorni, inversely 
heart-shaped, with an indexed point: in those of llu' cir- 
cuinference radiant, variously unetpial and irregular, in- 



104 PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Tordylium, 

vei'sely heart-shaped, with an inflexed point ; the inner 
one smallest, with equal lobes, the two next with very 
unequal lobes, and the outermost w^ith very large equal 
ones ; or the three innermost have nearly equal, and the 
2 outermost extremely unequal, lobes, the largest one of 
each coming together. Filam. thread-sha}:)ed, spreading, 
as long as the smaller petals, often wanting in the radiant 
flowers. Anth. roundish. Genu, inferior, ovate, rugged 
or bristly, transversely compressed. Styles thread-shaped, 
erect, swelling at the base, subsequently spreading, de- 
ciduous ; wanting in the central flowers. Stigmas simple. 
Fl. Recept. none. Fruit almost orbicular, compressed 
transversely, crowned with the tumid bases of the styles. 
Seeds of the same form, nearly flat in the disk, scarcely 
ribbed or striated, sometimes rough or bristly ; the bor- 
der tumid, wrinkled or crenate, bristly or naked. Junc- 
ture flat, close, broad, including part of the border. 
Roughish, annual herbs ; with pinnate, broad, notched 
leaves^ and compound wnhels of handsome, radiant, white 
or reddish ^ow^r5. Bracteas linear, both general and 
partial ; the latter unequal. 

t 1. T. officinale. Small Hart-wort. 

Partial bracteas about as long as the flowers. Leaflets 
ovate, cut, crenate. Radiant petals in pairs, with very 
unequal lobes. 

T. officinale. Unn. Sp. PI. 345. mild. v.\.l3S\. FL Br. 294. 

Engl. Bot. V. 34. t. 2440. Fl. Grcec. v. 3. 60. t. 267. Tr. of Linn, 

Soc.v. 12.347. 
T, sive Seseli creticum minus. Raii Sijn. ed. 2. 102. 
T. narbonense minus. Tourn. Inst. 320. Dill, in Raii Sijn. 206 ; 

with an erroneous place of growth. 
T. apulum minimum. Column. Ecphr. 122. t. 124. f. I. Moris. 

V. 3. 316. sect. 9. t. \6.f. 6. 
T.BoiXondil Dalech.His.t.7 51. f. 
Seseli creticum^ sive Tordylium. Dad. Pempt. 3\3.f. 314, Lob. 

Ic, 736. f. 
S. creticum minus. Bauh. Pin. 161. Ger. Em. 1050./. 
Caucalis minor, pulchro semine^ sive Bellonii. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. 

p. 2.84./. 
Small Hart-wort. Pet.H. Brit. t.24.f. 6. 

In cultivated fields, but very rare ; possibly never seen at all in 
England, the following having been confounded with it. 

Found by Mr. Doody about Isleworth. Ray. About London. Pe- 
tit' er. 



PENTANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Tordylium. 105 

Annual. Juney July. 

Root tapering, small. Stem generally branched, a little spread- 
ing, round, t'urrovved, leafy, from 10 to 14 inches high, clothed 
with soft, deflexed hairs. Leaves rough, hairy, simply pinnate; 
leaflets few, roundish or ovate, crenate and variously cut j the 
odd one largest. Footstalks of the lower ones longest ; of the 
uppermost very short ; all but slightly dilated, though strongly 
ribbed, at the base. Umbels terminal, on long stalks, dense, a 
little convex ; tlie disk of numerous, crowded, nearly equal, white 
Jiowers; the radius formed of the very unequal, outer petals, of 
iXm flowers oi the circumference, the large lobes of 2 flowers 
coming together, and resembling a single petal. These lobes 
are sometimes reddish. Bracteas lanceolate, acute ; the partial 
ones largest at one side of the partial umbels. Fruit hairy on the 
disk, brown, with scarcely any ribs or lines ; the border paler^ 
greatly elevated, tumid, neatly crenate transversely. 

T. apulum, figured in Rivinus, Vcntap. Irr. t. 2, and Jac(j. Ilort. 
Vind. V. 1 . t. 53, is readily distinguished by having, in each mar- 
ginal flower^ only one radiant petal, with two equal lobes. 

2. T. maximum. Great Hart- wort. 

Leaflets lanceolate, deeply serrated and notched. Flowers 
somewhat radiant; the outermost petal of two ecjual 
lobes. Stem rough, with close deflexed bristles. 

T. maximum. Linn. Sp. PL 345. mild. v. 1 . 1382. Fl. Br. 295. 

Engl. Bot. V. \7. t.\ 173. Jacq. Auslr. t. 142. Tourn. Inst. 320. 

Dill, in Raii Sun.206. 
T. n.811. Hall. 'Hist. v. 1.361. 
T. vulgatius, semine piano, flore ex rubcnte albo. Moris, v. 3. 31 G. 

sect. 9. t. 16./. 1. 
Tordylium. Riv. Penfap. Irr. t. 1. 
Ileracleum Tordylium. Spreng. Sp. Umb. 49. 
Seseli creticum majus. Bauh. Pin. 161 . Ger. Em. 1050./. 
S. creticum, sive Tordilion, majus. Lob. h. 737./. 
Caucalis maxima, Spliondylii aculeato semine. Bauh. Pin. 152. 
C. major. CI us. Hist. r. 2.'2()1./ 
C. major, semine minus pukhro hirsute. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 

85./ 

On banks and waste ground, but rare. 

About London. Morison. Under the hedge on tlie north side of 
the Parks, (Jxford. Dr. J. Sibthorp and Mr. Woodward. In a 
hedge about half a mile from Kton. Mr. R. Gotobcd. 1803. 

Annual. June, July. 

Root tapering. Stem 3 or 4 feet higli, erect, branched, leafy, hol- 
low, angular and deeply furrowed, clothed with fine rigid bristles, 
all closely deflexed. La/ro pinnate, of a daiker i^ieen than the 



106 PENTANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Vibumum. 

stem, densely covered with fine, close, bristly hairs, all directed 
towards the point j leajlets oblong-lanceolate, the lower ones 
ovate, all coarsely serrated, and sometimes deeply notched, sin- 
gle-ribbed, veiny j the odd one largest. Footstalks somewhat 
dilated at the lower part, often hairy. Umbels rather small and 
dense, bristly, as well as their linear, general and partial, brae- 
teas. Teeth of the calyx veiy unequal. Fl. reddish, more or 
less radiant, the outermost petal with equal lobes, the 2 next 
with extremely unequal ones. Seeds nearly orbicular : exter- 
nally bristly ; the disk a little convex, marked with 4 brown 
longitudinal lines 3 the border pale, tumid, wrinkled sufficiently 
to determine the generic character, though not so elegantly as 
in the preceding, and beset with direct bristles ; the inside of 
each seed, with the border, quite smooth, with 2 close^ parallel, 
brown lines, in the middle. 



^EI^TA^'DEIA TRIGYNIA. 

173. VIBURNUM. Guelder-rose. 

Linn.GenA47. Juss.2l3. Fl.Br.334. Toiirn. t.377. Lam.t.2\\. 

Gcertn. t.27 . 
Opulus. Tourn. t. 376. 

Nat. Orel. Dumosa;, Linn. 43. Caprifolia, Jiiss. 5S, Re- 
quires revision. N. 174 the same. 

Cal. superior, minute, of 1 leaf, in 5 deep segments, per- 
manent. Cor. of 1 petal, shordy funnel-shaped, with 5 
obtuse, spreading, not quite equal, marginal lobes. Fi- 
lam, 5, awl-shaped, spreading, about the length of the 
corolla, inserted into its tube, alternate widi the segments. 
AntJi. roundish. Germ, inferior, roundish, a little com- 
pressed. Style none. Stigmas 3, sessile, obtuse. Berr;i/ 
roundish, either globular or compressed, of 1 cell. Seed 
solitary, hard, roundish, compressed. 

Shrubs, with opposite, stalked, simple, smooth or downy, 
leaves, red in autumn. Fl. white or reddish, numerous, 
in terminal cj/}?ces. Berries red, or purplish-black, not 
eatable. 



PENTANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Viburnum. 107 

1 . V. Lantana, Mealy Guelder-rose. Way-faring 

Tree. Cti^^nJ^^-^ UlY.. 

Leaves heart-shaped, serrated, veiny ; downy beneath. 

V. Lantana. Linn. Sp. PL 384. Wllld. v. 1. 1489. FL Br. 334. 

Engl. Bot. v.D. f. 331. Hook. Scot, 96. Jacq. Austr. t. 341. 
V. n. 669. Ucdl. Hist. v. 1.298. 
Viburnum. Rail Syn. 460. Bank. Pin. 429. Matth. Valgr. v.\. 

194/ Camer.EpU. 122. f. Dalcch.Hist.2bQ. f. Duham.Arb. 

v.2.t.W6. 
^'iurna vulgi. Lob. Ic. v. 2. 168./. 
Lantana. Dod. Pempt. 7S\.f. Ger. Em. 1490./ 

In woods and hedges^ especially on a chalky or limestone soil. 

Shrub. Mcnj. 

A small tree, with copious, opposite, round, pliant, mealy 6>Ymc/ie5. 
Leaves deciduous, heart-shaped, rounded, finely serrated j cloth- 
ed beneath, more sparingly on the up])cr side, with starry mealy 
pubescence, like that on the branches, foot-stalks, and flower- 
stalks. Stipulas none, Bracicas several, small, acute. Cymes 
broad and fiat, of numerous, crowded, white ^o«.-er6,, with yel- 
lowish anthers. Stigmas short and thick. L'emc^ comj)resscd j 
in an early state red on the outer side, yellow on tlie inner j 
finally black, with a little mealy astringent pulp. Seed large, 
flat and furro\ved. 

The leaves turn of a dark red in autumn. This shrub is scarcely 
worth cultivating for ornament, nor is it of any particular use, 
except that the bark serves to make bird-lime ; but that of 
Holly, V. 1 . p. 227. is much better. 

2. V. Opu/us, Common Guelder-rose. Water Elder. 
Leaves lobed. Footstalks beset with glands. 

V. Opuliis. Linn. Sp. PI. 384. mild. v. I. 1490. Fl. Br. 335. 

Engl. Bot. V. 5. ^.332. Hook. Scot. 96. Fl. Dan. t. 661. 
Opulus. Rail Sijn.460. Duham. Arh. v. 2, /. 16. 
O. n. 668. Hall. Hist. v. 1.297. 
Sambucus arpiatica. Bauh. Pin.4^iC). Trag. Hisf.\{)02.J\ Malth. 

Falgr. V. 2. 607./. Cainer. Epit. 977./ 
S. a(pialilis, sivc palustris. Ger. E))i. 1424./ 

hi watery hedges and swami)y thickets. 

Shrub, or Small Tree. June. 

Taller than the preceding, and quite smooth in every part. Leaves 
larger, as broad as the hand, paler l)eneath, three-lobed, un- 
equally serrated, veiny, deciduous ; bright green in summer, 
but in autumn assuming a biautiful jjink or crimson luu-. like 
other Kuropiuan species of genera that are principallv American, 
as Curtius. Footstalks channelled, bordered with several round 
green glands towards the toj), and bcvcral oblong leafy Hpj)tn- 



108 PENTANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Sambucus. 

dages lower clown. Stipulas none. Cymes large, white, with 
linear bracteas. Several marginal j^0M;er5 dilated, flat, radiant, 
without stamens or pistils. In the cultivated variety, the whole 
cyme, nearly, consists of sucli, and becomes globular. Berries 
elliptical, bright red, very juicy, but bitter and nauseous. Seed 
compressed. 
The variety just mentioned, called the Snow-ball tree, or Guelder- 
rose, is commonly planted in shrubberies, along with the Lilac, 
and Laburnum, grouping elegantly with the various purple hues 
of the former, and the " golden chain" of the latter j but they 
are all mere summer beauties, nor does any thing profitable or 
ornamental follow. 

174. SAMBUCUS. Elder. 

Linn. Gen. 147. Juss. 214. JF7. Br. 335. Tourn. t. 376. Lam. 
f. 211. Gcertn. t.27. 

Nat. Ord. see n, 173. 

Cal. superior, of 1 leaf, small, in 5 deep segments, perma- 
nent. Cor, of 1 petal, nearly wheel-shaped, but slightly 
concave, in 5 deep, obtuse, somewhat reflexed, segments. 
Filam. awl-shaped, about the length of the corolla, in- 
serted into its base, alternate with the segments. Aiith, 
roundish heart-shaped. Germ, inferior, ovate, obtuse. 
Style none. Stigmas 3, obtuse. Berry globular, of 1 cell. 
Seeds 3, convex at the outside, angular inwards. 

Stem arborescent with a solid spongy pith, rarely herba- 
ceous. Leaves opposite, stalked, pinnate, serrated, de- 
ciduous. Ft, white, or purplish, in terminal cymes, Ber- 
ries purple, cathartic. 

1. ^. Ebuhis. Dwarf Elder. Danewort. 

Cymes with three main branches. Stipulas leafy. Stem 
herbaceous. 

S. Ebulus. Lmn. Sp. P^ 385. Willd.v.lAA^A. FLBr.336. Engl. 
Bot. V. 7. t. 475. Curt. Lond.fasc. 3. 1. 18. Woodv. suppl t. 260. 
Hook. Scot. 96. 

S. n. 671. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 299. 

S. humilis, sive Ebulus. Bauh. Pin. 456. Raii Syn. 461 . Mill. Ic. 
151. t.226. 

Ebulus. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 608./. Camer. Epit. 979./. Fuchs. 
Hist. 65./. Ic. 38./. 

E. sive Sambucus humilis. Ger.Em. 1426,/ 

In waste ground, and about hedges, but not common either in En- 
gland or Scotland. 

Perennial. July. 



PENTANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Sambucus. 109 

Root fle.shy, creeping, difficult of extirpation. S/em5 annual, sim- 
ple, erect, leafy, about a yard high, roundish, though very deeply 
and unequally furrowed. Leaves dark green, nearly smooth, 
with ovate-lanceolate, acute, sharply serrated leaflets, unequal 
at their base, some of them 4 or 5 inches long. Stipulas large, 
leafy, cut, sometimes accompanying 2 or 3 of the lowest pairs 
of leaflets, as well as the main footstalk. Cymes first 3-cleft, 
then variously and copiously branched, hairy. Fl. all stalked, 
of a dull purplish hue, with thick, upright, white Jilamerits, whose 
anthers are reddish. Berries globose, black, not always perfected. 
Seeds 3 or 4. 

Our ancestors evinced a just hatred of their brutal enemies the 
Danes, in supposing the nauseous, fetid and noxious plant be- 
fore us to have sprung from their blood. Its qualities are vio- 
lently purgative, sometimes emetic ; yet a rob of the fruit is 
said to have been taken with safety, as far as an ounce. The fo- 
liage is not eaten by cattle, nor will moles come where these 
leaves, or those of the following species, are laid, 

2. S. nigra. Common Elder. 

Cymes with five main branches. Stipulas obsolete. Leaflets 
ovate. Stem arboreous. 

S. nigra. Linn. Sp. PL 385. Wlllcl v. 1. 1495. H. Br. 336. Engl. 

Bat. V. 7. t. 476. Woodv. Med. Bot. t. 78. Hook. Scot, 96. Fl. 

Dan. t.545. Ehrh.Pl.Of. 123. 
S. n. 670. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 298. 
Sambucus. Raii Si/n. 46 1 . Ger. Em. 1 422. /. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 

606. /. (erroneously marked montana.) Camer. Epit. 975. f. 

Fuchs. Hist. 64./. Ic. 37./. Diiham. Arh. v. 2. t. (jb. 
/3. S. fructu albo. Ger. Em. 1422./ 
S. acinis albis, Raii Sijn. 461. 

y. S. laciniatis foliis. Ger. Em. 1422./ Loh. Ic. v.2. 164./ 
S. laciniato folio. Bank. Pin. 45G. Raii Stjn. 461. 

In hedges, coppices, and woods, common ; the varieties rare, ex- 
cept in gardens. 

A small tree. Jinie. 

AStem much and irregularly, though always opj^ositely, branched, 
of quick growth ; brauclirs, after a year's growth, clothed with 
smooth grey bark, and filled witii a light si)ongy pitli. Leaflets 
deep green, smooth, usually 2 i)air, with an odd one. Ci/mcs 
large, smooth, of numerous croam-coloured//o//t';\s',with a sweet, 
but taint smell ; some in each cyme sessile. Berries globular, 
purplish-black ; their stalks reddish. 

It may be observed tliat our uncertain summer is established by the 
time the Elder is in full flower, and entirely gone when its berries 
are ripe. These berries make a useful and agreeable rob, of a 
blightly purgative quality, and very good for catarrhs, sore 



110 PENTANDRIA--TRIGYNIA. Staphylea, 

throats, &c. The inner bark is more actively cathartic, and is 
thought beneficial, in rustic ointments and cataplasms, for burns. 
The dried flowers serve for fomentations, and make a fragrant 
but debilitating tea, useful perhaps in acute inflammations^ but 
not to be persisted in habitually. An infusion of the leaves proves 
fatal to the various insects which thrive on blighted or delicate 
plants, nor do many of this tribe, in the caterpillar state, feed 
upon them. Cattle scarcely touch them, and the mole is driven 
away by their scent. 
Both the varieties above marked have usually whitish berries, of a 
less disagreeable flavour than the recent black ones ; but the 
latter are best for medical use. A wine is often made of them, 
to be taken warm, with spices and sugar ; and they are said 
frequently to enter into the composition of a less innocent be- 
verage, artificial or adulterated Port. 

175. STAPHYLEA. Bladder -nut. 

Linn. Gen. \A^. Jmss.377. Ft. Br. 337. Lnm.t. 210. Gcerfn.f.69. 
Staphylodendron. Tourn. i. 386. 

Nat. Ord. Trihilaicc. Linn. 23. Rhamni. Juss. 95. Celas- 
trincc. Brown Bot. of Terra Aiistr. 22. Linnaeus in MS. 
has hinted its affinity to Celastrus. 

Cal. inferior, of 1 leaf, concave, in 5 deep, coloured, seg- 
ments, full as large as the corolla. Pet. 5, oblong, ob- 
tuse, erect, similar to the calyx. 'Nectary cup-shaped, 
central. Filam. thread-shaped, erect, the length of the 
petals. Anth. roundish. Germ, superior, rather tumid, 
m 2 or 3 deep divisions. Styles 2 or 3, simple, erect, a 
little longer than the stamens. Stigmas obtuse, near to- 
gether. Caps, 2 or 3, inflated, bladder^', open at the top and 
obliquely pointed, combined lengthwise by their sutures, 
where they burst, at the inner side. Seeds 2 in each cap- 
sule, hard, globose, with a large scar, and an oblique, 
adjoining, lateral point. 
S. pinnata lias generally but 2 styles, and as many capsules. 
Shrubs, or trees, with opposite branches and leaves; the 
latter simply or doubly pinnate, or only ternate ; lea/lets 
ovate. Fl. in drooping clusters, greenish-yellow. 

1. S. pimiala. Common Bladder-nut. 

Leaves pinnate. Styles and capsules but two. 

S. pinnata. Linn. Sp. PL3S6. JVUld. v. 1. 1497. Fl Br. 337. Engl, 

Bot. V. 22. t. 1560. Ehrh.Arb. 103. 
S. n. 831. HalLHisl.v. 1.3/1. 



PENTxVNDRIA— TRIGYNI A. Tamai ix. 1 1 1 

Staph vlodendron. Rali SynAGS. Mai tli. Falgr. v. 1.249. f. Ca- 
mer. Epit. \7\.f. Buuh. Hist. v. 1. 274./. Duham. Arb. v. 2. 
t.77. Dalech. Hist. 102./. 

Nux vesicaria. Ger. Em. 1437./. Dod. Pempt. 818./. 

In hedges and thickets, but rare. 

About PontetVact, Yorkshire, scarcely in sufficient plenty to be 
deemed certainly wild. Ray. About Ashford, Kent. Parkinson. 
Truly in(hgenous in Yorkshire. Mr. Hailstone. 

Shrub. June. 

A smooth, branching sliruh, with foliage resembling some kind of 
Ash, and throwing up many suckers. Leaves deciduous, oppo- 
site, pinnate j Icujiets 2 ])air, with an odd one, uniform, ovate, 
acute, finely serrated. Slipulas general and partial, awl-shap- 
ed, membranous, deciduous, 2 to each pair of leaflets. Clusters 
terminating the young branches, drooping, interrupted, and 
partly compound, many-flowered. Bracteas linear, membranous, 
coloured, deciduous. Fl. of a pale greenish yellow, bell-shaped, 
pendulous, inodorous. Caps, much larger, green, light and in- 
flated. Seeds pale brown, appearing as if varnished, 

Haller says children eat the kernels j but according to Gcrarde, 
their first sweetness is succeeded by a nauseous taste, and ;in 
emetic effect. Singularity rather than beauty procures this plant 
a place in gardens. 

170. TAMARIX. Tamarisk. 

Linn. Gen. 148. Juss.^U. Fl. Br. 338. Lam. t. 213. Gcertn. t. 61. 
Tamariscus. Tourn. List. 60\. 

Nat. Ord. Succulcuice. Liiiii. 13. Porhdacea;. Juss. S6. 

Cal. inierior, of 1 leaf, in 5 deep, obtuse, erect, j^ernianent 
segments, half the length of the corolla. Pet. 5, obovate, 
obtuse, concave, spreading. Filam. .5, capillary, inserted 
into the calyx, opposite to its segments; somelimes with 
5 intermediate ones. Anlh. incumbent, roundish. Gomcn 
superior, ovale, })oijited. Shjlc none. S//tj;ma.s 3, revolute, 
obtuse, downy. C(/j)s. ovate-oblong, pointed, triangular, 
longer than the calyx, of 1 cell, and 3 valves. Scn/s nu- 
merous, minute, with a stalked, featliery crown. 

Slender, pliant, branching .^Z/rz/i^.S with minute, flesliv, sessile 
/eaves. Fl. reddish, in dense, lateral, as well as terminal, 
ciNs/e}s. 

1 . T. ^al/irft. French Tamarisk. 

Stamens five. Lateral clusters numerous. Leaves lanceo- 
late, spurrril, acute. Dranehes smooth. 



1 12 PENTANDRI A— TRIGYNIA. Con igiola. 

T. gallica. Liym. Sp. P1386. JVilld. v A. \ 498. FLBr.SSS. EngL 
Bot.vAO. t.lSlS. FLGriec.v/3.8b.t.29\. Rees's Cyclop.v.35. 
Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 3. 333. Ehrh. PL Of. 364. 

T. floribus pentandris. Mill. Ic. 175. t. 262./. 1. 

T. narbonensis. Dalech. Hist. 180./. 

T. major, sive arborea, narbonensis. Bauh. Hist. v. \.p. 2.350./. 

Tamariscus narbonensis. Tourn. Inst. 661. Ger.Em.\378.f. Lob. 
Ic.v.2.2\8.f. 

Myrica. Matth. Valgr. v. 1. 136./. Camer. Epit. 74./. 1. 

M. sylvestris prima. Clus. Hist. v. 1. 40,/. 

On rocks and cliffs on the south coast of England. 

Plentiful on banks about the Lizard Point, and on St. Michael's 
Mount, Cornwall. D. Gilbert, Esq. M.P. Near Hurst castle, 
Hants. Dr. Maton. Near Hastings. Bishop of Carlisle and Mr. 
Menzies. 

Shrub. July. 

Stem slender, with abundance of long, drooping, red, shining 
branches. Leaves minute, scattered or imbricated, deciduous, 
lanceolate, acute, smooth, with a loose spur at the base. Clusters 
lateral and terminal, stalked, dense, cylindrical, of numerous, 
nearly sessile, reddish or white, bracteated flowers, without 
scent. 

Commonly planted in English gardens and shrubberies, long before 
Archbishop Grindall imported this species or T. germanica, it is 
not clear which, to cure indurations of the spleen. See Camden's 
Life of Queen Elizabeth. Sheep feed greedily on the French 
Tamarisk, for the sake of its salt taste. 



177. CORRIGIOLA. Strapwort. 

Linn. Gen. ]49. Juss. 3\3. Fl.Br.338. Lom.t. 2]3. Gartn.t.7'j. 
Polygonifolia. Dill. Giss. append. 95. t. 3. 

Nat. Orel. Holeracecc. Linn. 12. PortulacecE, Juss. 86. 

Cal. inferior, of 5 obovate, concave, spreading, permanent 
leaves, as large as the corolla. Pet. 5, obovate, spreading, 
entire, not bigger than the calyx-leaves. Filam. awl- 
shaped, small, not half so long as the petals, alternate 
\^\t\\ them, inserted into the calyx. Anth. of 2 roundish 
lobes. Germ, superior, ovate, with 3 slight angles. Styles 3, 
short, spreading. Stigmas obtuse. Seed 1, large, naked, 
roundish with 3 angles, wrinkled, covered by the closed 
calyx. 

Herbaceous, annual, smooth, with scattered, simple, undi- 
vided leaves., and interrupted clusters of white fowers. 
Only 1 species. 



PENTANDRIA— TETRAGYNIA. Parnassia. 11^ 

1. C. littoralis. Sand Strapwort. 

C. littoralis. Linn. Sp. PL 388. mild. v. 1. 1506. Fl. Br. 339. 

Engl. Bot. V. 10. t. 668. Fl. Grcpc. v. 3. 86. t. 292. Dicks. Dr. PI. 

61. H. Sicc.fasc. 14. 10. Fl. Dan. t.334. 
C. n. 842. Hall. Hist. v.\. 37b. 
Polygoni, vel Linifoliaper teiram sparsa, florCj Scorpioides. Bauh. 

Hist. V. 3. p. 2. 379./. 
Polygonum littoreum minus, flosculis spacUceo-albicantibus. Bauh. 

Pin. 2S\. Prodr.\3\. Moris, v. 2. 593. sect. 5. t. 29./. \. 
P. minus, spermate in cauliculorum extremis acervato^ thlaspios 

sapore. Cupan. Panphyt. ed. \.v. \,t. 76. 

On the southern coast of England. 

Found by Mr. Hudson, on Slapham sands beyond Dartmouth, and 
near the Star point. Mr. Martin. On the beach near the tin 
mine at Helston, Cornwall. F. Borone. 

Annual. July, August. 

Root small and tapering. Stems several inches long, spreading 
on the ground in every direction, flaccid, not much branched, 
round, leafy, flowering at the extremity. Leaves linear-lanceo- 
late, obtuse^ entire, glaucous, rather fleshy, each tapering at the 
base into a short /ootstalk. Stipulas in pairs, acute, membra- 
nous. Clusters terminal and lateral, subdivided or interrupted^ 
of numerous, })early, often sessile,^oj/;crs. Seed black. 

C. capensis, Willd. v. 1. 1507, appears not specifically distinct. 



PENTANDRIA TETRAGYNIA. 
1/8. PARNASSIA. Grass of Parnassus. 

Linn. Gen. \j\. Juss. 24j. Fl. Br. 339. rourn.t.V27. Lam.t.2\6. 
Gccrtn. t. 60. 

Nat. Ord. CampanacciV. Linn. 29. Akin to Capparidcs. 
Juss. 64. Surely most allictl to Saxifragcc. Juss. SI-. 

Cal. inferior, of 1 leaf, in .5 very deep, oblonjr, sprcadinrr, 
permanent segments. Pet. 5, ovate, obtuse, concave, 
spreadinj^r, lon-rer than tlio calyx, with several h)nt,ntu- 
dinal pellucid ribs, and sometimes tVingetlat llir mar^L^rins. 
Nectaries 5 llesliv mmUs, attuclnd to the chnvs oi the 

vol.. n. 1 



Ill PENTANDRIA— TETRAGYNIA. Parnassia. 

petals, each fringed at tlie upper edge with a row o. 
bristles, from 3 to 13 in number, all much shorter than 
the petals, and each bearing a small transparent globe. 
Filam. awl-shaped, spreading, every one in its turn in- 
cumbent over the jpistil. Aiitlu heart-shaped, flattened. 
Germ, ovate, large. Styles none. Stigmas 4, obtuse, per- 
manent, subsequently spreading and rather enlarged. 
Cajis. of 4 cells, and 4 valves, ovate, with 4 slight furrows, 
opposite to the petitions, in the middle of each valve ; 
receptacles 4, linear, abruptly terminating the partitions 
at their inner edges. " Seeds numerous, oblong, curved 
upwards, each bordered vdth a narrow, longitudinal wing." 
Gcertner. 
Roots fibrous, perennial. Herbs smooth. Stems simple, each 
bearing one leaf, and one white, very elegant, j^oti;^r. 
Leaves va-nW^ided, entire, ovate, heart or kidney-shaped; 
radical ones stalked. 

1. V. palustris. Common Grass of Parnassus. 
Leaves heart-shaped. Bristles of each nectary numerous. 

P. palustris. Linn. Sp. PL 391. Willd. v.\.\hi6. Ft. Br. 340. 
Engl. Bot. V.2. t. 82. Rel. Rudb. 34. f. Mill. Illustr. t.\b. Hook. 
Lond.t. 1. Scot. 96. Fl.Dan. t. 584. Ehrh. PI. Off. 133. 

P. n. 832. Hall. Hist. v. I. 37 \. 

P. vulgaris et palustris. Raii Syn. 355. 

Gramen Parnassi. Ger.Em.SAO.f. Lob.Ic.603.f. 

G. Parnasium. Dod. Pempf. 564./. 

Hepatica alba. Cord. Hist. 152, 2./. Gesn. Ease. 9. t. 4./. 11. ■ 

Pvrola rotundifolia palustris nostras, flore unico ampliore. Moris, 
'v.3.d0d. sect. 12. t. 10./. 3. 

On spongy bogs and commons, especially in mountainous countries, 
plentifully. Not rare in Norfolk. 

Perennial. September, October. 

The stems are about a span high, angular and twisted. Radical 
leaves several, heart-shaped, more or less acute, with several 
longitudinal ribs. Footstalks 3 or 4 times the length of their 
leaves. Stem-leaf neaY]y sessile, not halfway up the stem. FL 
about an inch wide, scentless, each petal marked with greenish 
pellucid ribs. Balls of the nectaries yellow. This is one of our 
most elegant native plants. There are several other species, in 
America and Nepal, abundantly distinguished by various cha- 
racters, besides the smaller number of the bristles of their nec- 
taries. Professor Hooker was unfortunately led to alter the 
generic and specific character by Forskall, who referred to this 
genus a most evident Swertia. See S. decumbens, Willd. Sp. 
Pl.v.l. 1330. 



11 



PENTANDRIA PENTAGYMA. 

179. STATICE. Thrift. 

Linn.Gen.\53, Juss. 92, FLBr.ZAO. Tourn,t.\77. Lam.t.2\9. 
Gcertn. t. 44. 

Limonium. Tourn. t.\77 . 

Nat. Ord. AggregaUe. Linn. 48. Plumhagincs. Juss. 33. 

Cal. inferior, of 1 leaf, funnel-shaped; tube contracted; liuib 
undivided, plaited, membranous, dry and permanent. 
Cor, funnel-shaped, of 5 j)etals^ tapering downward, com- 
bined at the base, dilated upwards, obtuse, spreading. 
Pz7«w. awl-shaped, shorter than the petals, and attached 
to their claws. Antlu incumbent. Genncn roundish, 
very minute. Styles thread-shaped, spreading, perma- 
nent. Stigmas acute. Caps, oblong, somewhat cylin- 
drical, membranous, of 1 cell, and 1 valve, with 5 points; 
clothed with the permanent calyx, and surmounted by its 
filmy border. Seed solitary, elliptic-oblong, pendulous 
by a capillary receptacle. 

Character of the fruit cor-rected from Goertner. 

Rigid perennial herbs, with simple, chiefly radical, leaves. 
Fl. red, purple, or very rarely yellow, without scent, ever- 
lasting ; either capitate, or in aggregate, panicled sjnkes. 

1. S. Armeria. Common Thrift. Sea Gilliflower. 

Stalks simple. Flowers capitate. Awnsof tlie calyx minute. 
Leaves linear. 

S. Armeria. Linn. Sp. PL 394. mild, v. 1. 1522. Fl. Br. 341. 

Enol. Bot. v. 4. t. 22G. Hook. Scot. 97. 
S. n. 835. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 372. 
S. montana minor. Raii Sijn. 203. 
Limonium aphyllocaulon minimum vulgatius, florc gioboso. Moris. 

r. 3. GO \. sect. 15./. 1 ./. 29. 
Caryoj)hyllusmarinus omnium minimus. Lub. Ic. i^)2.f. Gcr Em 

602./. 
Caryophylleus flos, aphyllocaulos vcl junccus;, minor ct major. 

Baiih. Hist. V. 3. ;>. 2. 33fj./. 

On muddy sea shores, as well as in the cUfts of marine rocks ; and 
about the borilers of alpine rills, on the loftiest mountains. 

Perennial. Juhj, Aut;usl. 

Hoot long, and woody. Leaves numerous, all radical, lax, hnear, 
channelled, smooth, a little tleshv, of a deep green. Stalks a 

1 2 ' 



116 PENTANDRIA—PEKTAGYNIA. Statice. 

span high, simple, round, wavy, downy, each at its first protru- 
sion sheathed in a brown tubular membrane, scarcely an inch 
long, which is therefore soon torn from its base, and carried up 
along with the brown outer bracteas, to which it is attached. 
Fl. numerous, rose-coloured, inodorous, in a dense globular 
head. Inner bracteas (the involucrum of Linnseus) several, 
obovate, with a pellucid filmy border. Cal. small, erect, with 
5 very minute marginal bristles. Capsule crowned with the 5, 
bristle-like, hairy, permanent styles. 
A common ornament of rustic gardens, where it serves for edgings 
of flower-beds j nor does this plant suffer much from the smoke^ 
even of London. 

2. S. Lwionium. Blue Spiked Thrift. Common Sea 
Lavender. 

Stalks panicled, round; spikes level-topped. Leaves ellip- 
tic-oblong, single-ribbed, smooth, with a nearly terminal 
bristle. 

S. Limonium. Linn. Sp. PI.S94. Willd. v.\. 1523. Fl. Br. 341. 

Engl. Bot. V. 2. t. 102. Hook. Scot. 97. Fl. Dan. ^ 315. 
Limonium. RaiiSyn.20\. Ger. Em.4\\.f.\. Matth. Valgr.v.2. 

329./. Camer. Epit. 72\.f. Lob. Ic. 295./. 1. Dalech. Hist. 

1024./ 1. 
/3. L. minus. Rail Syn. 202. 
L. parvum. Ger. Em. 411./ 2. Lob. Ic. 295. f. 2. 
y. L. anglicum minus, caulibus ramosioribus, floribus in spicis ra- 

rius sitis. Rail Hist. v. 3. 247. Dill, in Rail Syn. 202. 

On muddy sea shores, and about the mouths of large rivers, com- 
mon. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root woody and tough. Leaves leathery, glaucous, usually 2 or 3 
inches long, upright, tapering downward intobordered/oo^s/aW:^. 
Panicle alternately branched, with a greater or less number of 
reclining spikes, of imbricated, upright Jiowers, each of which is 
sheathed in a green tubular bractea, filmy and shining at the 
margin. Cal. tinged with red. Pet. of a fine blue j paler ex- 
ternally. Few plants vary more in luxuriance, but the ^oM^er* 
preserve their natural size. /3 is a very diminutive variety j 
y\ have not ascertained, but i\\Q flowers being more or less 
crowded is a matter of small moment. 

3. S. reticulata. Matted Thrift, or Sea Lavender. 

Stalks panicled, prostrate, zigzag, dotted ; lower branches 
barren. Leaves wedge-shaped, rather acute, without 
l^ioiuts. 



PENTANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Liimm. 117 

S. reticulata. Li7in. Sp. PL 394. U'illd. v. 1, 1526. FL Br. 3 12. 
Engl Bot. V. 5. t. 328. Hook. Scot. 97. Hill FL Br. t. 2;3. 
/.2. 

On muddy sea shores, chiefly on the eastern coast of England. 

In salt marshes, all along the'northern coast of Norfolk, very abun- 
dant J also near Wisbcach. EngL Bot. 

Found by Mr. Goldie, at the Mull of Galloway, on the west coast 
of Scotland. Hooker. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root strong and woody. Leaves small, spatulate, stalked. Flower- 
stalks prostrate, doited all over, which is most visible in dry spe- 
cimens, very much branched, sj)reading, zigzag and entangled, 
with an ovate, sharp, membranous hractca at each divarication. 
Barren branches often reflexed. Spikes simple, terminal, nume- 
rous, each of a few purplish-blue^oM;t'ri', bracteated like the last. 

The history of the foreign species of Slatice is so little understood, 
that I am cautious in quoting synonyms. The present j)lant is 
not unlike the figures of Lunoniuni parvum in Lobel and Gerardc, 
see -S'. Limonium /3 j but it does not answer to Ray's observa- 
tion, made *' in the royal garden at St. James's," of the leaves 
being bordered down to the root, so as to have really no foot- 
stalks. 



180. LINUM. Flax. 

Linn. Gen. \r)3. Juss. 303. FL Br. 3 12. Tourn.t.\7G. Lam. t. 219. 
G£Ertn.t.\\2. 

Nat. Ord. Gruinales. Linn. Ik Akin to Caryophyllece. 
Juss. 82. Linccc. DeCand. 15. 

CaL inferior, of 5 lanceolate, erect, permanent leaves, smaller 
than the corolla. Pet, 5, moderately sjireadinp^, gradu- 
ally dilated upwards, obtuse, or abrupt.- L'ilam. 5, as long 
as the calyx, awl-shaped, erect, inserted into an annular 
Jloral receptacle^ along with the petals, and .5 shorter, in- 
termediate, imperfect ones. Anlh. arrow-shaped. Germ. 
superior, ovate. Stijles thread-shaped, erect, the length 
of the stamens. .SV^'^;//^.? bluntish, spreading, undivided. 
Caps, nearly globular, obscurely 5-sided, with 10 cells, 
and 10 valves, combined in pairs. Seeih solitary, ovale, 
acute, compressed, polished. 

Herbaceous or shrubby, smooth or hairy. Leaves^ sim])Ie, 
entire, mostly alurnate. 11. hitt-ial or terminal, blue or 
yellow, rarely white. Fibres of llie Imrk very tenacious. 
Seeds uuicilaginous, without ntljunitn. The ealijx ailbrdH 
the most certain specific characters. 



118 PENTANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Linum. 

* Leaves alternate, 

1. L. usitatissimum. Common Flax. 
Calyx-leaves ovate, acute, with three ribs. Petals crenate. 

Leaves lanceolate, alternate. Stem mostly solitary. 

L. usitatissimum. Linn. Sp. PL 397. Willd. v.\.\ 533. Fl Br. 342. 
Engl. Bot. V. 1 9. t. 1357. Curt. Lond.fasc. 5. L 22. Woodv. Med. 
Boi. t. 111. Mart. Rust. t. 133. Hook. Scot. 97. 

L. n. 836. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 373. 

L. sylvestre. Matth. Valgr. v. 1. 375./. 

L. sylvestre^ sativum plane referens. Rail Sijn. 362. 

(S Linum. Camer. Epit. 200./. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 450./. Fuchs. 
Hist. 471./. Brunf. v. 1. 170./. Raii Sijn. 362. 

L. germajiicum. Trag. Hist. 353./. 

L. sativum. Ger. Em. 556. f. 

In cultivated fields^ frequent. 

Annual. Julij. 

Root slender. Herb very smooth. Stem 18 inches or 2 feet high, 
round, straight, leafy, corymbose at the summit. Leaves scat- 
tered, sessile, acute, 3 -ribbed, rather glaucous ; the lowermost 
short and blunt. FL several, erect, in a corymbose panicle, blue, 
glossy, veiny. Cal. v/ith 3 prominent ribs, and a membranous 
irregular margin. 

jS is merely the more luxr.riant cultivated state of the same plant. 
The seeds give out an abundant mucilage to boiling water, and 
yield by jiressure the well-known linseed oil. The fibrous sub- 
stance of the bark, duly prepared, m.akes the most delicate and 
strong vegetable thread that ha?; yet been discovered. All 
these qualities betray a relationship to the Mallow tribe, or Co- 
lumniferce; as the botanical characters bring Linum towards 
Geranium, rather than to the CaryophyUe£o. A learned Ger- 
man botanist, of more technical than practical skill, once pub- 
lished L. usitatissimum for a new Geranium, as M. L'Heritier, 
who had a specimen from him^ informed me. 

2, L. perenne. Perennial Blue Flax. 
Calyx-leaves obovate, obtuse, obscurely five-ribbed, naked. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate. Stems numerous, ascending. 
L. perenne. Linn. Sp. PL 397. mild. v. 1. 1534. jFY. Br. 343. 

EngL Bot. v.l.t. 40. Mart Rust. t. 1 34. 
L. calycibus capsulisque obtusis, foliis alternis lanceolatis acutis, 

caulibus ramosissimis. Mill. Ic. \\\.t. IQQ.f. 2. 
L. sylvestre c^ruleum perenne erectius^ flore et capitulo majore. 

Rail Sijn. 362. 
/3. L. sylvestre cseruleum perenne procumbens, flore et capitulo 

minore. Raii Si/n. 362. 

On chalkv hills. 



PENTANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Linum. 119 

In Cambridgeshire, Northamptonshire^ and Westmorciand. Ray. 
At Marham, Norfolk. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root woody, much branched at the summit. Stems numerous, a 
foot high, more or less ascending, round, smooth, leafy ; in /3 
procumbent. Leaves smaller and narrower than the foregoing. 
Branches of the 'panicle racemose. Fl. like the last in colour, 
but smaller. Calyx-leaves elliptical, obtuse, naked at the edges, 
each with ."3 ribs, of which the middle one is the largest. Sta- 
mens variable in length. Stigmas bluntish, somewhat capitate. 

3. L. ang'itstifolimn. Narrow-leaved Pale Flax. 
Calyx -leaves elliptical, three-ribbed, naked, }K)inted as well 

as the capsule. Leaves linear-lanceolate, with three ribs. 
Stems numerous. 

L. angustlfolium. HudsA^A. fruh. e(L2. 320. Fl.Br.'SU. Engl. 
Bot.v.6.t.3S\. 

L. narbonense. Allion. Pedem. v. 2. 108, from the author; but not 
of LinnL\?us. 

L. tenuifolium. JVith. cd. 3. 322. Linn. Sp. PL 399, var. C. 

L. svlvestre angustifolium, floribus dilute purpurascentibus vc! car- 
neis. Bauh.yin.2\4. Raii Syn.'3C)2. 

L. sylvestre tenuifolum. Ger. Em. SoS./. 

In sandy or chalky pastures, especially towards the sea. 

About St. Ives and Truro, Cornwall, plentifully. Ray. In Sussex 
and Kent. Slierard. In several parts of Kent. Hudson. Near 
W'alsingham, and in Gunton fields, Norfolk. Rev. IL Bryant. 
At Darsham, Suffolk. Mr. Davy. \\\ a field by Allcrton'iiall, 
near Liverpool. Mr. J. Shepherd. ^ tAJDf^O^Kj \^XS 

Perennial. July. 

Like the last in root and herbage, but the s'enis are fewer, and al- 
ways nearly ui)right. Leaves with 3, sometimes ,">, ribs. Panicle 
of (c\vcvjl(nvers, scarcely racemost.'. Calyr-lcavcs cllijjtical, vvitli 
a sharp point ; their lateral ribs most evident after the flower is 
faded. Petals pale purple, with a slight notch. Stamots short. 
Siyhs swelling upwards. Capsule considerably pointed. 

The true Linn;ean L. tenuifolium, Haller's n. 838, often confounded 
with this, has a taper-j)ointed long calyx, fringed with ghuuls. 
Probablv several .synonyms of old authors might be referred to 
our (ingusfifnliu)n, if we could see their original specimens. Hut 
neither tiieir descriptions nor figures are sufficient to iuicerlain 
the plants. 

* * Leaves opposilr. 

4. L. catliartivmn. Purging Fhix. Mill-inoiintaiii. 

Ivcavcs opposite, obovate-laiiceolalc. Panicle forked ; partly 
droopiiiL'. Petals acute. 



120 PENTANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Sibbaldia. 

L. catharticum. Linn. Sp. PI. 401. Willd. Sp. PL v. I. \54\. Fl. 

Br. 344. Engl. Bot. v. 6. t. 382. Curt. Lond.fasc. 3, t. 19. Mart. 

Rust. t. 135. Hook. Scot. 97. 
L. n. 839. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 374. 

L. sylvestre catharticum. Raii Syn.362. Ger.Em.oOO.f. 
L. pratense, flosculis exiguis. Baiih. Pin. 214. , 
Chameelinum subrotundo folio. Barrel. Ic. t. 1165./. 1. 
Spergala bifolia, lini capitulis. Loes. Pruss. 261. t. 80. 
Alsine verna glabra, flosculis aibis, vel potiiis Linum minimum. 

Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 455./. 

In dry pastures. 

Annual. Ju7ie — August. 

Root very small and tapering. Herb smooth. Stems I or more, 
slender and delicate ; in the former case very straight and up- 
right ; in the latter curved, and ascending obliquely j seldom 
more than a foot high ; all bearing many pairs of upright, ob- 
tuse, bright green leaves, and a spreading, forked, terminal pa- 
nicle. The pretty little white tremulous Jlowers are pendulous 
before expansion. Calyx-leaves serrated, single-ribbed. Pet. 
acute, entire. Stigmas capitate. 

This plant is bitter, and powerfully, but, as it seems, not danger- 
ously, cathartic. Dr. Withering found 2 drams, or more, in a 
dose^ of the dried herb, useful in obstinate rheumatisms, 

181. SIBBALDIA. Sibbaldia. 

Linn. Gen. 155. Juss. 337. Fl. Br. 345. Lani. t. 221. Gcertn. t. 73. 
Nat. Ord. Senticoscc. Linn. 35. Rosacea. Juss. 92. 

Cal. inferior, of 1 leaf; the border in 10 elliptic-lanceolate, 
veiny, spreading, permanent segments; the 5 innermost 
largest. Pet. 5, obovate, tapering at the base, inserted 
into the rim of the calyx, shorter than its smaller seg- 
ments, 'to which they are opposite. Filam. 5, awl-shaped, 
shorter than the petals, inserted into the rim of the calyx 
between them. Anth. roundish, incumbent. Germ. 5, oc- 
casionally 10, ovate, compressed, very short. Styles la- 
teral, from about the middle of each germen, as long as 
the stamens. Stigmas obtuse. Seeds 5, ovate, smooth, 
rather compressed, in the bottom of the enlarged, some- 
what hardened, converging calyx. 

Herbaceous, of humble growth. Leaves ternate. Stipulas 
attached to the footstalks. Fl. terminal, corymbose. 

1. S. procmndejis. Procumbent Sibbaldia. 
Leaflets wedge-shaped, with three terminal teeth, 



PENTANDRIA— HEXAGYNIA. Drosera. 121 

S. procumbens. Linn. Sp. PL 406. FL Lapp, eel 2. 82. Willd. 
V. 1. 1567. FL Br. 345. EngL Bot. v. 13. t. 897. Dicks. H. Sice. 
Jfasc. 10. 12. Hook. Scot. 97. FLDan. L 32. 

Fragaria n. 1116. HalL Hist. v. 2. 46. 

Fragarise sylvestri affinis planta, flore luteo. Sibb. Scot, p.2.25. 
t.G.f.l. 

^entaphvlloides pumila;, foliis ternis ad extremitates trifidis. Rail 
Syn. 256. 

Scotch Cinquefoil. Pet. H. Brit. t.4\.f.7. 

On the summits of the Highland mountains of Scotland^ in a mi- 
caceous soil, plentiful. 

Perennial. Juhj. 

Roots woody, tufted, much branched at the summit. Stems her- 
baceous, spreading or procumbent, from 1 to 3 inches long, round, 
leafy, but little subdivided, clothed with coarse upright hairs, like 
the rest of the herbage. Leaflets \ an inch to an inch long, 
bright green, veiny ; the middle tooth smallest ; the lateral 
ones sometimes cloven. Footstalks longer than the leaflets, with 
a pair of attached, pointed, parallel, membranous stipulas at the 
bottom, indicative of the natural order. FL in corymbose leafy 
tufts. CaL large, hairy. Pet. small, yellow. The whole plant 
is astringent, like others of the same tribe. Plukenet's ^.212, 
/. 3, is most evidently Potentilla subacaulis, a much more soft 
and downy plant, with solitary flowers, of a larger size. To 
this Bauhin's synonyms, in Linn, and \Mlldenow, belong. 



PENTANDRIA IIEXAGYNIA. 
182. DROSERA. Sun-dew. 

Linn. Gen. \ 54. Juss.24C>. FLBr.3i6. Lam. t. 220. (iccrtn. t. CA . 

Ilos Solis. Tourn. t.\27. 

Nat. Ord. Gndiialcs. Linn. 1 1-. Allietl to ('apparichs. 

Juss. 64<. Drosei-acccc, DcCaiul. 30. 
CaL inferior, of 1 leaf, in 5 or more, deep, acute, pcrnia- 

nenl segments. Pet. 5 — S, ohovate-oblong, obtuse, with 

claws, uu)derately spreading, radier longer than the calyx. 

Ji'i/uni. 5 — 8, awl-shaped, the length of the calyx. An//t. 

small, roundish. Gcrmcn roundish. .S/y/ri (^ — 8, simple, 



122 PENTANDRIA— HEXAGYNIA. Drosera. 

the length of the stamens. Stigmas ckib-shaped. Caps. 
ovate, of 1 cell, with 3 or 4 valves. Seeds numerous, 
minute, obovate, rough, attached to the inside of each 
valve, chiefly in the middle. 
Herbaceous, often stemless, clothed with glandular viscid 
hairs. Leaves either undivided, or lobed, entire. Fl. 
terminal, racemose, rarely solitary. Pet. red, or white. — 
This genus seems allied on the one hand to Saxifraga, 
on the other to Ge7^a?iium, though without any great tech- 
nical agreement with either. It necessarily becomes the 
type of a new order, which has nothing to do with the 
Capj^arides. 

1. D. roltmdifolia. Round-leaved Sun-dew. 

Leaves depressed, nearly orbicular, on hairy footstalks. 
Flower-stalks radical, racemose. 

D. rotundifolia. Linn. Sp. PL 402. Willd. v. ]. 1543. H. Br. 346, 
Engl. Bot. V. 13. t. 867. Hull 67. Hook. Scot. 98. Fl. Dan. 
^.1028. Bull.Fr. t.\8\.f.A. 

Rorella n. 834. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 372. 

R. rotundifolia perennis. Raii Sijn. 356. 

Ros Solis folio rotimdo. Bank. Pin. 3d7. Raii Sijn.3b6. Ger. Em. 
1556./. Barrel. Ic. t. 251. f. 1. Moris, v. 3. 620. 

Rorida, sive Ros Solis, major. Lob. Ic, 811./. 

Salsirora, sen Sponsa Solis. Thai. Harcijn. 116. t. 9. f. I. 

Round Sun-dew. Pet. H. Brit. t. 63. f. 10. 

On mossy turfy bogs frequent. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root fibrous. Stem for the most part entirely wanting. Leaves 
numerous, depressed, orbicular, more or less obtuse, concave, 
purplish, about \ an inch broad, each tapering into a flat foot- 
stalk. The whole disk of the leaf, but especially its margin, is 
beset with red inflexed hairs, discharging from their ends a drop 
of viscid acrid fluid. These hairs have been thought irritable, 
so as to contract when touched, imprisoning insects somewhat 
in the manner of the American Dioncea Muscipula, a plant allied 
to Drosera. Fl. several, in a simple cluster, drooping or revo- 
lute while young, on one or two simple, rounds erect, smooth 
stalks, 3 or 4 inches high. Bracteas solitary under each j)artial 
stalk, awl-shaped, deciduous. Petals while, always 5, as well 
as the stamens. 

The whole plant, except the red hairs of the leaves, turns blackish 
in drying. Dr. Williams, Professor of Botany at Oxford, as well 
as the late Dr. Withering, observed this, and the following, oc- 
casionally to acquire a stem. Authors of the greatest eminence 
have erred in attributing 5 shjJes to the pre^>ent genus, Avhereas 



PENTANDRIA— HEXAGYNIA. Drosera. 123 

they are always 6, in this species and D, longifolla; being al- 
ways double the number of the valves of the capsulCj in every 
known Drosera. 
In Switzerland the Round-leaved Sun-dew was remarked, by the 
late Mr. Davall, to be much more rare than the Long-leaved^ and 
never found with it as in Britain. 

2. D. longifolia. Long-leaved Sun-dew. 

Leaves obovate, erect, on naked footstalks. Flower-stalks 
radical, racemose. 

D. longifolia. Linn. Sp. PI 403. mild, v. 1. 1544. H. Br. 347. 
En^l. Bot. V. 13. t. 868. Hull 67. Hook. Scot. 98. 

Roreila n. 833. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 8/2. 

R. lonG:ifolia perennis. Rail S?jn. 356. 

Ros Solis. Dud.Pempt.474.f. Dalech.Hist.\2\2.f. 

R, Solis folio oblongo. Bank. Pin. 357. Raii Sijn.3o6. Ger. Em. 
1556./. Moris, v. 3. 620. sect. 15. t. A.f. 2. 

R. Soils major, seu longifolia. Barrel. Ic. t.25\.f. 2. 

Salsirora, sive Ros Solis. That. Harcijn. t. 9.f. 2. 

Long Sun-dew. Pet. H. Brit. t. 63./. 11. 

On mossy turfy bogs, with the preceding. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Rather larger and taller than the foregoing, and distinguished by 
its nearly erect, obovate leaves, whose footstalks, as Dr. Hull 
iirst remarked, are smooth and naked, not fringed with glandu- 
lar hairs, though the disk and edges of the leaves agree in that 
particular with the former. The Jloicers, as well as their mode 
of growth, are similar ; but Dr. Hull and Mr. Sowerby found 
the styles often varying from 6 to 8. The petals and stamens are 
likewise frequently 6. 

3. D. angUca, Great Sun-dew. 

Leaves oblong, obtuse, erect, on naked footstalks. Flower- 
stalks radical, racemose. Styles eight. Capsules with 
four valves. 

D. anglica. Huds. 135. Fl. Br.3\7. Engl. Bot. v. 13. /. S69. 

intfi. 324. Hull6S. Abbot72. Dicks. H. Sice. fasc. 2.7. Hook. 

Scot. 98. 
Roreila longifolia maxima. Raii Syn.356. 
Ros Solis major, longiore folio et ercctiore. 3[oris. r. 3. 620. 

sect. 15. t. 4. 
Great Long Sun-dew. Pet. H. Brit. f. 63./. 12. 

On bogs, but rare. 

Three miles from Carhsle, towards Scotland. Ray. In Lanca.sliire. 
Dr. Hull. IJcdlordshiie. lirv. Dr. Jhhot. Abundant on bogs 
near Sniallhvngli house of ituhisfvv, Norfolk. Mr. Lilly H'ls^. In 



121 PENTANDRIA—POLYGYNIA. Myosurus. 

several parts of Scotland. - Dickson, Hooker. Gathered on St. 
Faith's bogs, Norfolk, in 1781. 

Perennial. July, August. 

About twice the size of JD. longifolia, with more linear leaves. Fl. 
often reddish, as in that species. Capsule oblong, according to 
Dr. Hull, who has not observed the styles to be more frequently 
8 than in the longifolia. Petals and stamens usually^ if not al- 
ways, 8. The linear-oblong shape of the leaves, not correctly 
expressed in the older figures, appears to be the most constant 
character of D. anglica ; yet some opportunities of examining 
these two plants have made me more and more doubtful of their 
permanent distinction. 



PENTANDRIA FOLYGYiilA. 
183. MYOSURUS. Mouse-tail. 

Linn. Gen.\ oh. Juss. 2:^2,. Fl. Br. S4S. Lam. t. 221. GcBrtn.t.74. 
Myosuros, Dill. Giss. app. 106. ^. 4. 

Nat. Ord. Multisiliqucje. Linn. 26. Ranimculacece. Juss. 61. 

Cal. inferior, of 5 lanceolate, concave, coloured, spreading, 
deciduous leaves ; spurred at the base, below their point 
of insertion. Pet. 5, very small, shorter than the calyx, 
tubular and bearing honey at their base, expanding ob- 
liquely at the inner side. Filain. 5, or more, linear, the 
length of the calyx. Anth, terminal, erect, of 2 linear, 
parallel cells. Germens very numerous, ovate, seated on 
a long, tapering, upright receptacle. Styles none. Stigmas 
solitary, minute. Seeds oblong, acute, naked, imbricated 
all over the surface of the elongated, columnar, acute, 
receptacle, 

A small annual herb, without a stem. Leaves linear, entire. 
Fl. small, yellowish, solitary, on simple, radical stalks. 
Myosurus may be thought too closely allied to Ranuncu- 
lus ; especially as the number of stamens varies much, 
and some of that genus have but 5. The tubular elon- 
gated claws of the petals mdeed afford a distinction. 



PENTANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Myosurus. 125 

1. M. minhnus. Common Mouse-tail. 

M. minimus. Linn. Sp. PL 407. mild. v. \. 1568. H.Br.348. 

Engl. Boi. V. 7. t. 435. Curt. Lond.fasc. 4. t. 26. Hook. Scot.9S. 

Fl.Dan. t.406. 
M. n. 1159. Hall. Hist. V. 2. 67. 
Myosuros. Rail Sijn. 251. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2.512./. Lob. Ic. 

440. f. 
Holosteo affinis, Cauda muris. Bauh. Pin. 190. 
Cauda muris. Ger. Em. 426./. Tillands Ic. t. 108. 
C. murina. Dod. Pempt. 112./. 

In cornfields, on a gravelly soil. 

Annual. May. 

Root small, fibrous. Herb smooth, varying much in luxuriance. 
Leaves numerous, nearly erect, from 1 to 2 inches long, rather 
fleshy, narrow, single-ribbed, bluntish ; tapering at the base irito 
footstalks nearly of their own length. Flower-stalks several, 
taller than the leaves, round, each bearing a small upright Jlower. 
Petals pale yellow. Germens 2 or 3 hundred, green, forming a 
long spike, raised much above the other parts of the flower, and 
not unaptly answering to the generic name ; especially when 
the seeds ripen. 



Class VI. HEXANDRIA. Stamens 6, 
each 3 equal. 

Order I. MONOGYNIA. Pistil I. 

* Fl. 'with both cali/jc and corolla. 

201. FRANKENIA. Cor. oi B petals. Cal. of 1 leaf, in- 

ferior. Caps, of 1 cell, with many seeds. 
200. BERBERIS. Cor. of G petals. Cal. of 6 leaves, in- 
ferior. Berry with 2 seeds. 

202. PEPLIS. Cor. of 6 jo^^r/Zs. C^//. with 6 deep seg- 

ments, and 6 intermediate plaits. Caps, of 2 cells. 

Lijthrum 2. 
** jP/. xmthoiit a calyx ^ superior. 

185. LEUCOJ UM. Cbr. superior, of 6 equal petals^ bell- 

shaped. *S/r/7«. simple, equal. 
184. GALANTHUS. Cor. ^w^.oiQ petals ^ 3 innermost 
shortest, abrupt, notched. 

186. NARCISSUS. Cor. sup. of 6 petals, attached to a 

bell-shaped nectary, which conceals the stamens. 

*** ^i^ "without a calyx, inferior. -.- — •^I.Aflp- 

196. CONVALLARIA. Cor. inferior, deciduous; limb 
in 6 segments. Berry of 3 cells. Stigjna triangular. 

192. HYACINTHUS. Cor. inf. deciduous; limb in 6 

segments; tube swelling. Stafn. uniform. Caps, of 
3 cells. Seeds globose. 
195. ASPARAGUS. Cor. inf. in 6 deep segments, per- 
manent. Beny of 3 cells. Stigmas 3. 

187. ALLIUM. Cor. inf. of 6 ovate petals. Stam. awl- 

shaped, flattened. Stigma acute. Seeds angular. 

193. ANTHERICUM. Cor. inf. of 6 elliptic oblong ^^/. 

Sla?n. thread-shaped. Stig^na obtuse. Seeds angulai'. 



127 

19k NARTHECIUM. Cor. inf. of 6 linear-lanceolate 
pet. spreading. Stam. woolly. Seeds tunicated, ta- 
pering at each end. 

1 90. ORNITHOG ALUM. Cor. inf. of 6 lanceolate pet. 

partly spreading, permanent. Stam. dilated at the 
base. 

191. SCILLA. Cor. inf of 6 ovate-oblong j^f^. spreading, 

deciduous. Stam. all thread-shaped. 

188. FRITILLARIA. Cor. inf. of 6 jt;^/. each with a nec- 

tariferous cavity at the base withinside. 

189. TULIPA. Cor. inf. of 6 pet., without nectaries. 

Style 0. Seeds flat. 

197. ACORUS. Cor. inf. of 6 ^d-/. abrupt. Style 0. Seeds 

ovate-oblong. Spadix covered with numerous sessile 
Jlowers. 

**** Fl.^mthout petals. 

198. JUNCUS. Cat. of 6 leaves. Caps, of 3 cells and 3 

valves. Seeds numerous, horizontal. 

199. LUCIOLA. Cat. of 6 leaves. Caps, of 1 cell and 3 

valves. Seeds 3, erect. 

Peplis 1 . Folygova. 



Order IL DIGVNIA. Pistils 2. 

203. OXYRIA. Cat. of 2 leaves. Pet. 2. Seed l,^m- 
pressed, winged. 



OrderllL TIUGYNIA. Pisti/s,orSiigmas,S. 

206. SCHEUCHZERIA. Cat. O. Pet. 6. Capsules 3, 

inflated. Seeds solitarv. 

2{)H. COLCHICUM. Cat. 0. Co?: of 1 pr/. tubuhir. 
Caps. 3, inflated. Seeds numerous. 

207. rRIGLOCHIN. Ct^/. of 3 leaves. M/. 3. Capsule 

ojuMiing at \\w. base, with 3 valves. 



128 HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Galanthus. 

204.. RUMEX. Cal. of 3 leaves. Pet. 3. Seed 1, naked, 

triangular. 
2Q5, TOFIELDIA. Cal, 3-cleft. Pet. 6. Capsules 3, 

with many seeds. 

Elatine-. 



Order IF. POLYGYNIA. Pisiih numerous. 

209. ALISMA. Ca/.of 3 leaves. P^if. 3. Caps. 6 or more^ 
affffre^ate. Seeds 1 or 2. 



H EX A ND R I A MONOGYNIA . 
184. GALANTHUS. Snowdrop. 

Linn. Gen. 160. Jiiss.5d. Fl. Br. 3r>2. Lam. t. 230. 

Narcissoleucoium. Tourn. t. 208. B. 

Nat. Ord. Spathacecc. Linn. 9. Narcissi. Juss. 17. Amaryl" 
lidece. Br. Pr. 296. Two following genera the same. 

Cal. none. Pet. 6, superior, regular, deciduous ; 3 outer- 
most obovate, concave, spreading, equal ; 3 innermost 
shorter, intermediate, erect, wedge-shaped, obtuse, with a^ 
notch, internally furrowed. Filam. from the summit of 
the germen, capillary, very short, erect. Anth. terminal, 
much longer, shorter than the inner petals, erect, con- 
verging, lanceolate, acute, vvith a bristly point, discharg- 
ing their pollen by 2 terminal pores. Germ, inferior, 
o-lobose, abrupt. Style cylindrical, longer than the sta- 
mens. Stigma simple, acute. Caps, nearly globular, 
with 3 obtuse angles, of 3 cells, and 3 valves, each valve 
with a central partition. Seeds numerous, globose, at- 
tached to the partitions. 

Boot a coated bulb. Leaves radical, in pairs, linear, entire. 
Fl. on a radical stalk, solitarv, drooping, with a distant. 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Leucojum. 129 

tubular, membranous, cloven hractea^ the sheath l^spatha) 
of Linnaeus. Only 1 species. 

1. G, nivalh. Common Snowdrop. 

G. nivalis. Linn.Sp.PLA\3. fVilld. v. 2.29. Fl. Br. 3j2. Engl. 
Lot. V. 1. f. 19. Abbot 73. Hook. Land. t. 14. Scot. 100. Hoj^k. 
Glott. 44. Meijrick Misc. Bot. t. 2. Jacq. Austr. /. 3 13. 

G. n. r2;34. Hcdl. Hist. v. 2. 124. 

Leucoium bulbosum praecox minus. Ger. Em. 147 ./. 

h. bulbosum trifolium minus. Riidb. Elys. v. 2. 96./. 4. Pass. Hurt. 
Florid. t.4.d. 

Narcissus sextus. Matth. f'algr. v. 2. 083./. Camer. Epit. 956./. 
Dalech. Hist. 1525. f. 

Hpocyys\i(x.. Renealm. Spec. 97. t. 90. 

In meadows, orchards, woods, hedges, and on the banks of rivers. 

At the foot of the Malvern hills. Mr. B(dlard. On the banks of 
the Tees, about Blackwell and Conniscliffe, ceriauily wild. Mr. 
E. liobson. In Bedfordshire. Abbot. On banks about Castle- 
milk, plentifully ; introduced. Hopkirk. In Arniston woods, 
Edinburgh, covering acres of ground ; Mr. Maughan and Mr. 
Shuter. Hooker. 7^cr^\\ssja.'^ fkil,c.H^'r2ja'f^^^t7cL, ff^i-ji^je^S 

Perennial. February. 

Bulb ovate, scarcely an inch long, acrid, white, with many simple 
fibres. Leaves glaucous, keeled, erect, obtuse, their bases in- 
closed in one common tubular, membranous, radical stipula. 
Stalk 3 or 4 inches high, round, at length overtopped by the 
gi-adually increasing, finally decumbent, leaves. Flower scent- 
less, pendulous, on a slender, terminal, drooping, partial stalk, 
from the tubular base of a membranous, double-ribbed, forked 
bractea. Pc/a/.v pure white 3 the 3 innermost with a green blotch 
near the top, at the outside, and striated with green internally. 

So common in gardens, that it is supposed to have escajx'd from 
thence ; but many persons esteem it really a native. Hay and 
DilleniuG indeed omitted the Snowdrop in their catalogues ; but 
the question how far they were right or wrong can scarcely be 
determined, and the late Mr. Robson's opinion is oneot the most 
weighty against them. A double-flowered variety is generally 
cultivati'd ; and a broad-leaved one from (.'onstantinoj)le is ex- 
hibited in (Jerarde'.s Herbal. 

185. LEUCOJUM. Snowflake. 

Linn. Gen. \CiO. Juss. 55. Fl. Br. 352. Lam. t. 230. 

Narcissoleucoium. Tourn. t. 208. A, D — F. 

Nat. Ord. see 71. 18 4-. 

Cal. none. Prf. G, regular, nearly t'(pial, ovate, rather con- 
cave, spreatlin^ nuHlcralely in the form oi* u bell; com- 
bined at the^ base ; somewhat thickened, and contracted, 

VOI,. II, K 



ISO HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Narcissus. 

at the summit ; 3 of them external. Filam. from the sum- 
mit of the germen, flattened, short, equal, erect. Anth, 
terminal, about the same length, linear, obtuse, quadran- 
gular, simple, slightly spreading, opening by 2 terminal 
pores. G^r/Tz. inferior, ovate, abrupt. »SVz//^ round, bluntish. 
Stigma acute, with a bristly point. Caps, turbinate, ob- 
tuse, of 3 cells, and S valves, with central partitions. 
Seeds several, globose. 
Root a coated bulb. Leaves several, radical, linear, entire. 
Fl. one or more, on a radical stalk, drooping. Bractea 
solitary, sheathing. 

1. L. (Estivum, Summer Snovvflake. 

Flowers several. Style club-shaped. 

L. aestivum. Linn. Sp. PZ. 414. mild, v.2,30. Fl.Br.353. Engl 
Bot. V. 9. ^ 621. Curt. Lond.fasc. 5. t. 23. Jacq. Austr. t, 203. 

L. bulbosum majus sive multiflorum. Bauh. Pin. 55. Rudb, Elys. 
V. 2. 95./3. 

L. bulbosum majus polyanthemum. Ger. Em. 148./ Bauh. Hist. 
v.2.592.f. 

L. bulbosum polyanthemum. Dod. Pempt. 230./. Renealm. Spec. 
99. MOO./ 1. 

Leuconarcissolirion. Lob. Ic. 122./ 

In moist meadows, and marshes near rivers. 

Close by the Thames between Greenwich and Woolwich, undoubt- 
edly wild j also in the Isle of Dogs. Curtis. In a small island 
in the river, about 3 miles south of Kendal, Westmoreland. Mr. 
Gough. In pastures at Little Stonham, Suffolk. Mrs. Cobbold. 
Near Reading. Mr. Murray. 

Perennial. May 

Bulb roundish. Leaves numerous, li or 2 feet long, erect, bright 
green, linear, obtuse, somewhat concave, and bluntly keeled ; all 
inclosed, with Xhejloicer-stalk, in one or more very short, mem- 
branous, abrupt, entire, radical stipulas. Stalk upright, about 
as tall as the leaves, two-edged, hollow, bearing 4 or more pen- 
dulous, stalked, white, mof\oxows, flowers, with a green, external, 
as well as internal, spot on each petal near the extremity. The 
uniformity of the petals distinguishes the present genus from 
Galanthus. Bractea solitary, oblong, concave, erect, as long as 
the flowers. Seeds black. 

Common in rustic gardens, where the bulbs multiply without any 
care. 

186. NARCISSUS. Narcissus, or Daffodil. 
Linn.Gen.\Q\. Juss.55. Fl. Br. 353. Tourn.t. 1&5. Lam. t. 229. 
Nat. Ord, see ?7. 184. 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Narcissus. 131 

Cat. none. Pet. 6, ovate, pointed, flat, equal, spreading, at- 
tached to the outside of the tube of the nectary, at some 
distance above its base. Nectary of one leaf, funnel- 
shaped, regular ; cylindrical below ; dilated into a cup- 
shaped, coloured border, above the insertion of the pe- 
tals ; containing honey in the bottom of the tube. Filam. 
awl-shaped, inserted into the tube of the nectary, in 2 
rows, and shorter than its border. A)ith. linear, incum- 
bent, bursting along their outer edges. Germen inferior, 
roundish, with 3 blunt angles. Style slender, triangular, 
rising above the stamens. Stigma in 3 concave, obtuse 
segments. Caps, roundish, with 3 blunt angles, mem- 
branous, of 3 cells and 3 valves, v/ith central partitions. 
Seeds several, globose. 

Root a coated bulb. Leaves several, radical, in 2 opposite 
ranks, linear, a little succulent, smooth ; either flattish, 
or semicvllndrical and tubular. Stalk central, bearinn: one 

• , , ' o 

or many Jlo-ooers, from a termmal, membranous, simple, 
permanent, sheathing bractea. FL yellowish, or whitish, 
or partaking of both colours. 

1. N, poelicus. Poetic Narcissus. 

y^ Flowers mostly solitary. Cup of the nectarv very short, 
depressed ; membranous and crenate at the margin. 
Leaves bluntly keeled ; their edges reflexed. 

N. poeticus. Linn. Sp. PL 414. JVilld. v. 2. 34. FL Br. 353. EngL 
Bat. V. 4. t. 2/.5. BulL Fr. t. 306. Redout. LUiac. t. ICO. 

N. n. \2:A). IlaU. Hist. v. 2. 122. 

N. albusjcirculo purpureo. Bauh. Pin. 48. Rudb. EIi/s. r. 2. o6.f. 2. 

N. medio purpureas. Dod. Pempt.223. f. Ger. Em. \23. f. Dalech. 
Hint. 1517./. Pass. Hart. Florid. t.'lQ. 

N. primus. Camer. Epit.9^>\. f. 

N. medio rubro communis, Sweert. F/oril. t.22. f. 3. 

In heathy elevated open fields, on a sandy soil. 

At W'ood-bastwick, and in other parts of Norfolk. Mr. Rose. On 
a rabbit-warren at Shorne, between Gravesend and Rochester. 
Mr. Jacob Raijrr. 

Perennial. Mai/. 

Bulb ovate, with a dark-ijrovvn skin. Leaves 12 to 18 inches long, 
nearly erect, half an inch broad, of a rather e;laucous deep green ; 
rounded and obtuse undcrneatli ; their edges acute, recurved ; 
the disk slightly concave, striated with numerous longitudinal 
veins. Sion about as tall as the leaves, straight, hollow, 2- 
edged ; rounded at the sides. Brat lea brown and dry, cloven, 
rather longer than tlie partial stalk. Flower large and very beau- 
tiful, powerfully frngrant. Petals pure white. Ned. with a 

K 2 



132 HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Narcissus. 

very shallow yellow cup, the border white internally ; of a beau- 
tiful crimson next ; and at the extreme edge brownish, filmy, 
and minutely crenate. Sometimes, though very rarely, there are 
2 flowers. A noble double variety is frequent in gardens, as 
well as the more elegant single kind, the real Narcissus of the 
Greek writers, clearly described by Dioscorides. 

2. N. hiflorus. Pale Narcissus. Primrose peerless. 

Flowers in pairs. Cup of the nectary very short, depressed ; 
membranous and crenate at the margin. Leaves acutely 
keeled ; their edges inflexed. 

N. biflorus. CviTt.MagAASil . TVilld. Sp, PL v. 2. 39. F/. Br. 354. 
Engl. Bot. V. 4. 1 276. With. 332. 

N. poeticus. Huds. 141. Wade Dubl. 96. 

N. n. 1250 (3. Hall Hist. r. 2. 122, 

N. pallidus circulo luteo. Bauh. Pin. 50. Rudb. Elys. v. 2. 57./. 9'. 

N. medio luteus. Dod. Pempt. 223./. Ger. Em. \24.f. Dalech. 
Hist.\D\8.f. 1. 

N. medio luteus vulgaris. Kaii Si/n. 371. 

N. albidus, medio luteus, cum aliquot floribus. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 604./, 

In sandy fields. 

Near Hornsey church. Sherard. On a rabbit-warren at Shorne, 
Kent. Mr. J. Rayer. About Berkhamstead, Herts. Mr. G. An- 
derson. Common in meadows about Dublin. Mr. De Luc. 

Perennial. April, May. 

Clearly distinguished from the foregoing, with which Mr. Hudson, 
like Haller, always confounded it, by the acute keel, and straight 
sides., of the leaves, whose edges moreover are inflexed, not re- 
curved. T\\e/iowers are smaller, usually 2, rarely solitary, some- 
times 3. Petals of a pale sulphur-colour. Border of the nec- 
tary white, crenate. 

The scent is less agreeable than the former. Both are almost 
equally common in gardens, but the biflorush seldom seen double 

3. N. Pseudo-nco'cissus. Common Daffodil. 
Flowers solitary. Cup of the nectary bell-shaped, erect, 

crisped, with six marginal segments ; its length equal to 

that of the ovate petals. 
N. Pseudo-narcissus. Linn. Sp. PL 414. Willd. v. 2. 35. Fl. Br. 

355. EngLBot. v. I. t. 17. Hook. Scot. 100. BulLFr. ^ 389. 
N. n. 1252. HalL Hist. v. 2. 123. 
N. sylvestris pallidus, calyce luteo. Bauh. Pin. 52. Rail Syn. 371. 

Rudb. Elys. V. 2.70. /S. 
Narcissus, Brunf, Herb v. 1. 129./. I. 
N. luteus. Trag. Hist. 757./ 

N. luteus sylvestris. Dod. Pempt. 227./ 1,2. Dalech. Hist. 1523./ 
N. tertius. Camer. Epit. 953./. 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Allium. 133 

N. octavus. Matth. ed. Bauh. 860./. 

Pseudonarcissus anglicus. Ger. Em. 133./". 

In rather moist woods and thickets. 

Perennial. Marcli. 

Bulb nearly globular, with a blackish coat. Leaves several, erect, 
about a foot higli, rather glaucous, with a blunt keel and flat 
edges. Bractea close to the base of the germen, undivided. 
Flower large, a little drooping, unpleasantly scented. Pet. pale 
yellow, nearly erect, longer than the tube of the nectary, which 
is funnel-shaped, and almost as long as its deep-yellow, crisped 
and crenate, somewhat angular, cup. Stam. from near the bot- 
tom of the tube, shorter than the cup. Antli. oblong, conver- 
ging. Germen globose, with 3 furrows. 

The double Yellow Daffodil, so extremely common in gardens, 
evidently, by its greener leaves, and the unifonn golden yellow 
of the Jlowers J belongs to a different species, 

187. ALLIUM. Garlick. 

Linn. Gen. \i)'A. Juss.oo. FL Br. 3j5. Tvurn.t.206. Lam. t. 242. 
Gcertn. t.\Q. 

Nat. Oi'd. Spathaccd'. Limi. 9. Asphodcli. Juss. 16. 

Cal. none. Pet. G, inferior, ovate-oblong, somewhat spi'cad- 
ing, regular; the 3 innermost rather the smiillcst. Filam. 
awl-shaped, more or less flattened, undivided or 3-cleft, 
rarely 5-cleft, about as long as the corolla. Anth, soli- 
tary, central, oblong, incumbent. Germen superior, tur- 
binate, short, angular, or lobed. Style simple, cylindri- 
cal or angular, erect. Stigma acute. Caps, short and 
broad, ^vith S lobes, 3 ce'ls, and 3 membranous valves 
with central })artitions. Seeds few, rountlish, angular, 
with a black brittle skin. 

Whole herb fetid when bruised, with its appropriate onion 
or gai'lick scent. Bulbs coated. Stem leafy or naked. 
Leaves flat or tubular. Ft. numerous, in a dense umbel, 
red, white, or yellow. Braetea sheathing, broad, wither- 
ing, with many smaller internal ones. Some bulbs often 
intermixed with the flowers. 

* Stem leaj)/. Feaves flat. 

1. \. ^J/upcloprasifm. Great llound-hcaded (iailick. 
I iiii)t! globose, without bulbs. Stem leafy below. Leaves 

flat. Three alternate stamens deeply three-cleft. Keel 

of" the petals rough. 
A. .\m|H«h)prasum. Linn. Sp. Vl. \i:\. Udld. v.2.Cy?>. I/.lh.SJ^. 

Kngl. Hut. V. 21. t. I Cm/. /••/. Greer, r. 1. 11. /.3i2. 



I3i HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Allium. 

A. n.l2\S. Hall. Hist. V. 2. 104. 

A. staminibus altern^ trifidis, foliis gramineis, floribus sphsericfe 

congestis ionge petiolatis, radice lateral! solida. Hall. All. 16. 

n.5. Opusc. 344. n. 5. 
A. sphaericeo capite, folio latiore, sive Scorodoprasum alterum. 

Bauh. Pin. 74. Riidb. Elijs. v. 2. 151./. 6. 
A. Holmense sph?erico capite. Raii Syn.370. 
Ampeloprasum. Dod. Pempf. 689./= 690. 
Scorodoprasum primum. Clus. Hi%t. v. 1. 190./ Ger. Em. 180./. 

Lob. Ic. V. 1. 157./ Mich. Gen. 24. 
S. dictum. Bauh. Hist. V. 2. 558./. 
S. latifolium sponlaneiim itaiicunij floribus dilute purpureis odora- 

tis. Mich. Gen. 25. t.24.f.5. 

In open hilly places, but very rare. 

Found by Mr. Newton on the Holms island, in the mouth of the 
Severn. Ray. On the Steep Holms, in August 1803. Mr. F. 
B. Wright. 

Perennial. Jugust. 

Bulbs white, globo.se, increasing rapidly in a garden, by lateral off- 
sets, till they compose a mass as big as a man's head, resem- 
bling a bunch of grapes ; whence, I have sometimes thought, 
the old Greek name of the plant, Ampeloprasum, Vine Garlick, 
might have originated ; but a name of similar construction has 
been applied to several species from their growing in vineyards. 
In this luxuriant condition it rarely producesy/oM,-er5. Otherwise 
the stems are solitary from each bulb, 2 or 3 feet high, erect, 
round, solid, simple ; leafy in the lower part. Leaves alternate, 
flaccid, flat, linear, near an inch broad, taper-pointed, slightly 
keeled, single-ribbed ; sheathing at the base ; rough with mi- 
nute teeth at the edges, and at the top of the keel. Stipula 
membranous, tubular, undivided, within the sheath of each leaf. 
Umbel solitary, erect, of innumerable light-purple Jlowers, on 
angular stalks, with a large, concave, deciduous bractea, includ- 
ing many small interior ones. Ft. uniform, not large, unac- 
companied by bulbs. Coro//a bell-shaped. Pe^ ovate, concave, 
all rough at the edges and keel. Stam. broad and flat ; 3 of 
them simply pointed ; 3 alternate ones with a long slender 
point, at each side of that which bears the anther. Germen py- 
ramidal. Style triangular. The scent of the whole plant is 
strong, and of the most disagreeable kind. The nature of the 
perennial bulbs sufficiently distinguishes this species from the 
Leek, A. Porrum, however similar their herbage. 

2. A arenar'ium. Sand Gailick. 

Umbel globose, bearing bulbs. Stem leafy below. Leaves 
flat, with cylindrical sheaths. Bracteas obtuse. Three 
alternate stamens dilated, three-cleft. Keel of the petals 

rougliish. 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Allium. 135 

A. arenarium. Linn. Sp. PIA26. U'illd.i'.2.60. Fl. Br,Zb6. Engl. 

Bot. V. 19. t. 1358. Hook. Scot. 100. 
A. Scorodoprasum. Fl. Dan. t. 290. 
A. n. 1222. Hall. Hist, r. 2. 106. 
A. staminibus alterne trifidis, capite bulbifero, foliis gramineis le- 

vit^r serratis. Hall. All. lO.n.S. Opusc.3S6. 
A. sylvestre amphicarpon, foliis porraceis, floribus et nucleis pur- 

pureis. Rail Syn. 370. 
A. montanum bicorne latifolium, flore dilute purpurascente. Bauh. 

Pin. 74. Rudb. Ehjs. v. 2. 155./. 1 . 
A. seu Molv montanum latifolium primum. Clus. Pannon. 213. 

/.212. Hist.v.\.\d3.f. Ger.Em.\87.f.4. 
Porrum planifolium, staminibus altern^ trifidis^ umbella bulbifera. 

Rupp. Jen. ed. Hall. 154. t. 2.f. 2. 

In mountainous woods and fields, on a sandy soil, in tlie North. 

Observed by Mr. Lawson, on the Westmoreland mountains. Ray. 
About Lowther in that county. Mr. Crowe &; Mr. Woodward. 
At Castle Howard, Yorkshire. Mr. Teesdale. About Thorp 
Arch. Rev. W. Wood. In lleslington fields, near York. Rev. 
Archdeacon Peirson. At tiie foot of mountains, in sandy soils 
in Scotland, but not common. lAghtfoot. At Dupplin, Perth- 
shire ; Mr. \\'inch. Hooker. 

Perennial. July. 

Bulb small, ovate, with many purplish offsets. Stem erect, 2 or 3 
feet high, leafy half way up. Leaves l-3rd of an inch broad, 
grass-green, rough-edged, flat, with long cylindrical sheaths. 
Umbel small, globose, dense. Bracteas broad, elliptical, point- 
less, shorter than the umbel. Fl. deep red, bell-shaped, with 
elliptic-lanceolate, spreading-pointed, rough-keeled petals, and 
intermixed with dark-jiurple, ovate, pointed bulbs, by which, as 
well as by the root, the ])lant is increased. Such species as bear 
these bulbs among their flowers, scarcely perfect any seed. 

3. A var'iitatiim. Mountain Garlick. 

Umbel lax, bearing bulbs. Leaves flat. Bracteas ta])cring, 

longer thau the umbel. Stamens sim])le, awl-shaped. 
A. carinatum. Linn. Sp. Pl.i-IG. Willd. v.2.70. Fl.Br.3')7. Engl. 

Bot. V. 2 1. t. 1 058. Hook. Scot. 101. 
A. n. 1221. H'dl. Hist. V. 2. 107. 
A. umbcUa bulbifera, vagini\ bicorni, foliis carinatis. //<///. All. 5 1 . 

n.2\. t. ]./. 2. 
A. inodornm, umbclla bulbifera, vagina bicorni, foliis carinatis. 

Hdi. Opusc. 39 1 . n. 27. t. 2./. 2. 
A. montanum bicorne purpureum proliferum. Raii Syn. 369. 
A. montanum bicorne angustifolium, flore purpurascente. Bauh. 

Pin. 71, at the bottom ; sliould be n. 2. Undh. I'Jys. v. 2. 155./. 2. 
A. sive Moly montanum st-cunduiu. (Ins. Hist. r. 1. I9.{./. 
.\niprlr)jir;i.s«jn prtjlifcium. L'>h. /< . 150. /". 



136 HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Allium. 

Ampeloprasum. Camer. Epii. 323./. 

Moly montanum secundum Clusii. Ger. Em. 187./. 

On mountains and rocks in the North j as well as in sandy ground 
on the south east coast of England. 

Near Settle^ Yorkshire. Ray. On rocks about Longsleadale, 
Westmoreland. Dr. Rlchardsun. Near Ramsgate, Kent; in 
the Isle of Thanet ; and between Sandwich and Deal. Hudson. 
In Heslington fields near York, and about Knaresborough. Rev. 
Archdeacon Feirson. On Seamow crag, VVinander mere. Mr. 
D. Turner. 

Perennial. Juli/. 

Bulb roundish, pale. Stem 3 feet high, its lower half clothed with 
several flat, bluntish, rather succulent, solid leaves, not l-4th of 
an inch broad ; which are concave on the upper side ; convex 
and somewhat keeled at the back ; thickened and roughish at 
their edges ; their sheaths very long, and ribbed. Umbel rather 
loose when in full flower, the stalks considerably elongated, and 
Kpreading in all directions, being forced asunder at the base by 
the numerous bulbs interspersed among them. Bracteas 2, un- 
equal, each tapering to a not very acute point, and one or both 
considerably longer than the umbel. Fl. of a dull yellow, speckled 
with brown. Petals with a smooth brown keel. Filaments awl- 
shaped, connected by a membranous base ; three of them earlier 
than the rest. Germ, elliptical, with 6 furrows. .S7?//e very short. 
Stigma blunt. From cultivated sjiecimens. The seeds are seldom 
perfected, but the bulbs of the umbel propagate the plant abun- 
dantly. 

Tliis species is nearly related to the following, though differing in 
the flatter form of its leaves, and somewhat in size. I have doubts 
of their being essentially distinct. 

* * Sle)u l^q/}/. Leaves somcx<ohat cylindrical. 

4. A. oleraceum. Streaked Field Garlick. 

Umbel lax, bearing bulbs. Leaves semicyluidrical, tubular, 
rough; channelled above; ribbed beneath. Bracteas point- 
ed, longer than the umbel. Stamens simple, awl-shaped. 

A. oleraceum. Linn. Sp. PI. 429. mild. v. 2.74. Fl, Br.35S. EngL 

Bot.v.7.t.4S8. Hook. Scot. \0\. 
A. n. 1223. Hall. Hist, v. 2. 107. 
A. umbella bulbifera, vagina bicorni, foliis teretibus. Hall. All. 49. 

n. 23. t. 2.J. 2. Opusc. 387. ?^. 26. t. 1 ./. 2. 
A. sylvestre bicorne, flore ex herbaceo albicante, cum triplici in 

singulis petalis stria atro-purpurea. Raii Sijn. 370. 
A. montanum bicorne, flore exalbido. Bauh. Pin. 75. 
A. montanum bicorne, floribus cinereis. Rudb.Elys. r. 2. 160./. 18. 
A. sive Moly montanum tcrtium. Clus, Hist. v. 1. 193./, 194. Ger. 

Em. 188. f. 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Allium. 157 

In corn-fields, and their borders. 

At Black Notley, Essex. Ray. In several parts of Westmoreland, 
and near Bristol. Hiuls. At Fincham, Norfolk. Rev. R. Forty. 
Near York. Sir Thomas Frankland, Bart. 

Perennial. July. 

Bulb ovate or roundish. Slem 2 or 3 feet high, slender, leafy in 
the lower part. Leaves much narrower than the last, hollow, 
semicylindrical, minutely rough all over ; ribbed at the back ; 
channelled, or nearly flat, on the upper side. Bracfeas dilated 
and concave at the base ; each suddenly contracted into a long, 
slender, acute, nearly cylindrical point. Umbel, with its bulbs 
im(\Jioicers, very much like the foregoing. The whole plant has 
an un})leasant scent of garlick, and is a very troublesome weed, 
difficult of extirpation, though not of common occurrence. 

5. A. vineale. Crow Garlick. 

Umbel spherical, bearing bulbs. Leaves cylindrical, smooth. 
Three alternate stamens deeply three-cleft. 

A. vineale. Linn. Sp. PI. 428. mild. v. 2. 73. Fl. Br. 359. Engl. 
Bat. V. 28. t. 11)74. Hook. Scot. 101. 

A. n. 1221. Hall. Hist. V. 2. 106. 

A. staminibus alterne trlfidis, foliis fistulosis, capite bulbifero 
sphaerico, radice multiplici. Hall. Jll. \\ .n. 4. Opusc. 338. 

A. sylvestre. Rati Syn. 369. Ger. Em. \79.f. 

A. sylvestre primum. Fuths. Ilist. 737./. 

A. sylvestre tenuifolium. Lob. Ic. 1.06./. 

A. campestre juncifolium capitatum purpurascens majus, ct minu.«5. 
Baufi. Pin. 74. Rudb. Elys. v. 2. 153./. 1 1, bad ; 12, better. 

In dry pastures, corn-fields, and waste ground, among ruins, espe- 
cially on a chalky or gravelly soil. 

Perennial. July. 

Bulb small, ovate, white. Stem slender, 2 feet high, kafy, round, 
.striated. Leaves long and tapering, hollow, fading before the 
Jlowers expand. Umbel small, with many crowded, ovate, acute, 
greenish bulbs, generally viviparous before they fall, and more 
numerous than ihc/lnu-fr-stalks, which are erect, purjjlish, swelled 
at the top. 77. small, ])ale rose-coloured with green keels. Stam. 
longer than the petals, 3 of them with ca])illarv, :q)read ng, late- 
ral segments, very conspicuous, and at once distinguishing this 
sj)ecies from the two last. G'rrmt;/ somewhat i)yramidal, obtuse, 
with 3 lateral protuberances. Style very sliort. Caps, mostly 
abortive. 

♦** S/a//.- radical, naked, 

6. A. i/rs'niifiN. Broiul-leavcd Garlick. Rainsons. 
Stalk nakfd, si'inicylindrical. Leaves illiptic-iniKcnl.jti-, 

*>talkrr|. rinhcl kvLl-tnp|)i.d. ►Slanicns simpk-. 



138 HEXANDRIA—MONOGYNIA. Allium. 

A. ursinum. Linn. Sp. PL 431. Wllld.v.2.7^. Fl.Br. 359. Engl. 
Bot. V. 2. t. 1 22. Hook. Scot. 101. FL Dan. t. 157. Fuchs. Hist. 
739./. Matth.Valgr.v.\.5l2.f. Camer. Epit. 330. f. Ger.Em. 
179./. Dalech. Hist. 1546./. 2, 3. 

A. n. 1228. Hall. Hist. V. 2. 110. 

A. foliis radicalibus latissimis petiolatis, floribus vimbellatis. Hall. 
Jll.4\.n.\8. Opusc.379.n.2l. 

A. sylvestie latifolium. Bauh.Pin.7A. Raii Sijn.370. Rudb. Elys. 
v'2. 152./ 8. 

In moist woods, hedges, and meadows, frequent. 

Perennial. May, June. 

Bulb white, slender, oblong. Stem none. Leaves 1 or 2, a span 
long, erect, pointed, broad, smooth, entire, bright green, with ^ 
stout central rib, and many fine, parallel, lateral ones, connected 
by transverse reticulations. Footstalks semicylindrical, much 
shorter than the leaves, sheathing at the base. Flower -stalk 
solitary, semicylindrical, about as tall as the leaves, bearing a 
flattish umbel of many pure-white /o^t•m•, with a pair of ovate 
hracteas. Petals acute. Stam. awl-shaped, simple, slightly at- 
tached to the bottom of each petal. Gcrmen turbinate, three- 
lobed. Style a little elongated. 

Eveiy part of the plant when trodden upon, or otherwise bruised, 
exhales the strong odour of its genus ; and if cows feed upon it, 
ever so sparingly, their milk is rendered intolerably nauseous j 
so that even the pretty flowers are seen with disgust, by those 
who wish in vain to eradicate such a nuisance from their pastures. 
Piiny, who first has recorded the specific name, does not account 
for its application. The coarseness of its qualities, like the man- 
ners of some human beings, may, in both cases, justify the com- 
parison. 

7. A Schoenoprasum, Chive Garlick. 

Stalk naked, round, the height of the foliage. Leaves cylin- 
drical, somewhat tapering at the point. Stamens simple. 

Allium Schcenoprasum. Linn. Sp. PI. 432. JVilld. v. 2. 81. FL Br. 
360. EngL BoL v. 34. L 2441. Lightf. 160. Hook. Scot. 101. 
FL Dan. t.97\. 

A.n. 1226. Llall. Hist. v. 2. 108. 

A. staminibus simplicibus, foliis radicalibus teretibus, scapi longi- 
tudine. Hall. All. 28. ji. 12. Opusc.36i. n. 14. 

Porrum sectivum juncifolium. Bauh. Pin. 72. Rudb. Elys. v. 2. 143. 
/.3. 

P, sectivum. Fuchs. Hist. 635./ Trag. Hist 743./ 742. Dalech. 
Hist. 1542./ 

P. sectile. Matth. Valgr. v. 1 . 502./ Camer. Epit. 322. f. 

Schcenoprason. 6'er.Ew. 176 / Lob. k, 154./ Dod. Pempt.6S9.f. 

In meadows and pasturey^ but rare. 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. FridUaiia. 1:39 

By Fast castle, on the borders of Berwickshire, observed by Dr. 
Parsons of Oxford ; also in Argylshire. Lightfoot. In West- 
moreland. Iluds. With. 

Perennial. June. 

Bulbs slender, j)ale, forming dense tufts. Leaves Sindjlowcr-stalks 
about a span high, cylindrical, hollow, glaucous and smooth j 
the former sheathing at the base. Umbel dense, hemispherical, 
without bulbs. Bracteas 2, ovate, short. FL erect, of an ele- 
gant purplish rose-colour. Petals acute, nearly upright. Stam. 
awl-shaped, concealed within the flower. Genu, roundish^ with 
a very short style. 

188. FllITILLARIA. Fritillary. 

Linn. Gen.KSA. Juss. 48. i^^. Br. 3 GO. Tourn. t. 201. Lam. t. 245. 
Gcertn. t. \7 . 

Nat. Orel. Coronaricc. Linn. 10. Lilia. Jiiss. 14.- N, 189 
the same. 

Cal. none. Cor. inferior, bell-shaped, spreading at the base, 
of 6 elliptic-oblong, parallel yctals. Nectary a cavity just 
above the base of each petal, at the inside. Filam. awl- 
shaped, attached to the bottom of each petal, close to the 
style, shorter than the corolla. Anth. oblong, quadrangu- 
lar, attached by the back, erect. Germ, superior, oblong, 
obtuse, triangular. Style vertical, longer than the sta- 
mens, simple. Stigmas 3, oblong, spreading, downy on 
the upper side. Caps, oblong, obtuse, with 3 lobes, 3 cells, 
and 3 valves, connected by network, with central parti- 
tions. Seeds very numerous, flat, crowded one above an- 
other in 2 rows; their outer margin rounded. 

Boot a lobed or scaly bulb. Stem un branched, leafy. Leaves 
linear-oblong, entire, smooth, sessile. Ft. one or more, 
terminal, pendulous. Capsule erect. 

1. F. Aleleagris. Common Fritillary. Chequered 

Daffodil. Snake's-head. 
All the leaves alternate, linear-lanceolate, pointed. Stem 

single-flowered. Nectary linear. Points of the petals 

inflexed. 
K. Melcagris. Linn. Sp. BIAM. U'illd.r.2.9\ . Fl. lir.'AGO. Lnol. 

Bat. V. 9. t. 622. Curt. Lond.fasc. 3. /. 20. FL Dan. t. 972. Jacq. 

Austr. app. t. 32. Redout. Liliac. t 222. li'ikstroem in Stoc/th. 

Trans, for 1821. 3:):). 
V. n. I23:>. Halt. Hist. r. 2. li.'i. 
F. prnecox purpurea variegata. Bauh. Vin. d I. liudb. FJys. v. 2. 

113. f. I. 



UO HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Tulipa. 

F. variegata. Ger. Em. 149./. 

Meleagris. Dod. Pempt. 233./. Renealm. Spec. 14/. t. \ 46. Jig. 
with the root and capsule. 

In moist meadows and pastures, chiefly towards the southern parts 
of England. 

In Maud fields near Rislip Common, Middlesex ; Mr. Ashby. 
Blacksione. Between Mortlake and Kew, and near Enfield. 
Hudson. Near Laxfield, Suffolk. Mr. Woodward. At Little 
vStonham, in the same county, a troublesome weed, Mrs. Cob- 
bold. Near Reading. Mr. Murraij. 

Perennial. April. 

Bulbs small, depressed, roundish, aggregate, lobed. Stem a foot 
high, round, leafy chiefly in the upper part, quite simple, droop- 
ing at the top. Leaves alternate, rather distant, erect, chan- 
nelled, pointed, somewhat glaucous. Flower terminal, pendu- 
lous, the size of a large walnut, inodorous, regularly chequered 
with pale and dark purple j sometimes white, but still chequered. 
The ])oints of the petals are more or less turned inwards, distin- 
guishing this species from some exotic ones that have been con- 
founded with it. The capsule is obovate^ abrupt, with 6 furrows^ 
and quite erect. 

189. TULIPA. Tulip. 

Linn. Gen. \6o. Juss. 48. Ft. Br. 361. Town. t. 199,200. Lavi. 
t.244. Gicrtn.t. 17. 

Nat. Ord. see n. 188. 

Cal. none. Cor, inferior, bell-sliaped, of G ovate-oblong, 
concave, erect petals. Nectaries none. Filctm. 6, stout, 
oblong, compressed, u})r'ght, taper-pointed, shorter than 
the jnstil. Antli. oblong, ([uadrangnlar, terminal, erect, 
versatile. Germ, superior, large, oblong, with 3 more or 
less blunt angles. SUjle none. Stigma either triangular 
or three-lobed, permanent. Caps, triangular, with 3 in- 
termediate furrows, 3 cells and 3 valves, which are fringed 
at the edges, and have central partitions. Seeds very nu- 
merous, flat, obovate, crowded one above another, in 2 
rows, many of them usually abortive. 

Bulb coated, ovate. Stem simple, leafy at tlie bottom only. 
Leaves lanceolate, or ovate-oblong, entire, tapering at 
each end, smooth or downy. I'L terminal, yellow or red- 
dishj mostly erect. 

1. T. sylvesiris. Wild Tulip. 
Flower solitary, a little drooping. Leaves lanceolate. Stigma 
triangular, abrupt, fStaniens hairy at the base. 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Omitliof^alnm. 141 



tj- 



T. sylvestris. Lhm.Sp. PL 438. Fl. Suec.ed. 2. 106. Willd.v.2.9(]. 

FL Br. 36 1 . Engl. Hot. v.l.t. 63. Hook. Lond. t. 1 9. Scot. 101. 

Gawl in Curt. Mag. v. 30. t. 1202. Fl. Dan. t. 375. Redout. 

Liliac. t. 16.5. 
T. n. 1236. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 115. 

T. minor lutea gallica. Bauh. Pin. 63. Rudh. Elys. v. 2. 110./. 5. 
T. minor lutea narbonensis. Magnol. Monsp. 2/2. 
T. narbonensis. Clus. Hist. v. 1. 151./. • 
T. bononiensis. Ger. Em. I3S./. 
Narbonensis Lilio-Narcissus luteus montanus. Lob. Ic. 124./. 

In clialk-pits, but not common. 

In old chalk-pits at Carrow Abbey, near Norwich. Mr. Rose. Near 
Bury. Sir T. G. Cullum, Bart. At Whipsnade, Hertfordshire. 
Rev. I). Joiks. At Mell)nry, near Shaftsbury ; and on Musvveli 
hill, Middlesex ; also in a field near Hamilton, Scotland, and 
near Brechin. Hooker. 

Perennial. Jjjril. 

Bulb ovate, tumid on one side, brown. Stem perfectly simple, 
nearly u])right, about a foot high, round, smooth ; lejify al)out 
the middle ; taper at the base. Leaves 2 or 3, a s]}an long, al- 
ternate, lanceolate, slightly keeled, smooth, rather glaucous, 
tapering at each end, clasping the stem. Fl. somewhat drooj)- 
ing, sweet-scented, blight yellow j externally greenish. FUam. 
yellow, beset with short dense hairs at the bottom. Anlh. yellow, 
as long as the filaments, with yellow pollen. Stigma acutely 
triangular, abrupt ; not dilated, nor downy, like the Garden 
Tulip. 

LinniTus and Haller thought this ])lant had escaped from gardens 
in Sweden and Switzerland ; and such has been the opinion of 
many botanists in England. It is however perfectly wild at 
present, and extremely abundant in many old chalk-plls, though 
the bulbs run so fur into the ground that they rarely Ilower. 
Nothing can be more distinct as a sj)(. cies. Mr. Ker, late (iawler, 
observes that the bulbs send out lateral shoots, of a considerable 
length, forming new bulbs at the extremity. See J look. Loud. 

190. OllNITIIOGALUM. Star of Hetli- 
leheiii. 

Linn. Gen. 1 66. Juss. .>3. Fl. Br. 362. Tourn. /. 203. Lam. /. 242. 
GcPTtn. t.\7. 

Nat. Orel. Coronaruv. Linn. 10. Asphinldi. Jiiss. l(j. l\)iir 
following geneni the same. 

CaL none. Pet. G, inferior, lanceolate, erect in tluir lower 
half, then spn-ading, somewhat thickened at llie kiil, 
permanent, ladin*^. Filam. erect, flattish, attached to the 
petals, '{ »>ftii.'i)i at ba^f lnoaih'st at tlir ha^e. Aiith. W\- 



142 HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Omithogaliim. 

minal, versatile, shortened after the pollen is shed. Germ. 
superior, angular, with intermediate furrows. Style awl- 
shaped, erect, permanent. Stigma obtuse. Caps, round- 
ish, with 3 prominent angles, and 3 intermediate furrow^s, 
3 cells, and 3 valves with central partitions. Seeds several, 
roundish. 
Btdb coated, roundish. Leaves linear, mostly radical. In- 
jiorescence various. Petals white or yellow, never blue ; 
green at the keel. Flo-i^ers without scent. 

1. O. luteum. Yellow Star of Bethlehem. 

Stem angular, with one leaf at the bottom, and one or tw^o 
at the top. Flower-stalks umbellate, simple, smooth. 

O. luteum. Li««. % P/. 439. W\lld.v.2A\Z. FL Br.362. EngL 

Bot. V. \.t.2\. Hook. Scot. 1 02. FL Dan. t. 378. Bauh. Pin. 7 1 . 

Raii Syn. 372. Loh. Ic. 149. f. Dcdech. Hist. 1583./ Rudb. 

Elys. V. 2. 139./. 3. 
O. pratense. Persoon i?j Ust. Annal.fasc. 11.8. t.2.f. 1. 
O. luteum, sive Cepe agraria. Ger. Em. 16.)./ 
O. TTucpoyircfjv. Renealm. Spec. 9\. t. 90. 
Phalangium n. 1213. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 102. 
Bulbus agrestis. Trasr. Hist. 740. f. 737. 
B. sylvestris. Fiichs. Hist. \6S.f. 109. Dod.Pempt.222.f. Dalech. 

Hist. 1502./ 

In groves and pastures, rare. 

In woods about Oxford. Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. In the northern 
part of Yorkshire. Ray. Westmoreland. Richardson. Near 
Derby. Mr. Whateley, and Mr. Haden. At Shipmeadow^ near 
Bungay. Mr. J. Ashhy. 

Perennial. April. 

Bulb small. Stem solitary, from 4 to 6 inches high, unequally an- 
gular, nuked except at the summit, smooth. Radical Zeo/ linear- 
lanceolate, pointed, ribbed, keeled, upright, taller than the stem, 
very rarely accompanied by another much more slender one. 
Stem-leaves usually 2, sometimes more, just under the umbel, 
unequal, similar to the radical leaf, but much shorter ; one of 
them occasionally very minute ; their edges more or less fringed 
with soft, loose hairs. Floicer-stalks 3 or 4, sometimes more, 
forming a simple, rarely a double, umbel, unequal, angular, 
smooth, erect, all shorter than the largest of the adjoining leaves, 
single-flowered. F/. erect, yellow j tipped v/ith green at the 
inner side, and almost entirely green at the back. Stam. and Pist. 
yellow. Style triangular. Several foreign species have been con- 
founded with this, particularly O. minijnum of Linnceus, 0. spa- 
thaceum of Willdenow, and O. arvense of Persoon, now figured 
in Fl. Grccc. t. 332, all verv distinct. 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Ornithooaluin. 143 



tr) 



2. O pyrenaicum. Tall Star of Bethleheiii. 

Cluster very long. Filaments all dilated. Flower-stalks 
equal, spreading; growing erect, and close-pressed, as 
the fruit ripens. 

O. pyrenaicum. Linn. Sp. PL 440. mild. u. 2. 1 1 6. Fl. Br. 363. 

Engl. Bot. V. 7. t. 499. Abbot 76. Jacq. Austr. t. 103. 
O. angustifolium majus. floribus ex albo virescentibus. Bauh.P'm. 

70. Rail %«. 372. Rudh. Elys. v. 2. 134./. 3. 
O. majus ])rimum. C'liis. Hist. v. 1. lS7.f. 
O. jDvrenaeum. Clus. Append. 2. ad cap. 33. Cur. Post. 21. 
O. alterum. Camer. Epit.'M^} ; lowermostjig. 
Asphodelus bulbosus. Dod. Pempt. 209./. (Jer. Em. 97. Dalech. 

Hist. 1589./. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 627./ 
Phalangium n. 1210. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 101 ; excluding the reference 

to Reneaume. 
Hyacintho-As[)hodelus. Loh. Ic. 93./ 

In pastures^ rare. 

In Sussex and Somersetshire. Ray. Between Eaton -Socon and 
Thurleigh, Bedfordshire. Abbot. In Keyson Park wood, in that 
coimty. Rev. T. O. Marsh. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Bulb ovate, whitish. Leaves several, all radical, long, spreading, 
linear, roundly channelled, acute, smooth, their tips soon wither- 
ing. Stalk central, 2 feet or more in heiglit, erect, round, smooth 
and polished, terminating in a very long upright cluster, of nu- 
merous greenish, spreading Jiowers, not remarkable for beauty. 
Partial stalks simple, hardly an inch long, spreading while in 
flower only, then erect. Bracteas awl-shaped, solitary at the 
base of each stalk. Stam. all equally broad and short, each with 
a slender point. Anth. oblong, incumbent. Style short. Caps. 
ovate, with 3 furrows, erect, enveloped in the contracted, per- 
manent, faded petals. 

3. O. umhellatum. Common Star of Bethlehem. 

Flowers corymbose; their partial stalks overtoj)ping the 
main one. I'^ilaments dilated, tapering, entire. 

O. umbellatum. Linn. Sp. PI. 44 1 . mild. v. 2. 1 1 C. 11. Br. 364. 

Engl. Bot. r. 2. /. 130. Hook. Lond. t. 4."). Scot. 102. Jui^. 

Austr. t. 343. 
O. n. 1215. Hall. Hist. V. 2. 103. 
(). vulgare et vcrius, majus et minus. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. G30. Rnii 

.Sy/j.372. 
(). umbellatum medium angustlfolium. Bauh. Pin. 70. Rudh. Eh/s. 

V.2. 131./. 4. 
Ornithngalum. Cit,-. Pnt. 1C."». /'. Lol,. /<•. MS. /'. 



1 14 HEXANDRIA—MONOGYNIA. Ornithogalum. 

O. rj\i6'x,apiJ.ov. Renealm. Spec. 88. f. 87. 
Bulbus leucanthemus minor. Dod. Pernpt. 221. f. 

In meadows, pastures and groves, in various parts of England. 

Perennial. Jpril, May. 

Bulbs ovate, plentifully increasing by offsets. Leaves radical, linear, 
roundly channelled, pliant, smooth. Stalk central, round, po- 
lished, taller than the leaves, bearing a corymb of about G or S 
upright7?o?rer5, all nearly on a level, the lowermost stalks being 
gradually longest. Bracteas solitary at the base of each par- 
tial stalk, lanceolate, pointed, soon withering and turning brown, 
though permanent. Petals of a brilliant enamelled white on the 
upper side 5 green underneath j whence the name Ornithogalum, 
bird's milk, alluding to the general appearance of the dung of 
birds, evidently, 1 think, originated y though Reneaume dis- 
dained, and Tournefort failed, to explain it. Linnaeus first gave 
the above etymology, in his P reelect lones, published by Giseke, 
p. 287. He has also shown that the roots of this plant, eaten 
to the present day in Palsestine, are the " Doves Dung'" men- 
tioned in the 2nd book of Kings, chap. G. v. 25. See Engl. But. 

* 4. O nutans. Drooping Star of Bethleliem. 

Flowers pendulous, unilateral. Filaments dilated, cloven, 
converging; three of them longer, their lobes nearly 
equal to the anther. 

O. nutans. Linn. Sp. PL 441. TVilld. v. 2. 125. Camp. 53. E?igl. 

Bot. V. 28. 1. 1997. llook. Lond. t. 44. Curt. Mag. t. 2G9. Ft. 

Dan. ^ 912. Jacq. Austr. ^.301. Redout. Liliac. t. 253. 
O. n. 1216. HaU.Hist.v.2. 103. 
O. exoticum, magno flore, minore innato. Bauh. Pin. 70. Rudb. 

Elys. V. 2. 137./. 12. 
O. neapolitanum/ Clus. Exot. app. 2. 8. /". 9. Sweert. FloriL t. 57. 

f.2. Park. Parad. 138. t. 137. f. 8. Ger. Em. 1G8./. 

In fields and orchards, probably naturalized. 

In Eaton-ford field, Bedfordshire ; and near Bury. Sir T. G. Cul- 
lum. Barf. In several parts of Suffolk. Hooker. In meadows 
near Derby and Nottingham. Mr. Iladen. 

Perennial. April, May. 

Bulb ovate, commonly deep in the ground. Leaves few, radical, 
linear, 12 to 18 inches long, flaccid, bright green, somewhat 
glaucous, roundly channelled. Stalk central, a foot high, erect, 
round, smooth, glaucous, bearing a simple, nearly upright, 
cluster, of several large flowers, all pendulous toward one side. 
Bracteas lanceolate, pointed, concave, solitary under each par- 
tial stalk. Petals elliptic-oblong, spreading, of a silvery glau- 
cous white ; greener at the back ; finally closing over the 
increasing germen. Stam. broad, standing close together in 
the form of a bell^ and constituting, according to Bauhin's idea. 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Scilla. 145 

an inner flower, in the centre of the larger one, Shjle angular. 
Caps. elHptical, with 3 deep furrows. Seeds rugged, black. 
An elegant spring flower, common in country gardens, from whence 
it may have escaped into the fields. Yet the plant may as well 
be a native of England, as of Denmark, Austria, or other parts 
of Europe, where it is found in similar situations. 

191. SCILLA. Squill. 

Linn. Gen. 166. Juss. 53. Fl. Br. 364. Lam. t. 238. 
Lilio-hyacinthus. Tourn. t. 196. 

Nat. Ord. see n. 190. 

Cal. none. Pet. 6, inferior, ovate-oblong, more or less 
spreading, withering, or deciduous. Filam. all thread- 
shaped, simple, half the length of the petals, to whose 
bases they are attached. Aiith. oblong, incumbent. 
Germ, superior, roundish. Style simple, shorter than the 
stamens, deciduous. Stigma simple. Caps, roundish, 
with 3 furrows, 3 cells, and 3 valves with central parti- 
tions. Seeds several, roundish. 

J3^^M mostly coated, roundish. Z^^^i^^'s radical, linear. Cluster 
or corymb stalked, of several flowers. Petals blue, purplish, - 
or white, never yellow. Flowers in some instances sweet- 
scented. 

1. S, verjia. Vernal Squill. 

Bulb coated. Corymb hemispherical, of few flowers. Brac- 
teas lanceolate, obtuse. Leaves linear, channelled. 

S. verna. Hmh.\A2. fViUd. Sp. PL t\2. ]29. Fl.Pjr.364. EngL 
Bot. V. 1. ^23. Dicks. H. Skcfasc. 10. 8. Hook. Scot. 102. 

S. bifolia. Light/. 121. Fl. Dan. /.568. 

Hyacinthus n. 1. Raii Syn.372 ; all the synonyms wrong. 

H. stellaris vernus pumilus. Dill, in Raii Si/n. fndic. PI. Dub. 

Ornithogalum hispanicum minus. Clus. Hist. v. \ . 188./. Ger.Em. 
166./. 

(). umbellatum, flosculis c\ albosubcaeruleis. Bauh. Pin.70. Rudb. 
Elys. V. 2. 132. J". 6 ; too large. 

On maritime rocks and clifls. 

in the Isle of Man, and in Anglesca, as well as on the coasts of 
Ireland, Wales and Cornwall. Dill, and Hitds. In lona and 
Staffii abundantly. Light/. On the dills of Caithness, and Su- 
therland. Dr. Ilonkrr and Mr. Borrcr. In the Orkneys abun- 
dantly, and in Shetland. Mr. P. Neill. 

Perennial. April. 

iiulh whitish, small^ ovate. Leaves numerous, deep green, linear, 

VOL. II. i. 



146 HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Scilla. 

channelled, narrow, acute ; tapering at the base. Stalk central, 
round, smooth, nearly upright, often a little wavy or declining. 
Corymb hemispherical, short, and dense, usually of 5 or 6 flowers 
in the wild plant, sometimes with not more than 3, but in a gar- 
den of 7 or 8. Bracteas membranous, with a tapering though 
blunt point, permanent, as long us the partial stalks. Petals 
ovate, keeled, of a full, rather deep, blue. Filayn. round, not 
dilated. Anth. peltate, blue. Style short, with a blunt stigma. 
Caps, roundish, a little depressed, with 3 prominent angles, and 
as many deep intermediate furrows, and pointed with the per- 
manent base of the style. 

2. S. bifolia. Two -leaved Squill. 

Bulb coated. Cluster slightly corymbose, without bracteas. 
Flowers nearly erect. I^eaves lanceolate, generally two. 

S. bifolia. Linn. Sp. PI. 443. Willd. v. 2. \2S. Fl.Br.S65. Engl. 
Bot. v.l. t. 24. Jacq. Austr. tA\7. Redout. Liliac. t. 254. 

Phalangium n. 1211. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 101. 

Hyacinthus stellaris bifolius germanicus. Bauh. Pin. 45. Rudb. 
Elys. V. 2. 33. f. 1 ; also/. 2 and 3. 

H, stellaris mas minor. Fuchs. Hist. 837. f. and albicans sen fcemi- 
nea. 838./. 

H. stellatus bifolius et trifolius. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 579./. 

H. steUatus Fuchsii. Ger. Em. 106./. 

H. Fuchsii. Dod. Pempt. 219. f. 

Narcissus martius, Brunf. Herb. v. 1. 184./ 

N. cseruleus. Trag. Hist. 756. f. 

Star Hyacinth. Pet. H.Brit, t. 67. f. 5. 

In groves, in the west of England, but very rare. 

Received from the west of England, by Mr. Sims, druggist; of 
Norwich. It is preserved also in Buddie's herbarium, in the 
British Museum. 

Perennial. March, April. 

Bulb ovate. Leaves two, upright, lanceolate, bluntish, concave, 
slightly keeled, sometimes accompanied by a third, which is 
smaller. Stalk central, a little taller than the leaves, round. 
Cluster inclining, somewhat corymbose. Flowers from 4 to 10, 
erect, of a lighter blue than the last, without scent ; the lower 
ones generally on the longest stalks. Bracteas none. Petals 
ovate, bluntish, widely spreading. Anth. brownish. The coated 
bulb of these two species distinguishes them from »S. Lilio-hya^ 
cinthus, whose bulb is said to be scaly, like that of a Lily. 

3. S. autumnalis. Autumnal Squill. 

Leaves linear, numerous. Cluster somewhat corymbose. 

Flower-stalks ascending, the length of the flowers, with= 

out bracteas. 



HE^ANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. SciUa. 147 

S. autumnalis. Litin. Sp. PL 443. IVilld. v. 3. 130. Fl. Br. 366. 

Engl. Bot. V. 2. t. 78. Curt. Lond.fasc. 6. t. 25. Cavan. Ic. v. 3. 

38. t.274.f.2. Redout. Liliac. t.S\7. 
Hyacinthus stellaris autumnalis minor. Bauh. Pin. 47. Rudb.Elys. 

v.2.36.f. 15. 
H. autumnalis minor. Clus. Hist. v. \. 185. f. Raii Syn.373. Dod. 

Pempt. 219./. Ger. Em. 110./. Magn. Monsp, 134. 
H. autumnalis minimus. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 574. f. 
H. autumnalis. Lob. Ic. 102./ Dalech. Hist. 1513. 
H. minimus maritimus. Bauh. Pin. 47. Prodr. 26. Rudb. Elys. 

V. 2. 36./. 17. Justly considered by Magnol as the same species. 

In dry pastures, or on rocks, among short grass. 

On St. Vincent's rocks, Bristol, and at the Lizard Point, plenti- 
fully. Ray. On Black-heath, Moulsey-hurst, Kew-green, and 
several similar places near London. Plukenet, Merret, Huds. 
Curt. Though now almost eradicated in that neighbourhood. 

Perennial. September. 

Bulb globular, with a brownish coat. Leaves numerous, spreading, 
for the most part quite linear, channelled, deep green, smooth. 
Stalk 1, rarely 2, about 3 inches high, round, terminating in an 
oblong cluster of several little, rose-coloured, scentless Jiowers, 
whose stamens are of a deeper red, and the pistil light blue. 
The partial stalks become curved upwards, or inwards, as the 
fruit ripens, and are destitute of bracteas. 

H. autumnalis major of the old authors, generally exhibited along 
with this, has 2 Jlower-stalks, but is not worth noticing even as 
fruit a variety. 

4. S. nutcuis. Hare-bell Squill. Wild Hyacinth. 

Leaves linear. Cluster drooping. Flowers pendulous, 
cylindrical- bell-shaped ; the points of their petals reflexed. 
Bracteas in pairs. 

5. nutans. Tl. Br. 3GG. Engl. Bot. v. 6. /, 377. 
S. non scripta. Redout. Liliac. t.22A. 

S. festalis, Salisb. Prodr. 242. 

Hyacinthus non-scriptus. Linn. Sp. PI. 453. M'illd. v. 2. 166. 
JIuds. 141, Curt. Land. fasc. 2. t.\8. Hook. Scot. 1 02. Dod. 
Pempt. 2\6.f. Bull. Fr. t. 353. 

H. n. 1248. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 121. 

H. anglicus. Raii Syn.373. Ger. Em. 111./. Lob. Ic. 103./. 

H. hispanicus. Clus. Hist. v. 1. \77.f. 

\\. oblongo florc, c^rulcus major. Bauh. Pin. 43. Rudb. Elifs. v. 2. 
26,/ 1. 

In thickets, c:roves, bushy fields, and under dry hedges, abun- 
dantly. 

Perennial. May. 

Bulb globular, white, coated, mucilaginous, but acrid. Leaves nu- 

l2 



]48 HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Hyacinthus. 

merous, of a shining, pale, slightly glaucous, green, linear, point- 
ed, channelled, keeled, flaccid ; upright in their lower half, then 
reflexed and drooping. Stalk taller than the foliage, round, cen- 
tral . Cluster partly upright, drooping in the upper half, of many 
pendulous, blue, sweet-scented^0M,-er5, each nearly an inch long. 
Bracteas lanceolate, tapering, in pairs, unequal, longer than the 
partial stalks. Cor. of a tubular bell-shape. Stam. united with 
the petals half way up. Germ, ovate, angular, without any ho- 
ney-bearing pores. Style about the same length, deciduous, 
except the very base. Stigma abrupt. The most decisive cha- 
racter of Hyacinthus, a monopetalous corolla, to say nothing of 
the nectariferous pores, is wanting in this plant ; and whoever 
attends to natural" genera, without which there can be no idea 
of natural orders, must perceive its agreement with every cha- 
racter and indication of Scilla. So closely is it allied to S. cam- 
panulata of Banks and Solander, Willd. v. 2. 128, that few per- 
fectly distinct species of any natural genus can better exemplify 
such a genus. Hence it is no less clearly associated with other 
Scillcc. Jussieu has proposed removing it from Hyacinthus, 
though he, from theory, considers the corolla ars merely divided 
into 6 deep segments. The slightest examination will proye it 
of 6 petals, as distinct as in almost any flower whatever. 

192. HYACINTHUS. Hyacinth. 

Linn. Gen. 1/0. Juss.52. Tourn. t. 180. Lam. <. 238. 
Muscari. Tourn. t. 180. 

Nat. Ord. see n. J 90. 

CaL none. Cor. inferior, of 1 petal, deciduous ; tube some- 
what bell-shaped, or globose ; limb in 6 deep, regular, 
reflexed segments, shorter than the tube. " Nectary 3 
pores upon the germen." Linn. Jiiss, Filara. awl- 
shaped, equal, proceeding from the tube, and inclosed 
within it. AfitJi. oblong, converging. Germ, superior, 
roundish, with 3 angles, and 3 lurrows. Style simple, 
erect, shorter than the tube, deciduous. Stigma obtus6. 
Caps, roundish, with 3 rounded angles, or 3 lobes, 3 
cells, and 3 valves with central partitions. Seeds few, 
globose. 

Bulb coated, roundish. Leaves radical, linear. Cluster 
stalked, many-flowered. Petals blue; varying by cul- 
. ture to white, red, or even yellow. Fl. in some sweet- 
scented, in some fetid, or nauseous. The monopetalous 
corolla distinguishes this genus from the last. Its species 
are among themselves more discordant than those of 
Scilla. 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Anthericum. 149 

1. H. racemosus. Starch Hyacinth. 

Flowers ovate, with six furrows ; the upper ones sessile 

and abortive. Leaves linear, channelled, flaccid. 
H. racemosus. L'lnn. Sp. PIAdd. Willd. v. 2. 170. Comp. 54. Engl. 

Bot. V. 27. t.\93L Curt. Mag. 1. 122. Jacq.Austr. t. 187. Dod. 

Pempt.2\7.f. 
H. n. 1245. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 120. 
H. racemosus caeruleus minor juncifolius. Bauh. Pin. 43, Rudh. 

Elys. V. 2. 25. f. 7. 
H. botryoides caeruleus. Ger. Em. 1 18./. 
H. botryoides vulgaris. Lob. Ic. 107. f. 
H. botryodes primus. Clus. Hist. v. J. 181./. 
H. comosus minor. Dalcch. Hist. 1.51 1./. 

In grassy fields, or among ruins. 

On a sandy soil at Cavenliam, Suffolk. Rev. G. R. Leathes. Near 
Newbery, Berks. Dr. Lamb. On the earthy ledge of the old 
city wall, on the north side of Norwich, plentiful. 

Perennial. Maij. 

Bulb ovate, brown externally. Leaves many, deep green, flaccid, 
and loosely spreading, linear, very narrow, about a span long ; 
channelled above ; semicylindrical at the back. Stalk solitary, 
erect, round, much shorter than the leaves, often brownish. Clus- 
ter ovate, dense, of numerous, little, drooping, dark blue^oi^er^, 
whose tube is oval, their limb minute and whitish. Several of 
the uppermost are pale, diminutive, and imperfect. Caps, with 
3 rounded lobes. Seeds 2 in each cell. The /lowers smell like 
wet starch, being equally disagreeable and oppressive to most 
people ; causing head-ache and nausea to many. 

193. ANTHERICUM. Spiderwort. 

Linn. Gen. 167. Fl. Br. 367. Gcertn. t. 16. 
Fhalangium. Juss.52. Tourn. t. 193. Lam. t.2A0. 

Nat. Ord. see 7i. 190. 

Cal. none. Pet. 6, inferior, ellij:)tic-oblong, spreading. Fi- 
lam. thread-sha})ed, either naked or bearded, attached to 
the jietals. Antli. roundish, versatile. Germ, inferior, 
roundish, with 3 angles. Style thread-sha}-)cd, or partly 
triangular, erect, pennancnt. Stigma obtuse. Cajjs. 
roundish, with 3 angles, 3 cells, and 3 valves, with cen- 
tral partitions ; abrupt, or concave, at the summit, and 
crowned with the style. Seeds few, angular. 

Hoot tuberous, or fibrous. Stem simple, or branched. 
Leaves simple, narrow, often radical only. Lijlorescence 
various, as well as the colour of the Jloicers. Phalan- 
gium of some authors, not oi" Ilaller, distiugui^ilird by its 



150 HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Anthericum. 

naked filaments, may be a good genus, but the name, 
long since appropriated to a genus of injects, is, of course, 
inadmissible. 

1. A. serotinum. Mountain Spiderwort. 

Leaves semicylindrical ; those on the stem dilated at their 
base. Flower mostly solitary. 

A. serotinum. Unn. Sp. PL 444. mild. v. 2. 134. Fl. Br. 367. 
Engl. Boi. V. 12. t. 793. Jacq.Austr. app. ^38. 

Phalangium n. 1209. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 101. 

Bulbosa alpina juncifolia, peric.irpio unico erecto in summo cauli- 

culo dodrantali. Rail Syn.ed. 2. 233. 
Bulbocodium alpinum, pumilum, juncifolium, flore unico^ intiis 

albo, extus squalide rubente. Dill, in Raii Syn. 374. t. 17. f. 1. 

B. serotinum. Linn. Sp. PL ed. 1 . 294. 

Pseudo-narcissus, gramineo folio. Bauh.Pin.bl. Prodr.27. Rudb. 

Elys. V. 2. 64./. 9. 
Narcissus autumnalis minor. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 663, left-hand Jig. 

only. 
On the loftiest Welsh mountains. 

Upon Snowdon, and other mountains in Wales. Ray. On Crib y 
Ddescil, near Llanberris, rare ; on rocks above Cwm Idwal, 
Caernarvonshire, in abundance. Mr. Griffith. 
Perennial. June. 

Root somev^^hat tuberous, rather than bulbous, with many long 
slender fibres. Herh smooth, slender. Stem solitary, 3 or 4 
inches high, round, generally simple and single-flowered ; not 
unfrequently branched and bearir.g several flowers -, according 
to Mr. Griffith, the only British botanist perhaps who has had an 
opportunity of studying this curious plant in its natural situa- 
tion. Radical-leaves few, erect, taller than the stem, semicy- 
lindrical, solid, very narrow j those on the stem much shorter, 
lanceolate, sheathing, scattered, more like bracteas. FL erect, 
white, veined externally with dull red. Pet. scarcely half an 
inch long, tapering at the base, withering, permanent as well as 
the stamens. Caps, the size of a pea, membranous. Seeds an- 
gular, wrinkled, of a bright chesnut colour ; nor can I perceive 
the black brittle skin, proper, as Mr. Brown observes, to his As- 
phodelecp. 
The specific name, which is incorrect for a })lant blossoming in 
June, seems to have originated in a confusion of synonyms be- 
tween this Anthericum and the Narcissus serotinus of Clus. Hist. 
V. 1. 162./. copied in John Bauhin's Historia, and there placed 
with our Anthericum. The plant of Clusius deserves inquiry j 
for it is not Narcissus serotinus of Linnseus, though quoted as 
such. Haller and Jacquin, as well n,"> Linna?us, err greatly in 
their application of this synonym. 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Naithecium. 151 
194. NARTHECIUM. Bog-asphodel. 

Moehrhig in Eph. Nat. Cur. v. 6. 389. t.o.f. 1. Iluds. 145. Fl. Br. 
368. Pursh 214. 

Nat. Orel, see n, 1 90. 

Cal. none. Petals 6, inferior, linear-lanceolate, spreading, 
ribbed, membranous at the edges, permanent ; 3 of them 
interior ; all finally hardened, and converging round the 
capsule. Filam, opposite to each petal, and not so long, 
erect, awl-shaped, woolly all over, except a small space at 
the top and bottom, permanent. Anth. terminal, oblong, 
converging, smooth; finally twisted. Germ, superior, 
oblong, triangular, tapering upwards into a short conical 
style. Stigma simple. Caps, oblong, tapering, pointed, 
bluntly triangular, with 3 intermediate furrows, 3 acute 
rigid valves, and 3 cells, bearing central partitions, which 
are joined at their base to the short central column. 
Seeds numerous, erect, small, oblong, smooth, each in- 
vested with a pale, membranous tunie, tapering, and 
greatly elongated, at each end, equalling the whole cap- 
sule in length. 

Root creeping, perennial. Leaves sword-shaped, entire. 
Stem simple, leafy. Cluster terminal, erect, many-flowered. 
Bracteas 2 to each partial stalk. Fl. yellow. 

1. N. ossifragum. Lancashire Bog-asphodel. 

Cluster uninterrupted. One bractea at the base, the other 
above the middle, of each partial stalk. 

N. ossifragum. Iluds. ]45. Hlth.339. FL Dr.SGS. Engl.Bot. 

V. 8. t. 535. Hook. Lond. t. 139. Scot. 103. Wahlenh. Lapp. 78. 
Anthericum ossifruguni. Linn. Sp. P/. 446. Fl. Lapp. ed. 2. 105. 

JViUd. r.2.147. Fl.Dan. t. 42. 
Asphodelus Lancastriae. Ger. Em. 95./. 
A. luteus palustris. Dod. Pempf. 208. f. 
A. minimus luteus acorifolius palustris. Lob. Ic. 92./. 
Pscudoasphodelus palustris anglicus. Bauh. Pin. 29. 
Ps, palustris. Bauh. Thcatr. ^)')\. f. 
Phalangium anglicum palustre, iridis folio. Raii Syu. 375. 

In black turfy bogs. 

Perennial. Juhj, Auiiust. 

Hoot tuberous and creeping. II rh smooth, rather firm and rigid. 
Stem ascending, roimdisli, leafy, 6 or 8 inches higli, not quite 
straight. Leaves partly in radical tufts, 2-ranked, sword-shaped, 
ribbed, obliquely pointed, half the height of the stem ; partly 



159 HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Asparagus. 

on the stern, much smaller, scattered, sheathing-, diminishing 
almost to bracteas. Cluster 1^ or 2 inches long, rather close 
and dense. Flower-stalks alternate, simple, angular, each having 
a lanceolate hractea, about its own length, at the bottom, and a 
smaller one more than half way up, by the situation of which 
last Mr. Ker has clearly distinguished this from the only known 
species besides, his iV. americanum, Curt. Mag. t. 1505, Pursh 
227 > the Jloicers of which are paler, the woolliness of its stamens 
much shorter, and the anthers yellow not red. The cluster more- 
over is generally interrupted, or divided, below the middle. The 
Jlowers in our British species are bright yellow^ spreading widely, 
with scarlet anthers ; the back or keel of each jpetal green. Cap- 
sule tawny, half covered by the converging petals. Seeds brown, 
with a white, chaffy tunic. 
Much has formerly been written about the power of this herb to 
soften the bones of cattle feeding upon it, and it has been sup- 
posed to cause the rot in sheep. Linneeus in his Fl. Lapp, com- 
bats both these opinions. 

195. ASPARAGUS. Asparagus. 

Linn.Gen.Xm. Juss.AX. Br. Prodr. 281. Fl.Br.369. Tourn. 
t.\D4. Lam. t.2i9. Gccrtnt.lG. 

Nat. Ord. Sannciitacece. Linn. 11. Asparagi. Juss. 12. As- 
phodelece, Br. Prodr. 274-. N. 196 the same. 

Cal. none. Cor, inferior, in 6 deep, equal, oblong segments, 
cohering at their lower part, permanent. Filam. awl- 
shaped, smooth, attached to the lower part of each seg- 
ment, and much shorter than the corolla. Anth. oblong, 
peltate, erect Germ, globular. Siyle short, with S fur- 
row^s. Stigma in 3 spreading lobes, deciduous. Berry 
subtended by the withered corolla, globular, of 3 cells, 
1 or 2 of which are often abortive. Seeds 1 or 2 in each 
cell, externally globose, wdth a horny albumen, and a 
transverse embryo, far out of the centre. 

Herbaceous or shrubby, branched, often prickly. Leaves 
linear, narrow, tufted, very abundant. Fl. lateral, stalked, 
drooping, of a greenish white. Berries red or black, fre- 
quently perfecting but one seed. 

1. A. officinalis. Common Asparagus, or Sperage. 

Stem herbaceous, round, erect, without prickles. Leaves 
bristle-shaped, flexible. Stipulas mostly solitary. 

A. officinalis. Linn. Sp. PL 448. WUld. v. 2. 150. Fl. Br. 369. 
Engl. Bot. V. 5. t. 339. Hook. Scot, 103. Ft. Dan. t. 805. Ehrh. 
PL Of. 143, 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Convallaria. 153 

A. n. 1239. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 1 17. 

Asparagus. Ra'dSyn. 267. Matth. Valgr.v. 1. 433./. Camer. 
Epit. 259. /: Fuchs. Hist. 59. t. 58. 

A. sativus. Ger. Em. 1110./. Mill.Ic. 37. t. 55./. 1. 

A. marinus. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 179./ 

/3. A. maritimus, crassiore folio. Bauh. Pin. 490. Dill, in Raii 
Si/n. 267 ; excluding the reference to Clusius. 

On the sea coast, in sandy or stony places. 

Near Weymouth. Mr. Lambert. In several parts of the west and 
south coasts of England. Rare in Scotland, according to Dr. 
Hooker. 

(3. Near Llanfaelog, Anglesea. Mr. Llwyd, and Rev. H. Davies. 

Root somewhat creeping, with very long, stout, fleshy fibres ; the 
crov>'n densely scaly. Stems annual, erect, round, much branch- 
ed, leafy, about a foot high ; in the cultivated slate 5 times as 
tall; in (5 quite procumbent. Leaves tufted, small, bright green, 
bristle-shaped, acute, smooth. Stipulas solitary, membranous, 
lanceolate, occasionally accompanied by 2 minute interior ones ; 
the uppermost short and torn. Fl. axillary, 2 or 3 together, 
stalked, pendulous, bell-shaped, greenish, inodorous. Cor. much 
more deeply divided than it appears in Engl. Bot. Style very 
short. Stigmas separating to the very base as the fruit ripens. 
Berry scarlet, the size of a red currant, not eatable. 

The sprouting stems, when rendered luxuriant by a very rich soil, 
and boiled, are brought to every table. 

19G. CONVALLARIA. Lily of the Valley, 
and Solomon's Seal. 

Linn. Gen. 169. Juss. 42. Fl. Br. 370. Lam. t.24S. Gcprtn. t. 16. 

Lilium Convallium 3 et Polygonatum. Tourn. t. ]4. 

Nat. Ord. see 7i. 195. 

CaL none. Cor. inferior, of I petal, bell-shaped, deciduous ; 
the limb in 6 obtuse, spreading segments. Fi/am. awl- 
shaped, c(|ual, inserted into some part of the tube of the 
corolla, not reaching to the border. A/if/(. terminal, ob- 
long, cloven, erect. Germen superior, roundish. Style 
erect, triangular, swelling upwards. Stigma obtuse, tri- 
angular. H(T)i/ globular, of 3 cells. Seeds 2 in each 
cell, externally globose, with a horny alhiimen ,- the ejn- 
bnjo straight, " opposite to the scar." Gccrtfin: 

Perermial smooth /irrbs, with ribbed, entire leaves. Fl. 
white, in some marked with green; in .several fragrant. 
Berries red ; or blueish black ; observed by Linnauis 
to be speckled before they ripen ; but this is not with- 
out exception. 



154 HEXANDRIA-MONOGYNIA. Convallaria. 

1 . C. majalis, Lily of the Valley. 

Flower-stalk radical, naked, semicylindrical. Cluster simple. 
Flowers drooping, cup-shaped, with rather distant seg- 
ments. 

C. majalis. Lm«. <Sjo. PZ.451. Willd.v.lA^^. FL Br. 370. Engl, 
Bot. V. 15. t. 1035. Curt. Lond. fasc. 5. t. 24. Jbboi 76. t.2. 
Hook. Scot. 103. FL Dan. t. 854. Redout. Liliac. t. 227. Bull. 
Fr. t.2\9. 

Polygonatum n. 1241. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 118. 

Lilium convallium. Raii Sy}i. 264. Ger.Em.4\0.f. Matth. Valgr. 
V. 2. 227. f. Camer. Epit. 618. f. Brunf. Herb. u. 1. 211. /. 
Trag. Hist. 572./. 

Lamium tertium. Clus, Pan. 596. f. only. 

Ephemerum non letale. Fuchs. Hist. 239. t. 240. 

In groves, heathy ground, or rocky woods. 

Perennial. May. 

Roots thread-shaped, creeping, much entangled. Leaves two, radi- 
cal, elliptical, 3 or 4 inches long, acute, entire, many-ribbed, 
smooth, stalked. Footstalks longer than the leaves, erect, chan- 
nelled, folded, clasping each other, sheathed at the base with 
several purplish scales. Flower-stalk solitary, simple, radical, on 
the outside of the footstalks within the uppermost sheath, smooth, 
naked, semicylindrical, bearing a simple, curved cluster, of seve- 
ral pendulous, very elegant and very sweet-scented, white 
flowers. Bracteas lanceolate, solitary at the base of each partial 
stalk. Tube of the corolla nearly hemispherical 5 limb in 6 deep, 
broad, recurved lobes, with wide rounded interstices. Berry as 
large as a black currant, scarlet. 

There are varieties with double, or with purple, flowers, sometimes 
seen in gardens, but not easy of cultivation, and far less elegant 
than the wild kind, which is among the most favourite of our 
native flowers. 

2. C. verticillata. Narrow-leaved Solomon's Seal. 
Leaves linear-lanceolate, whorled. 

C. verticillata. Lmn.Sp. PZ. 451. Willd. v.2.\6\. H.Br.S7\. 

Engl. Bot. V. 2. t. 128. Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 2. 357. Hook. Scot. 

103. Dicks. H. Sice. fasc. 18. 6. Fl. Dan. t. 86. Wahlenh. 

Lapp. 77. 
Polygonatum n. 1244. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 120. 
P. verticillatum. Redout . Liliac. t.244. 
P. angustifolium, non ramosum. Bauh. Pin. 303. 
P. angustifolium. Fuchs. Hist. 586. f. Ic. 337. f Dalech. Hist. 

1623./. 
P. quintum, sive angustifolium primum. Clus. Hist. r. 1. 277 .f. 
P. tenuifolium. Cord. Hist. 113./. 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Convallaria. 155 

P. minus. Ger. Em. 903. f. 

P. alterum, Dod. Fetnpt. 345. f. 

vSigillum Salomonis angustifoliiim. Trag. Hist. 400. f. 

In woods at the bases of the Scottish mountains, very rare. 

In Den Rechip, a deep woody valley, between the hills of Stor- 
mont, Perthshire, about 4 miles north-east of Dunkeld. Mr. Ar- 
thur Bruce. 

Perennial. June. 

Root fleshy, creeping. Stem erect, near 2 feet high, simple, angu- 
lar, smooth ; naked at the lower part ; clothed above with nu- 
merous whorls of sessile, spreading, linear-lanceolate, ribbed 
leaves, 3 or 4 inches long, from 3 to 4 in a whorl, the upper- 
most often as many as 5, 6, or 7 ; their under surface glaucous. 
FLower'Stalks axillary, solitary, branched, drooping, hardly an 
inch in length, each bearing from 2 to 4 pendulous, white 
flowers, tipped with green. Cor. cylindrical ) its segments pa- 
-rallel, near together, bearded withinside under the tips. Stam, 
short, in the mouth of the tube. Style short. Berry globose, 
deep blue. 

3. C. Polygonatum. Angular Solomon's Seal. 

Leaves alternate, clasping the angular stem. Stalks axil- 
lary, mostly single-flowered. Stamens smooth. 

C. Polygonatum. h'lnn. Sp. JZ. 451. Willd. v. 2. 161. R.Br. 371. 

Engl. Bof. V. 4. t. 280. Hook. Lond. t. 38. Woodv.Med. Bot. 

t. 44. Fl. Dan. t. 377. 
Polvgonatum. Camer. Epit. 692./. 
P. n. 1242. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 1 19. 
P. floribus ex singularibus pediculis. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 529./. 

Raii Syu. 2G3. 
P. latifolium, flore majore odoro. Bauh. Pin. 303. 
P. latifolium secundum. Clus. Hist. v. 1 . 276. Ger. Em. 904./. 
P. latifolium. Dod. Pcmpt. 346./. 

P. latifolium, flore albo majori odorato. Barrel. Ic. t.7l\.f. 1. 
P. vulgare. Redout. Liliac. ^258. 
/3, P. Hellebori albi folio, caule purpurasconte, Raii Syn. 263. 

In rocky mountainous woods, rare. 

On the ledges of the clifl's near W'herf and Settle, Yorkshire , 
T. W'illiscl. R<iy. In Kent. Mr. J. Raycr. Woods near Bex- 
ley and Dartford. Mr. Graves. On Kyloc rocks, a few miles 
south of Herwick. Mr. A. Bruce. Never found in Norfolk. 

/3. In woods on the nortli side of Mendip hills, Somersetshire. 
Tioharf. 

Perennial. M<ty, .June. 

Root fleshy, creeping, abounding with mucilage, which may be 
separated, by grating and washing, in the form of starch. Broad 



156 HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Convallaria. 

is reported to have been made of these roots, in the north of 
Europe. The stem is 12 or 18 inches high, angular, or some- 
what two-edged, wavy, leafy, a little curved at the upper part. 
Leaves broadly elliptical, acute, ribbed, plaited ; clasping, and 
more or less tapering, at the base. Stalks axillary, drooping, 
bearing 1, rarely 2, pendulous, conical, green and ^hiiejiowers, 
smelling powerfully like Hawthorn, or even Heliotropium peru- 
vianum. Their segments overlap each other, and are bearded at 
the point. Filaments smooth. Berry dark blue. A variety with 
double, very aweet^owers, is sometimes seen in gardens. 
We are obliged to Professor Hooker for pointing out the smooth 
stamens of this species, and the straight style, as distinguishing 
it from the following. There are however sufficient characters 
besides. 

4. C. rnultifiora. Common Solomon's Seal. 

Leaves alternate, clasping the round stem. Stalks axillary, 
many-flowered. Stamens downy. 

C, multiflora. Linn. Sp. PL 452, mild. v. 2. 162. Fl. Br. 372. 
Engl. Bot. V. 4. t. 279. Hook. Land. t. 37. Scot. 105. Fl. Dan. 
t. 152. Dreves Bilderb. t. 52. Bull. Fr. ^307. 

C. foliis amplexicaulibus, caule tereti, &c. Mill. Ic. 67. t. 101./. 1. 

Polygonatum. RaiiSyn.263. Ger.Em.903.f. Dod. Pempt.345.f. 
Matfh.Valgr.v. 2. 304./. 

P. n. 1243. Hall.Hist.v.2.\\9. 

P. vulgatius. Camer. Epit. 693. f. 

P. latifolium vulgare. Bauh. Pin. 303. 

P. latifolium primum. Clns. Hist. v. 1 275. f. 

P. majus Matthioli. Dalech. Hist. 1623./. 

P. multiflorum. Redout. Liliac. t. 229. 

Sigillum Salomonis latifolium. Trag. Hist. 399. f. 

|S. Polygonatum humile anglicum. Rati Syn. 263. 

In woods and thickets, not very common. 

In various parts of Berkshire. Ray. In Hampshire and Kent. Dil- 
lenius. In a clay-pit at Gorleston, Suffolk, near Yarmouth. 
Dr. Hooker. 

/3. In Wiltshire, found by Mr. P. More. Bobart. 

Perennial. May, June. 

Root much like the last. Stem 2 feet high, round and smooth. 
Leaves of a rather lighter green than the preceding. Fl. from 2 
to 5 on each stalk, very faintly scented, more cylindrical and 
elongated than in C. ' Polygonatum, with smaller segments, 
scarcely folding over each other. Filaments downy, as first re- 
marked by Professor Hooker. According to the same authority, 
and that of Redoute, the berries are of a blucish black, as de- 
scribed in Fl. Brit., though Tragus paints them red. I cannot 
now trace the origin of the same mistake in Engl. Bot. 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Acorus. 157 
197. ACORUS. Sweet Flag. 

Linn. Gen. 172. Juss.25. Fl. Br. 373. Lam. ^.252. Gcerfn. t.S4. 
Calamus aromaticus. Mich. Gen. 43. t. 3\ . 9- 

Nat. Ord. Piperif^e. Linn. 2. Aroidece. Juss. 7. 

Cal, none. Spadix naked, nearly cylindrical, simple, covered 
with sessile flowers, deciduous. Pet. 6, inferior, equal, ob- 
tuse, concave, lax, rather thicker in the upper part ; pro- 
tuberant at the back. Filam. thickish, erect, about the 
length of the petals, and alternate with them. Aiith, of 2 
roundish lobes, terminal. Germ, superior, sessile, elliptic- 
oblong, the length of the stamens. Style none. Stigma 
hemispherical, obscurely 3-lobed. Caps, triangular, ab- 
rupt, membranous, of 3 cells, not bursting. Seeds several, 
ovate-oblong. 

Aromatic smooth herbs, with creeping, horizontal, scarred, 
woody roots. Stem none. Leaves radical, equitant, sword- 
shaped, pointed. Stalk solitary, radical, central, com- 
pressed, quite simple, bearing one lateral spadix, sur- 
mounted by a leafy point. Only 2 species are known ; 
the exotic one, brought from China, is hardy in our 
gardens. 

1. A. Calamus. Common Sweet Flag. 

Leafy summit of the flower-stalk rising high above the 
spadix. 

A. Calamus. Linn. Sp. PI. 462. JrHld. v. 2. 199. Fl. Br. 373. 

Engl. Bot.v. 5. 1.356. Woodv. Med. Bot. t. \73. Piirton v. 3. 31. 

LeersS6.t.\3.f.\2. Fl. Dan. t. 1158. 
A. n. 1307. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 1G4. 
A. verus. Bauh. Theatr. 626. f. 
A. verus, sive Calamus officinarum, Rnii Syn.437. 
A. verus, officinis falso Calamus. Ger. Em. 62. f. 
Acorum. Matlh. Valgr. v. I, 19./. Camer. Epit. 5./. 
Typha aromatica, clava rugosa. Moris, v. 3. 246 sect. 8. t. 13./. 4. 

In watery places, about the banks of rivers, l)ut not very general. 

In the rivers of Norfolk jjlenliful. On Ilillingilon common, Mid- 
dlesex, and in other j)laees about London. Kelhan, Sibthorp, 
Abbot and Purton have it in tlieir Floras. In Scotland it is un- 
known. 

Perennial. June. 

Root thick, ratluT spongy, with manv long radicles, arom:itic, like 
every part of the herbage, but much more powerfully so. Leaves 
erect, 2 or 3 feet high, bright green, near an inch broad. Stalk 
like the leaves, except being thicker below tlie spadix, and not 



158 HEXANDRIA—MONOGYNIA. Juncus. 

quite so tall. Spadix about a foot above the root, a little spread- 
ing, 2 or 3 inches long, tapering, covered with a mass of very 
numerous, thick-set, pale green /lowers, which have no scent, 
except ^en bruised. A very narrow wavy membrane may be 
observed at the base of the spadix, which perhaps ought to be 
taken into the generic character as a spatha. 
Thejlowers are rare. The dried root powdered is used, by the 
country people in Norfolk, for curing the ague. On the Mayor's 
day, in June, the cathedral of Norwich, and some of the streets, 
have from time immemorial been strewed, or decorated, with 
this plant, which, when trodden upon, smells somewhat like 
myrtle j but having become less plentiful, its place is now 
partly supplied by Iris Pseud-acorus, or the larger kinds of Carex. 

198. JUNCUS. Rush. 

Linn. Gen. 1/3. Juss. 44. Fl. Br. 374. Mich. Gen. 37. t.3\. Br. 
Prodr. 258. Bicheno Tr. of L, Soc. v. 12. 297. Lam. t. 250. 
Gcertn. t.\o. 

Nat. Ord. Trijpetaloidecc. Linn. 5. Ju?ici. Juss. 13. N. 199. 
the same. 

Cal. inferior, of six oblong, acute, permanent leaves ; 3 of 
them internal and rather the smallest. Cor. none. Fi- 
lam. capillary, short, attached to the base of the calyx- 
leaves; 3 of them sometimes wanting. A?it/i. oblong, 
erect, of 2 cells, bursting lengthwise. Germ, superior, 
triangular. Sfi/le simple, cylindrical, short, deciduous. 
Stigmas 3, elongated, tapering, downy. Caps, triangular, 
smooth, invested with the permanent calyx, of 3 cells, 
and 3 firm valves with central partitions. Seeds very nu- 
merous, minute, roundish, inserted all along the inner 
edge of each partition, often furnished with a partial 
tunic. 

Moots fibrous, or creeping, mostly perennial. Herbage 
smooth. Stem simple, naked, or more or less leafy; 
spongy within, rigid, sometimes spinous at the summit. 
Leaves alternate, channelled or flat, undivided, and for 
the most part, if not invariably, entu-e ; sqmetimes inter- 
nally cellular. Fl. lateral or terminal, panicled, or some- 
what capitate, greenish, with a pair of close bracteas to 
each. Caps, often dark-coloured, and highly polished. 

* Leaves none. 

1. J. acutus. Great Sharp Sea Rush. 

Stem naked, sharp-pointed. Panicle aggregate, near the 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Juncus. 159 

summit. Bractea spinous. Capsule twice as long as the 
calyx, roundish, with a blunt point. 

J. acutus. Linn. Sp. PL 4G3. mild. v. 2. 204. Fl. Br. 374. En<rl. 
Bot. i;.23. t. 1614. Bicheno Tr. of L. Sue. v. 12. 297. Lam. 
Diet. V. 3. 264. 

J. acutus, capitulis Sorgbi. Bauh. Pin. 11. Prodr. 21./. Theatr. 
173. f. Raii Syn. 43 1 . Scheuchz. Agr. 338. 

J, pungens,sive J. acutus capitulis Sorghi. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 520. f 
bad. Moris, v. 3. 232. sect. 8. t. 10./. 15, good. 

J. maritimus, Sorglii panicula utriculata. Barrel. Ic. t, 203. f. 2. 

On the sea coast, in deep sand. 

On the coast of Merionethshire, plentifully. Ray. At Brancaster, 
Norfolk. Mr. Crowe. Holker, Lancashire. Mr. Woodward. In- 
stovv, Devonshire 5 and on Braunston Burrows, plentifully. 
Bishop ofOirlisIe. In the county of \^'icklo\v, Ireland. Dr. Wade. 

Perennial, July. 

Root fibrous, densely tufted, running deep into the sand. Stems 3 
or 4 feet high, (in Ireland 7 or 8 feet, according to Dr. Wade,) 
erect, straight, simple, round, smooth, leafless, stiff and very 
strong, with a sharp rigitl point, turned somewhat aside by the 
panicle, and rising a little above it. Leaves none, tliough the 
barren stems have been taken for such. Panicle compound, and 
repeatedly subdivided, from a lateral sheathing cleft, near the 
top of each stem, corymbose, many-flowered ; its branches 
smooth,, obtusely compressed. Bractea resembling the point of 
the stem, which embraces it at the bottom, but smaller, and 
more spreading 5 iniier ones several, still smaller, tapering, with 
membranous points. Fl. partly capitate. Three inner calyx- 
leaves obtuse. Stam. broad and short. Style scarcely any. Caps. 
broadly ovate, hard, brown, sharp pointed, with 3 blunt angles, 
and in the upper part as many intermediate depressions ; its 
lower half invested with the withered calyx. Seeds ovate, pellu- 
cid ; tunic unilateral, elongated at each end. 
I readily concur with Mr. Bicheno in considering the inflorescence 
as lateral in all this tribe of Junci ; which is justified by analogy, 
though it may seem paradoxical, in this species and the next. 
Nor is the question without difficulty, as all who ever thought 
on the subject have long ago perceived. 

2. J. inarhbniis. Lesser Sharp Sea Rush. 

Stem naked, sharp-pointed. Panicle jiroliilrous, near the 
erect summit. Bractea spinous. Capsule oblong, the 
length of the calyx. 

J. maritimus. FL Br.37i>. Fngl. Bot. v. 24. /. 1725. Bicheno Tr. 

of L. Soi. v. 12. 299. Galp. Comp. 28. Lam. Diet. v. 3. 264. 
J. acutu.s /3. Lmn. Sp. PL 464. WilUL v. 2. 205. Uuds. 148. 

With.3\0. IIull7:>. 



160 HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Juncus. 

J. acutus maritimus anglicus. Raii Hist. tj. 2. 1303. Syn. 431. 
Moris. V.3. 232. sect. 8. t. 10./. 14. Scheuchz. Jgr. 340. 

In marshes near the sea, along with the preceding, but much 
more plentiful. 

In the salt marshes of Essex and Wales. Ray. Lancashire. Rev. 
W. Wood. Near St. Andrews, Scotland. Mr. J. Mackay. 
About Burnham and Holkham, Norfolk. 

Perennial. August. 

Smaller and more slender than J. acutus, with more of a glaucous 
hue. Panicle and bractea, as well as the summit of the stem, 
more erect ; the bractea much shorter in proportion, and the 
main branches of the panicle more unequal. Calyx-leaves acute, 
with a membranous wavy border, often jagged towards the 
point. Caps, much smaller than the last, of an oblong prismatic 
figure, not at all ovate, or rounded, and not projecting beyond 
the calyx. 

Willdenow appears to have led Mr. Bicheno into an error respect- 
ing Lamarck's synonym. 

3. J. glaiicus. Hard Rush. 

Stem naked, straight, glaucous. Panicle upright, far below 
the summit. Capsule elliptical, pointed, rather shorter 
than the calyx. 

J.glaucus. Sibth.llS. FLBr.375. Engl. Bot.v. \0. t.665. Willd. 

V. 2. 206. Bicheno Tr. of L. Soc. v. 12. 300. Hook. Scot. 105. 

Ehrh. Calam. 85. FL Dan. t. 1 159. Wahlenb. Lapp. 79. 
J. n. 131 1 a. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 167.' 
J. efFusus /3. Huds. 149. 
J. inflexus. Relh.U\. With.345. Hull75. Abbot 78. Leers87. 

t.\3.f.3. 
J. acutus. Raii Syn. 432. Ger. Em. 35. f. Dod. Pempt. 605./. 
J. acutus vulgaris. Moris, v. 3. 232. sect. 8. t. 10./ 13. Lob. Ic. 

85./ 
J. foliaceus. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 521./ 

In wet pastures, or moist waste ground by road sides, on a poor 
soil, not uncommon. 

perennial. July. 

Root moderately creeping, black, with stout fibres. Stems rigid 
and very tough, glaucous, striated, 18 inches or 2 feet high, 
rather more slender than the last ; tapering and acute, scare 
pungent, at the summit ; sheathed at the base, with large, brown, 
polished, partly pointed, close scales. Panicle generally about 
halfway between the root and the summit, without any external 
bractea, aggregate^ with roundish branches of unequal length, 
nearly upright, cymose. Calyx-leaves awl-shaped, pale brown 
with a darker keel. Stamens 6, with long, bright yellow, anthers. 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Juncus. 161 

Caps, acutely triangular, elliptiral, with a sharp point, scarcely 
so long as the 3 shortest, internal, leaves of the calyx. 

Mr. Bicheno has adopted my suggestion in Engl. Bot., in taking the 
supposed leaves, of this and its allies, for barren stems, which 
can scarcely be disputed. In the last-mentioned work, p. 665. 
I. 4 from the bottom, effiisus is misprinted for conglomeratiis. 

Many synonyms and figures of early authors, quoted by Linnaeus 
for his J. injlexus, which I believe to be a nonentity, probably 
belong to our glaucus ; but they give a wrong idea of its posi- 
tion. I have in vain sought for any thing that could answer to 
J. iriflexus, either in a state of nature, in gardens, or in old col- 
lections. 

4. J. conglomeratus. Common Rush. 

Stem naked, straight. Panicle dense, globular, far below 
the summit. Capsule abrupt. Stamens three. 

J. conglomeratus. Lmn.^p.VL\6\. JrUld. v. 2. 20^. Fl. Br.376. 
Engl. Bot.v. 12. t. 835. Bicheno Tr. of L. Soc. v. 12. 302. Hook. 
Scot.lOD. Ehrh.Calam.6b. Leers S6. t.\3.f.\. '' Fl. Dun. 
t 1094." 

J. n. 1312. Hall. Hist V. 2. 167. 

J. laevis vulgaris, panicula compactiore. Raii Syn. 432. 

J. Isevis, panicula conglomerate. Scheuchz. Agr. 343. 

J. laevis, panicula non sparsa. Bauh, Pin. 12. Theair. 183. Moris. 
v.3.23\.sect.S.t. \0.f.7. 

J. laevis. Dalech. Hist. 984./. 

J. Matthioli. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 520. f. 

Juncus. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 383./. Comer. Epit. 780./ 

In pastures, and by road-sides, in moist situations, common. 

Perennial. July. 

Root creeping, horizontal. Stems about 2 feet high, quite erect, 
all generally fertile, grass-green, striated, acute, but not pun- 
gent; sheathed at the bottom with close, brown, obtuse scales. 
Panicle more than halfway u]) the stem, bursting from a small, 
membranous-edged fissure, without a hractca, corymbose, very 
dense, mostly globular. Calyx-leaves pointed ; the inner ones 
most membranous, with 2 ribs. Stam. always 3 only. Caps. 
ovate, strongly triangular, obtuse, with a small point, purplish- 
brown, i)olished, about tlic length of the calyx. 

The stems are more soft and i)liant tlian any of the foregoing, full 
of a snow-white highly comi)ressible pith, wiiich serves for rush- 
lights, or watch-candles ; as the entire stems do for mats, chair- 
bottoms, and manv similar uses, in common with the next spe- 
cies. Thev both i)'rol)al)ly served for stri'wing floors in Kngland, 
as mentioned by Shakspear and Sir Thomas More, about the 
time of Edward -kh,and later ; till more refined manners wrought 
Ihem into mats, and foreign commerce at length introduced car- 

VOL. II. »> 



162 HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Jiincus. 

pets. For the former purpose indeed, as well as for chair-bot- 
toms and hassocks, Scirpus lacitstris, v. 1. p. 56, has superseded 
their use. 

5. J. effiisus. Soft Rush. 

Stem naked, straight. Panicle loose, repeatedly compound, 
very far below the summit. Capsule obtuse. 

J. effusus. Li«». % P/. 464. Willd. v. 2. 205. FL Br.376. Rel. 
Rudb. 24. f. Engl Bot. v. 12. t. 836. Bicheno Tr. of L. Soc. 
V. 12. 303. Hook. Scot. 105. Ehrh. Calam. 7o. Leers 87. t. 13. 
/. 2. '' Fl.Dan. t. 1096." 

J. n. 1311 /3. Hall. Hist. v.2.\67. 

J. Isevis vulgaris, panicula sparsa nostras. Rail Syn. 432. 

J. laevis, panicula sparsa, major. Bauh. Pin. \2. Theatr. 182. f. 
Scheuchz.Jgr. 341. Moris. v. 3. 23\. sect. 8. t. 10./. 4. 

J. Isevis. Ger.Em.33.f. Dod. Pempt. 605./. 

/3. J. Isevis alter. Moris, v.3.231. n. 5. 

In wet pastures, and boggy places by road-sides, common. 

Perennial. Julij. 

Root somewhat creeping. Stems like the last, but rather paler, 
very soft and pliable. Panicle loose and spreading, very much 
branched, with a great multitude of small green^0M;er5. Calyx- 
leaves finely pojnted ; the 3 outermost with a broad obtuse keel ; 
innermost with 2 distant ribs. Stam. usually 6 ; rarely 3 only. 
Caps, small, obtuse, but rather less abrupt than in J. conglome- 
ratus. This species is as useful as the last, for various econo- 
mical purposes, being even more soft and flexible, with a greater 
quantity of pith. 

|3, preserved in Bobart's herbarium at Oxford^ is a slight variety, 
with a less diffuse panicle. 

6. ^.filiformis. Least Rush. 

Stem naked, thread-shaped, drooping. Panicle nearly 
simple, corymbose, of few flowers, very far below the 
summit. Bractea taper-pointed. Capsule almost glo- 
bular. 

J. filiformis. Lmn.Sp.Pl.4^5. Willd.v.2.207. Fl.Br.377. Engl. 
Bot. V. 17. t. 1175. Sjncil 2. t. 3. Bicheno Tr. of L. Soc. v. 12. 
304. Dicks. Dr. PI 32. H. Sicc.fasc. 14. 16. Hook. Scot. 105. 
Ehrh. Calam. 95. Leers87. t. 13./. 4. FL Dan. t. 1207. 

J. n. 1313. Hall.Hist.v.2. 168. 

J parvus, calamo supra paniculam compactam longius producto. 
' Rail Syn. 432. Pluk. Almag. 200. Phyt. t. 40. f 8. 

J. laevis, panicula sparsa, minor. Bauh. Pin. 12. Theatr. 183. 
Scheuchz. Jgr. 347. t.7.f.\\. Moris, v. 3. 23 1 . 

About the margins of lakes in the North, but very rare. 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Junciis. 163 

Near Ambleside, Westmoreland; Mr. Newton, Ray. At Win- 
dermoor in Cartmel, Lancashire ; Mr. Jackson. IVith. Near 
Dervventvvater^ Cumberland; and on Ben Lawers, Scotland. 
Mr. Dickson. In several parts of Scotland. Mr. G. Don. 

Perennial. August. 

Root creeping. Stems about a foot high, very slender, pliant, light 
green, drooping or curved above the panicle, which is usually 
situated about the middle, and consists of from 5 to 8 green 
Jlowers, not more than 2 on each stalk, with a taper-pointed 
bractea at the base of the whole. Calyx obscurely ribbed. Caps. 
nearly as long as the calyx, tumid, and almost globose, with a 
small point. There are often a few barren stems. 

Mr. Bicheno has always found 6 stamens in this species, though he 

, has frequently obsers'ed but 3 in the effusus. 

7. J. arcticus. Arctic Rush. 

Stem naked, straight, acute. Panicle towards the summit, 
dense, capitate, of few flowers. Bractea shorter than the 
panicle. Capsule oblong, bluntish. 

J. arcticus. Willd. Sp. PI. v. 2. 206. Wahlenh. Lapp. 79. Hook. 

Scot. 104. 
J. effusus /3. Linn. Suec. ed. 2. 1 1 1. Fl. Dan. t. 1095 (not 1035). 
J. n. 1 1 G. Linn. Lapp. ed. 1 . 85. ed. 2. 90 ; excluding J. Jacquini, 

and the synonyms of Scheuchzer and Rudbeck. 

On the eastern coast of Scotland, veiy rare. 

On the sands of Barry, near Dundee ; Mr. Drummond. Hooker. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root creeping extensively. Stems from 8 to 1 2 inches high, much 
stouter than the last, erect, quite smooth, acute, somewhat 
pungent; with several obtuse, light brown, sheathing scales at 
the base. Panicle capitate, within little more than an inch of the 
summit, having a rather membranous, concave, obtuse bractea, 
longer than the Jlouer-stalks, at its base. Fl. few, crowded, 
oblique, with several thin, broad, interior bracteas. Calyx-leaves 
lanceolate, bluntish, of a dark shining brown, with a pale keel. 
Caps, about the same length, oblong, obtuse with a small point. 
— From the descriptions of Wahlenberg and Hooker, compared 
with Laj)land specimens. Schleicher seems to have found the 
same plant in Switzerland. 

** Hcrhlrafif. 
!S. J. Injldus, Three-leaved Hush. 

Stem naked. Radical leaves very few. Biaclcas three, 
leafy, channelled, with from one to three terminal flowers. 

J. trifidus. Lmn.Sp PI.\G:). irUhl. v. 2. 20S. FLIir.STS. Fngi. 
Bot. t. 2 1 , /. 1 182. Bicheuo Tr. of L. Soc. v. 1 2. 3 1 4 . Lightf 

M 2' 



164 HEXANDRIA-— MONOGYNIA. Juncus. 

1 83. t. 9./. 1 . Hook. Scot. 1 07. Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc. 1.6. Fl. 

Dan. t 107. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 521./ 522. 
J. monanthus. Jacq. Enum. 61.236. t.4.f. 1. 
J. n. 1315. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 168. 
J. acumine reflexo, trifidus. Bauh. Prodr. 22. f. Theatr. 185. f, 

Moris. V. 3.233. 
J. idseus, vel petrseus. Gesn. Fasc. 14. t. A.f. 16. 
Juncoides alpinum trifidum. Scheuchz. Agr.32b. 

In alpine bogs in Scotland. 

Perennial. July. 

Root creeping, black, with numerous fibres. Stems crowded, erect, 
slender, thread-shaped, striated, about a span high, naked, ex- 
cept at top and bottom. Radical leaves 1 or 2, with a tight 
sheathing base, very narrow, channelled, acute, nearly upright, 
much shorter than the stem, frequently wanting ; their sheaths 
enveloped with several imbricated, membranous scales, of a light 
shining brown. Bracteas 3, rarely but 2, at the top of the stem, 
resembling the radical leaves, though generally longer, nearly 
erect ; dilated, membranous, frequently abrupt, or auricled, at 
their base. Fl. terminal, 1, 2, or 3, sessile or stalked, erect, 
with 2 interior, membranous, brown bracteas. Calyx-leaves dark 
brown, acute, ribbed. Filam. very short. Anth. linear, oblong. 
Caps, elliptical, pointed, rather longer than the calyx. Seeds 
large^ not very numerous. 

9. J squarrosus. Moss Rush. Goose Corn. 

Stem naked. Leaves numerous, radical, channelled. Pa- 
nicle terminal, compound, with cymose branches. 

J. squarrosus. Linn. Sp. PI. 465. Willd. v. 2. 209. FL Br. 378. 
Engl. Bot. V. 13. t. 933. Bicheno Tr. of L. Soc. v. 12. 306. Hook. 
Scot. 105. Fl. Dan. t. 430. Ehrh. Calam. 39. 

J. Sprengeli. Willd. Prodr. 125. t. A.f. 8. Roth Germ. v. 2. 407. 

J. n. 1317. Hall. Hist. V. 2. 169. 

J. montanus palustris. Raii Syn. 432. 

Junco affinis, panicula laxa, seu longioribus pediculis, insidente. 
Scheuchz. Agr. 350. 

Gramen junceum maritimum. Ger. Em. 21. f Lob. Ic. 18. f. 

G. junceum, foliis et spica junci. Bauh. Pin. 5. Theatr. 75. f 
Moris, i;. 3. 228. sect. 8.t.9.f\3. 

G. junceum, semine acuminate. Loes. Pruss. 115. ^.29. 

In boggy spots, on the most barren sandy heaths, plentifully. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root tufted, rather woody, with many long, stout fibres. Stems 
solitary, erect, about a foot high, simple, naked, smooth, bluntly 
triangular, a little glaucous. Leaves numerous, all radical, 
somewhat spreading, 3 or 4 inches long, rigid, linear, narrow, 
acute, channelled, smooth j dilated and sheathing at the base. 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Juncus. 165 

Panicle of 3 or 4 alternate, cymose, bracteated, upright branches, 
with a very few large powers on each. Bracteas membranous, 
sheathing 3 the lowermost with a short leafy point. Calyx-leaves 
lanceolate, of a shining brown ; membranous at the edges ; the 
keel ribbed. Anth. long, linear. Caps, the length of the calyx, 
polished, obovate, with a small point. 
Gerarde's and Lobel's figures are indubitable, though faulty in the 
top of the panicle. 

10. J. compressus. Round-fruited Rush. 

Stem simple, compressed; leafy below. Leaves linear, in- 
curved at the edges. Panicle cymose, terminal, shorter 
than the bractea. Capsule roundish-obovate, longer than 
the obtuse calyx. 

J. compressus. Jac^. Enwm. 60. 235. Bicheno Tr.of L. Soc. v. 12. 
307. 

J. bulbosus. Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 466. ITilld. v. 2. 213. Fl. Br. 381 . 
Engl. Bot. V. 13. t. 934. Huds. 150. Hook. Scot. 107. Leers 89. 
t.\3.f.7. 

J. bottnicus. Wahlenh. Lapp. 82. t. 5} 

J. n. 1318. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 1G9. According to Swiss specimens. 

J. parvus, cum pericarpiis rotundis. Raii Syn. 433. Baiih. Hist. 
V. 2. 522./, The description rather belongs to J. squarrosus. 

J. repens ocK^oy-ocpitog (not a[j.(piKa.f^'rrQS as in Haller), minor bo- 
troides. Barrel. Ic. t. 1 14./. 1. 

Juncoides angustifolium glabrum, panicula sparsa. Scheuchz. Agr. 
320. 

Gramen junceum, sorghi capitulis. Barrel. Ic. t. 1^1 .f. 1. 

In moist pastures. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root horizontal, creeping, with numerous fibres ; not at all bul- 
bous. Stems erect, from 6 to 12 inches high, simple, smooth ; 
round and leafy in the lower part ; naked and compressed above. 
Leaves linear, acute, slightly spreading, channelled, with slightly 
incurved edges ; dilated, sheathing and membranous at the base. 
Panicle compound, with many corymbose, slender, angidar, or 
striated, smooth branches. Bracteas leafy, channelled ; the prin- 
cipal one erect, rising more or less above the panicle. 77. nu- 
merous, small, pale green. Calyx-Uavcs concave, obtuse, with 
a slight keel, and 2 brown lateral ribs ; the inner ones broadest, 
and rather the shortest. Caps, roundisli-obovate, scarcely glo- 
bose, slightly pointed, longer than the calyx, of a light shining 
brown. 

I most heartily concur with Mr. IJicheno in freeing our nomencla- 
ture from the absurd name of hiilhosiis for this species, which 
originally arose from a misap[)lication of synonyms, now cor- 



166 HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Juncus. 

rected. Nor have I any doubt of the propriety of distinguishing 
the following, though they have been confounded by Linnaeus in 
his herbarium, by Dickson in his H.Sicc.fasc. 13. 14, by Haller, 
in their synonyms at least, and hitherto perhaps by all botanists. 
Gmelin's figure, Fl. Sib. t. 17. f. 2, cited by Wahlenberg for his 
bottniciis, is so very bad as to be unintelligible, nor can I quite 
satisfy myself respecting this last-mentioned species, by a single 
Nuremberg specimen from Dr. Panzer, which is all 1 have seen. 
The very suitable name of compressus is authorized by an early 
work of Jacquin, his Enumeratio, or Catalogue of the plants 
about Vienna, published in 1762, with observations upon the 
rarer species at the end. Willdenow has misled Mr. Bicheno 
to quote this publication by another title, Jacq. Obs., under 
J. trijidus, which may cause a mistake, Jacquin's Observationes 
being a very different and more common book. 

11. J. cosnosus. Mud Rush. 

Stem simple, leafy. Leaves linear, channelled. Panicle 
cymose, terminal, longer than the bractea. Capsule ob- 
ovate, the length of the rather obtuse calyx. 

J. coenosus. Bicheno Tr. of L. Soc. v. 12. 309. 

J. bulbosus |S. Hook. Scot. 107. 

J. bulbosus. Fl. Dan. t. 431. Ehrh. Calam. 18. 

Gramen junceum, junci sparsa panicula. Moris, v. 3. 227. sect. 8. 

t.9.f. 11. 
G. junceum, milii panicula. Barrel. Ic. t. 747./. 2. 

In salt marshes, and muddy places towards the sea, abundantly. 

Differs from the last in the darker colour of the whole plant, but 
especially of the Jlowers and capsule. The stem is more leafy, 
and in the upper part rather triangular than compressed. Leaves 
more rigid, and externally striated. Panicle less compound, not 
overtopped by the bractea, but often rising considerably above 
it. Pair of bracteas under each flower of a shining brown, not 
white or greenish. Calyx-leaves all oblong, and nearly equal in 
breadth, as well as in length, with an obtuse, concave, or in- 
curved point, all of a chocolate brown, with a broad, tumid, 
green, striated, 3-ribbed keel, and closing round the capsule, 
which hardly ever extends beyond them, and is brown, obovate, 
triangular, bluntish with a small point, altogether less tumid 
than the foregoing. 

Mr. E. Forster found a dwarf variety of J. coenosus, about 3 inches 
high, on the coast of Glamorganshire. 

The appropriation of the synonyms of these two species is a matter 
of great difficulty, and after having studied the original authors 
with some care, I must submit them to the correction of future 
critics. All my Swiss specimens, from various quarters, consi- 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Jluku.. 167 

dered as Haller's n. 1318, are the compressus, not cceiiosus ; 
which is no wonder, the latter being a maritime species. 

12. J. Gesneri, Slender Spreading Rush. 

Stem simple, naked. Leaves slightly channelled. Panicle 
forked, racemose, shorter than the bractea. Calyx-leaves 
lanceolate, taper-pointed, three-ribbed, longer than the 
oval capsule. 

J. gracilis. Engl.Bot. u.31. t. 2174. Comp.bQ. Bicheno Tr. of L. 

6V.U. 12.313. 
J. tenuis. Hook. Scot. 108 ; but not of Pursh. 
Junci genus aliud. Gesn. Fasc. 12. t. b.f. 13. 

On the mountains of Scotland. 

In dry elevated pastures in Scotland. Mr. Dickson. By a rivulet 
in marshy ground, among the mountains of Clova, Angusshire, 
very rare. Mr. G. Don. 

Perennial. July. 

Root fibrous, slightly woolly, as in grasses that grow in sand. 
Stem very slender, upright, a foot or more in height, naked, 
somewhat triangular in the upper part. Leaves very few, radical, 
shorter than the stem, erect, linear, narrow, acute' j convex and 
ribbed beneath; channelled, but shallow, above; involute when 
dry J dilated and membranous at the base. Brae teas 2 or 3, 
leafy, erect -, the principal one rising above the panicle ; the 
others much shorter. Panicle forked, of 3 or 4 ver\^ unequal, 
rather spreading, branches ; the larger ones also forked ; the 
upper part of all racemose. Fl. nearly sessile, pale. Cabjx- 
leaves lanceolate, taper-pointed, acute, green, 3-ribbed, striated, 
with narrow, white, membranous edges. Capsule pale brown, 
polished, oval, or slightly obovate, with a minute point, consi- 
derably shorter than the calyx ; valves very slightly emarginate. 
Seeds very numerous, minute, pellucid, amber-coloured. 

J. tenuis of Willdenow, and of Pursh, from Mr. F. Boott, though 
similar to this, differs essentially in having the panicle cymose 
throughout, not racemose ; cahjx-lcavcs broader, witli 2 princi- 
l)al ribs, of a light brown, the keel being green, anil for the 
most part flat. 

The panicle, calyx and capsule, in Gesner's figure most precisely 
answer to our J. i^racilis ; but he accidentally represents a leaf 
on the middle of the stem. Haller refers to this synonym under 
our compressus, with which it by no means agrees. Mr. Bicheno 
is scarcely exact as to the chronology of the name irracilis ; for 
Mr. Brown's Prodromus appeared but in ISIO, and I certainly 
had not seen it when j). 2174 of Fn^l. Bof. was printed. Ne- 
vertheless it is better to give up a name which may be disputed, 
and which has been variously applied before. Gesner's synonym 
*»cems incoMtrovertibk. 



168 HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Juncus. 

13. J. hufonms. Toad Rush. 

Stem leafy. Leaves angular, channelled. Panicle forked, 
racemose, longer than the bracteas. Calyx-leaves lan- 
ceolate, taper-pointed, membranous, two-ribbed, longer 
than the oblong capsule. 

J.bufonius. Li««. <S/?. PZ. 466. Willd,v.2.2\?>. Fl.Br.38l. Engl. 

Bot. V. 12. t. 802. Bicheno Tr. of L. Soc. u. 12. 31 1. Hook. 

Scot. 108. Leers 89. t. 13. /.8. '' Fl Dan. 1. 1098." Ehrh. 

Calani. 96. Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc. 4. 6. -Rose's Bot. 452. t. 2./. 5, 

6 J seedling plants. 
J. n. 1319. Hall. Hist. V. 2. 170. 
J. palustris humilior erectus. Rail Syn. 434. 
Gramen nemorosum, calyculis paleaceis. Bauh. Pin. 7. Theatr. 

100./. Moris. V.3. 228. sec^.8. t. 9.f. 14. Scheuchz. Agr. 327. 
G. junceum. Ger. Em. 4.f. 
G. bufonium. Barrel. Ic. t. 263, 264. 
Holosteum Matthioli. Lob. Ic. 18./. 

jS. Gramen juncoides minimum anglo-britannicum. Dill, in Rail 
Syn. 434. 

G. junceum minimum, Holosteo Matthioli congener. Park. 
Theatr. 1270./ 

In marshy ground, especially on watery sandy heaths, common. 

Annual. July, August. 

Root of many downy fibres. Herb pale green, in /3 reddish, various 
in luxuriance. Stems numerous, crowded, erect or spreading, 
from 3 inches to a foot or more in height, round, smooth, some- 
what branched, leafy, especially at the lower part ; panicled 
above. Leaves linear, narrow, ribbed, angular, channelled, acute, 
dilated at the base. Bracteas very slender, erect, much shorter 
than the panicle, which is forked, with many racemose, lax, 
greatly elongated, branches. Fl. nearly sessile, mostly solitary, 
erect, pale and silvery, with 2 or 3 very white pellucid bracteas 
at their base. Calyx-leaves lanceolate, taper-pointed, acute, 
green at the back, with 2 ribs, and sometimes an intermediate 
keel, the margins, beyond the ribs, broad, membranous, and 
shining. Caps, elliptic-oblong, triangular, reddish-brown, blunt- 
ish, generally much shorter than the calyx, and always of a 
much narrower figure than in any of the foregoing. 

Haller's third variety, G. holosteum alpinum minimum of the 
Bauhins, abundant, as they say, on mount St. Bernard, from 
whence 1 have it, has the capsule nearly as long as the calyx, 
but otherwise scarcely differs from our common more dwarf and 
spreading varieties. The 2 ribs of the calyx vary in this, as in 
ours, in being either near together, or more remote. 

In germination the young plant elevates the seed considerably 
above ground, so as to look like a moss with capsules -, as re- 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Juncus. 1G9 

presented by Mr. Rose, and preserved in the Linnaean herba- 
rium. The same is described in Weigel's Obs. 36. t. 2./. 7, as a 
cryptogamic production. 

14. J. uliginosus. Little Bulbous Rush. 

Stem leafy, bulbous at the base. Leaves bristle-shaped, 
channelled. Heads lateral and terminal, about three- 
flowered. Capsule obtuse, rather longer than the calyx. 

J. uliginosus. Sihth.W^. Fl. Br, 380. EngL Bot. v. \2. t.80\. 

Bicheno Tr. of L. Soc. v. 12. 315. Hook. Scot. 108. Relh. 138. 

Don H. Br. 84. 
J. articulatus y. Huds. 150. With. 347. 
J. bulbosus. Linn. Sp. PI. eel. 1. 327. 
J. supinus. Don H. Br. 85. 
J. n. 1320. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 170. 

Gramen junceum, capsulis triangulis, minimum. Rail Syn. 434. 
G. junceum minimum, holosteo Matthioli congener. Moris, v. 3. 

227. sect. 8. t.9.f.3. 
13. Fl. Br. 380. Bicheno, as above. 
J. supinus. Mcench. Hass. n. 296. t.b. According to Lachenal and 

Davall. 
Juncoides calyculis paleaceis glomeratis, folio varians. Scheuchz. 

Jgr. 330. t. 7. f.\0. 
Gramen junceum aquaticum, paniculis cum foliis capillaribus simul 

ortis, proliferum. Pluk. Phyt. t. 32. f. 3. Moris, v. 3. 227. sect. 8. 

t.9.f.4. 

On moist sandy or turfy heaths frequent. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root of several fibres. Stems at first erect, from 2 to 6 inches 
higli, slightly leafy, somewhat branched, subsequently reclining 5 
bulbous at the base. Leaves slender, acute, semicylindrical, 
channelled, not externally knotty or jointed ; though cellular, 
like the whole genus, within ; radical ones several, with a di- 
lated, membranous, often reddish, base, sheathing the bulbous 
part of the stems. Fl. usually 3 together, in small, lateral or 
terminal, reddish heads, with leafy brarteas. Calyx-leaves lan- 
ceolate, acute, keeled, with 3 slender ribs 3 dark broun in decay. 
Caps, light brown, n;irrow, prismatic, obtuse, a little longer 
than the calyx. 

In 3, the stem being decumbent, several of \\\e flowers are co- 
piously viviparous, whether from transformation of their organs, 
or i)remature germination of the seeds from wet, is not very 
evident. The plant itself, on open wet heaths, is common enougli. 
The Rev. Dr. Burgess sent Scottish specimens formerly to Lin- 
naeus. 

I first ascertained it, when a very young botanist, in 1779, on 



170 HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Juncus. 

Dersingham moor, Norfolk j and always considered it as the true 
Linnsean J. bulbosus ; a name which it ought still perhaps to 
have retained, but which having been long otherwise misapplied^ 
is best laid aside altogether. See J. compressus and coenosus. 

15. J. subverticillatus . Whorl-headed Rush. 

Stem leafy, trailing. Leaves bristle- shaped, channelled, 
very slightly jointed. Panicle forked. Heads lateral and 
terminal, about five-flowered, somewhat whorled. Cap- 
sule obtuse, rather longer than the calyx. 

J. subverticillatus. Wulf. in Jacq. Coll. v.',^.5l. Willd. Sp.Pl. 
V. 2. 212, excluding nearly all the sijnonyms. Bicheno Tr. of L. 
Soc. V. 12. 322. Hook. Scot. 109. Host Gram. Aiistr. v. 3. 58. ^88. 

J. setifolius. Ehrh. Calam. 86. 

J. uliginosus y. Bicheno Tr. of L. Soc. v. 12. 316 ? 

J. bulbosi varietas, maxim^ repens et vivipara. Fl. Dan.fasc. 14.6. 
^.817 ; excluding the synonyms. 

In boggy and watery places frequent. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root of many long fibres, not creeping. Stems several, crowded, 
scarcely bulbous at the base ; either decumbent or floating, 
sending forth radicles, as well as tufts of leaves, occasionally 
from the joints, round, slender, smooth, from 6 inches to a foot 
or more in length, filled with pith. Leaves very slender, taper- 
pointed ; semicylindrical beneath ; channelled above ; cellular, 
often furnished with internal transverse partitions, but these 
rarely cause any swelling, or apparent joint, externally ; the 
base is dilated and striated, with a broad, abrupt, often reddish, 
membranous margin ; the radical ones are numerous, erect, 2 
or 3 inches long 3 those on the stem solitary, and somewhat 
longer. Panicles terminal, once or twice forked. Heads of 
Jlowers axillary, lateral, and terminal^, nearly sessile, often ac- 
companied by solitary, short, leafy hracteas, and subtended by 
a few very white membranous scales. FL from 3 to 5 in each 
head, rather spreading as if whorled j in floating specimens 
fewer, with a less compound panicle. Cal. and Caps, dift^ering 
but little from the larst, except being generally of a paler hue. 

Willdenow's synonyms chiefly belong to J. uliginosus. His variety 
/3 is the /3 of our uliginosus. 

16. J. capita tus. Dense -headed Rush. 

Stem erect, unbranched ; leafy at the base. Leaves bristle- 
shaped, channelled. Heads one or two, lateral and ter- 
minal. Stamens three. Calyx keeled, bristle=pointed, 
twice as long as the capsule. 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Juncus. 171 

J. capitatus. Weigel Obs. 28. L 2./. 5. Ehrh. Calatn. 8. WUld. 

Sp. PL V. 2. 209, S7J71. very doubtful. Hook. Scot. 106. 
J. gracilis. Roth Germ. v.\. 155. v. 2. p. 1. 402. 
J.supinus. Bicheno Tr. of L. Soc. v. 12.317 ; but uGt of the authors 

quoted. 
J. foliatus minimus. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 523. f 
Schoenus minimus. Forster in Sijm. Syn. 197. 

In sandy ground, very rare. 

Found by Mr. Hudson, below the village of Bovet, between Fort 

George and Fernain bay, in the isle of Jersey. Symons. 
Annual ? May — July. 

Herb either solitary, or numerously and densely crowded. Root 
fibrous, apparently annual, quite simple, neither bulbous nor 
creeping ; fibres smooth. Steins 1 or more from the crown of 
each root, from 1| to 4 inches high, simple, straight, upright, 
smooth, angular, striated, leafy at the very bottom only, and 
bearing at the top a terminal head of flowers, sometimes accom- 
panied by another, near an inch below it. In one very luxuriant 
specimen only I have seen the stem divided at this lower head, 
and bearing 2 others above it. Leaves several, radical, sheath- 
ing, erect, one third the height of the stem, very slender, acute j 
convex beneath ; channelled above, and when dry involute, quite 
smooth 3 sheathing at the base, with membranous edges. Brac- 
teas 1 or 2 under each head, like the leaves, but much shorter, 
dilated and concave at the base. Interior brae teas from 3 to 5 
under each head, spreading, lanceolate, acute^ membranous, 
keeled, shorter than the calyx. Ft. from 2 to 5, sometimes 10, 
or more, in each head, crowded, spreading every way. Calyx- 
leaves ovate-lanceolate, concave, strongly keeled, membranous, 
light brown, without ribs -, the keel green, firm, ending in a 
long, acute, bristly point j 3 inner ones smallest and most deli- 
cate. Filani. 3 only, very short, opposite to the outer leaves of 
the calyx. Anth. oblong, erect, spiral after flowering. StigjnasS. 
Caps, about the length of the stanieus, not half so long a.s the 
calyx, roundish, triangular, membranous, obtuse. Seeds nume- 
rous, oblong, striated, very minute. 
Few species of Juncus, or of any other genus, have been more 
misunderstood than this. The above description is drawn up 
from Mr. Iliulson's original specimens, kindly communicated 
by Mr. E. Forster, and compared with those of Ehrhart and 
other foreign botanists. None can be more distinct. The 3 sta- 
mens mark it well ; and the broad, flat-sided, membranous calyx- 
leaves, each with a strong keel and long taper point, but no late- 
ral ribs, difl'er totally from all the neighbouring species. Tlie 
denomination of supiniis would be peculiarly inapplicable for a 
plant tiie most erect of ail its tribe ; and what I have from the 
late accurate and learned Professor Lachenal, and Mr. Davall, 
ffir the indubitable 7. sujiiuus of M(«mu*Ii. i^ my u/igiuvsus /3. So 



172 HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Juncus. 

we fortunately get rid of that name. J. mutahilis, Cavan. Ic. v. 3. 
49. t. 296./. 2, but not of Lamarck^ is very like our capitatus ^ 
but is drawn, and distinctly described, with 6 stamens ; and Ca- 
van illes may safely be trusted in what he professes to have seen. 
The calyx moreover is not at all suitable to our plant. J. Bauhin's 
J.foliatus minimus may be referred to either, but to no other 
known species. Mr. Don's supinus, in my copy of his work, is 
evidently the common ulis^inosus, in a miserably starved condi- 
tion ; yet this brings him unconsciously, see Fl. Dan. t. 1099, 
nearer the truth than any body. 
Dr. Solander, in his manuscripts, gave the apt name of stellatus to 
Portuguese specimens of this Juncus, gathered by Dr. Gray j 
but nothing can be better than capitatus, now, I trust, esta- 
blished beyond all uncertainty, 

17. J. biglmnis. Two-flowered Rush. 

Stem erect, unbranched ; leafy at the base. Leaves flat. 
Head solitary, of two unilateral flowers, surmounted by 
a leafy bractea. 

J. biglumis. Linn. Sp. PL 467. Fl. Lapp. ed. 2. 88. Montin in Am. 
Acad. V. 2. 266. t.^.f. 3. Willd.v. 2.216. Fl. £r.382. Engl. 
Bot. V. 13. t. 898. Don H. Brit. 8. Bicheno Tr. of L. Soc. v. 1 2. 
320. Light/. 1100. Hook. Scot. 106. Fl. Dan. t. 120. 

About mountain rills, in the Highlands of Scotland, rare. 

On Ben Lomond, and in Breadalbane. Rev. Dr. Stuart. On Ben 
Lawers in Breadalbane, and other Highland mountains. Mr. 
Mackay. Seldom found but on Ben Lawers. Mr. G. Don. 

Perennial. August. 

Root fibrous. Stems solitary, leafless, quite simple, from 2 to 4 
inches high, round, or somewhat quadrangular and striated, at 
least when dry. Leaves several, all radical, erect, awl-shaped, 
flattened, slightly channelled, about half the height of the stem j 
sheathing, but not much dilated, at the base. No partitions, or 
joints, are perceptible externally. Fl. 2, terminal, one above an- 
other, and turned to one side, by which this species is always 
distinguishable from the 2-flovvered variety of the following, as 
Dr. Stuart pointed out to me long ago, though many botanists 
have confounded them. Bracteas 2, broad and membranous j 
the uppermost with a leafy upright point, rising much above the 
flowers ; the under short, deflexed and pointless. Calyx-leaves 
equal, eUiptic-oblong, keeled, membranous at the edges. Fitam. 
6, capillary, longer than the calyx. Anth. short, twisted. Caps. 
longer than the calyx, abrupt ; valves light brown, with black 
edges. Seeds oval, brown, pellucid, with a lateral, membranous, 
whitish, pointed tunic, lengthened out at each end. 

The bractea does not *' force the fruit to one side," for the flowers 
are always unilateral. 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Juncus, 173 

18. J. triglinnis. Three-flowered Rush. 

Stem erect, unbranched ; leafy in the lower part. Leaves 
flat. Head solitary, terminal, of about three uprio-ht 
flowers, with elliptical bracteas. 

J. triglumis. Linn. Sp. PL467. Fl. Lapp. ed. 2. 88. t. 10. /. 5. 

Willd. V. 2. 216. FL Br. 382. Engl. Bot. v. 13. t. 899. Rel 

Rudb. 24./. Light/. 186. t. 9./. 2. Hook. Scot. 106. Bicheno 

Tr. of L. Soc. t\ 1 2. 3 1 9. Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc. 2. 3. Fl. Dan. 

t. 132. 
J. biglumis. Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc.2. 2. 
J. n. 1314. Hall. Hist. V. 2. 168. 
J. exiguus montanus, mucrone carens. Baiih. Pin. 12. Prodr. 22. 

Theatr. 183. Rudb. Elys. v. 1 . 103./. 8. 
Jiincello accedens graminifolia platitula, capitulis armerise proli- 

ferae. Raii Sijn. ed. 2. 275. ed. 3. 430. 
Schoenus ferrugineus. Huds.cd. 1. 14. 
Gramen cyperoides minimum, caryophylli proliferi capitulo simplici 

squamato. Moris, v. 3. 245. sect. 8. /. 12./ 40. 

In alpine rivulets. 

About the summits of the Scottish and \\'el>h mountains. At 
Borrodale, near Keswick, Cumberland ; Mr. Robson. JVith. 
On Ben Lomond near the top, in great plenty. 

Perennial. Julij. 

Like the last in habit, but twice as large. Roots somewhat creep- 
ing. Stems solitary, from 3 to 6 inches high, round, smooth, 
naked, except one or two long-sheathed leaves, near the base. 
Leaves chiefly radical, much like those of J. biglumis. Head 
usually of 2> flowers, all erect and on a level, sometimes of 2, or 
4, subtended by a pair of nearly equal, elli))tical or ovate, spread- 
ing, brown, membranous bracteas, one of them very rarely tipped 
with a small leafy point : there is besides frequently a'smallcr 
interior bractea. Calyx-leaves equal, elliptic-oblong, keeled, 
membranous at the edges. Stam. longer than the calyx. Caps. 
still longer, rounded at the summit, chesnut-coloured. Seeds 
oval, with a membranous lateral tunic, extended in a point be- 
yond each end, as in the foregoing. 

Mr. Bicheno justly describes the leaves as internally cellular, but 
there is nothing of partitions, or articulations, to be discerned 
externally. 

10. J. castancus. CUistered Alpine \\\\^\\. 

Stem unbranched, leafy. Leaves keeletl, flat; sheatliing 
at the base. Heads tenniiial, mostly in pairs, many- 
fhnvcred, with leafy bracteas. Capsule twice the length 
of" the calyx. 



174 HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Jimcus. 

J. castaneus. Fl. jBr. 383. Engl. Bot. v. 13. t. 900. Bicheno Tr.of 
L. Soc. V. 12. 321. Hook. Scot. 106. FL Dan. t. 1332. 

J. Jacquini. Sym. Sy7i. 87. HuU76. 

In the Highlands of Scotland, on a micaceous soil ; as also in the 
North of England. 

First found on Ben Challum, by the Rev. Dr. Stuart. Bicheno. On 
Ben Lawers. Mr. Mackay. 'in Fion glen, behind Craig Cal- 
liach, Breadalbane. Mr. Borrer. In the county of Durham. Rev. 
Mr. Harriman. 

Perennial. July. 

Root creeping, with lax runners. Stems solitary, erect, from 8 to 
12 inches high, round, smooth j leafy at the base, as well as 
towards the middle. Leaves principally on the stem, erect, from 
2 to 4 inches long, smooth, keeled, flat at the sides, involute 
when dry 3 cellular internally, with distant transverse partitions, 
but not really knotty or jointed 3 convolute and sheathing at the 
base. Heads terminal, usually 2, one above the other, rarely 
solitary, each on a short thick stalk, within the sheathing base 
of its upright leafy hractea. Interior hracteas membranous, lan- 
ceolate, much the shortest. FL from 3 to 8 in each head, erect. 
Calyx-leaves elliptic-oblong, 3 -ribbed, dark chocolate-coloured j 
the 3 innermost pale and membranous at the extremity. Filam. 
not quite so long, with linear, yellow, finally twisted, anthers. 
Style stout, breaking off at a joint, above the base. Stigmas 3, 
brown, acute, downy, flat, at length spirally convoluted. Caps. 
elliptic-oblong, dark brown, triangular, twice the length of the 
calyx, rounded and pointed at the summit. Seeds oval, small, 
each enveloped in a pale tunic, greatly elongated, and pointed, 
at both ends. 

The figure in Engl. Bot. is very correct, except wanting the ripe 
fruity having no resemblance in root, stem, leaves ox flowers to 
J. Jacquini. 

20. J. acutiflorus. Sharp-flowered Jointed Rush. 

Leaves apparently jointed, slightly compressed. Panicle 
repeatedly compound, forked. Calyx-leaves all bristle- 
pointed, shorter than the taper beak of the capsule. 

J. acutiflorus. Ehrh. Calam. 66. Davies Tr. of L. Soc. v. 10. 13. 

Comp. 55. E7igL Bot. v. 30. p. 2143, at the bottom. Bicheno Tr. 

of L. Soc. ?;. 12.323. Hook. Scot. 109. 
J. sylvaticus. Willd. Sp. PL ?;. 2. 21 1 . 
J. articulatus. E?igL BoL v. 4. t. 238. Relh. 143. 
J. articulatus (3. Fl. Brit. 379. 
J. nemorosus. Sibth. 114. 
J. nemorosus, folio articuloso. Raii Syn. 433. 
Gramen junceum, folio articulato, sylvaticum. Bauh. Pin. 5. 

Theatr. 75. f. 76. Scheuchz. Agr.dM. 



HEXANDlilA— -MONOGYNIA. Juncus. U5 

G. jimceum articulatum palustre, erectum et elatius. Moris, v. 3 

227.secLH.f.9.f.\. 
G. junceum sylvaticum. Ger. Em. 22. f. 

In wet woods, and watery places, common. 

Perennial. June, July. . 

Root somewhat creeping. Stems erect, straight, with from 4 to G 
joints, 2 or 3 feet high, slender, a little compressed, smooth, hol- 
low, leafy ; scaly at the base. Leaves 3 or 4 on each stem, alter- 
nate, distant, upright, cylindrical, somewhat compressed, taper- 
pointed, hollow, divided internally by numerous, transverse par- 
titions, which give a jointed appearance, especially to the dried 
leaves. Panicle terminal, erect, of 2 or 3 principal branches, 
which are once or twice forked, and partly racemose, with nu- 
merous, sessile, lateral or terminal, round, rusty-coloured heads 
of J/oirers. Bracteas solitary, leafy, under the panicle, or its 
main branches ; the interior ones smaller, membranous, taper- 
pointed ; innermost, under each head, crowded, ovate, short and 
hlmy. Calyx-leaves lanceolate, all bristle^pointed, and uniform, 
of a rusty brown. Caps, lanceolate, taper-pointed, acutely tri- 
angular, with concave sides, of the colour of the calyx, and but 
little longer, not very conspicuous. Seeds minute, elliptic-ob- 
long, not t+inicated. 

Gerarde's figure seems to me a better representation of this than 
of the obtusiflorus. Our acutiflorus is probably to be met with 
in Switzerland, but I find no traces of it in Haller^ nor in any 
collection from that country. 

21. J. lampocarpus. Shining-fruited Jointed Rush. 

Leaves apparently jointed, compressed. Panicle erect, 
compound, forked. Inner calyx-leaves bordered. Cap- 
sule ovate, coloured, hi^dily polished, lon^rer than the 
calyx. 

J. lampocarpus. Ehrh. Calam. 12C. Davies Tr.of L. Soc.v. 10. 13. 

Conip. r>."). Engl. Hot. v. 30. t. 2143. Dicheno Tr. of L. Soc v \2 

32r>. Hook. Scot. 10.9. 
J. articulatus. Linn. Sp. PI. 4G."i, a, (5. n'illd. r. 2. 211 , a. Fl. 

Br. 370, a. Uuds. 149, a. ff'ilh.SA?, var. 1. Leers HS 'a t 13* 

f.G. , . . ^. 

J. comi)ressus. Relli. cd. 1. 142. .S'/6///. 114. Abbot 7<) 

J. II. 1322. JIall.Uist. V.2. 171. 

.1. rainulosus. Gcsn. Fa.sr. 10. /. 4. /', 12. 

J. foliis articulosis, floribus umbellatis. Tonrn. Inst. 247 Rail 

syn. i:y,i. 

J. foliaceus, capsulis triangulis. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. .021. /'. 
Arundo minima. Dalnli. Hist. 1001. f. 

(iramen junceum, folio articulalo, aciuaticum. Bauli. Pin. .'». Prodr. 
12./,/. The(itr.7G. f. <nid 77. f. Srhntvhz. /Igr. 3:U ,333. 



176 HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Juncus. 

G. junceum articulatum palustre humilius, utriculis frequenter do- 
natum. Moris, v. 3. 227. sect. 8. t. 9./. 2. 

G. aquaticum. Ger. Em. 13. f. 

G. aquaticum alterum. Loh.Ic. 12./. 

In boggy meadows, and watery places, frequent. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root creeping. Stems erect, or ascending, 12 to 18 inches high, 
hollow, with a few internal partitions near the bottom only, and 
with 2, 3 or 4 joints ; most leafy below. Leaves compressed, 
with numerous internal partitions, giving the same knotty or 
jointed appearance as in the preceding j their points a little re- 
curved. Panicle more erect, its branches strong, elongated, so 
that the heads oi flowers are remote, one above another, on each 
simple branch, with very few at the forks. Fl and capsules larger 
than the last. Bracteas much the same. Calyx-leaves lanceo- 
late, acute ; 3 innermost rather blunter, of a deeper brown, with 
a more evident white membranous border. Caps, remarkably 
large, of a dark chocolate colour, highly polished, as if varnish- 
ed, ovate- or elliptic- oblong, triangular, with a stout prominent 
point, extending much beyond the calyx. Seech small, not tu- 
nicated. 

In wet seasons, when the seeds are sparingly perfected, the stems 
throw out large tufts of leaves, as figured by Caspar Bauhin and 
others, and described by Scheuchzer, p. 333. By these proba- 
bly the plant is increased. Mr. Davies remarks that such are 
never found on the preceding or following species. 

22. J. obtusiflorus. Blunt-flowered Jointed Rush. 

Leaves apparently jointed, cylindrical. Stem wdth internal 
partitions. Panicle repeatedly compound ; branches di- 
varicated and reflexed. Calyx-leaves obtuse, as long as 
the capsule. 

J. obtusiflorus. Ehrh. Calam. 76. Davies Tr. of L. Soc. v. 10. 13. 
Comp. 55. Engl. Bot. v. 30. ^.2144. Bicheno Tr. of L. Soc.v. 12. 
327. 

J. articulatus /3. Fl. Br. 379, excluding the synonyms. 

J. articulatus var. 5. With. 347. 

J. n. 1323. Hall. Hist. v.2A7\, excluding the synonyms. 

J. cum glumis albis ; Dood. Not. Dill, in Raii Sijn. under n. 9. 433. 

In marshes, less common than the two last. 

In Peckham field. Doody. North Wales. Rev. H. Davies. Nor- 
folk. Mr. Hugh Rose. Near Forfar, rare. Mr. David Don. 

Perennial. August. 

Root somewhat creeping. Plant larger and much taller than the 
last. Stem and leaves round, not compressed j the latter rigid 
and pointed, almost pungent ; both furnished with copious, in- 
ternal, transverse partitions, not visible externally, except in a 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Luciola. 177 

fliy state, and then in the leaves only, which are but 2 on the 
stem, none at the root. Panicle 3 or 4 times subdivided and 
forked, its ultimate branches bent backward. Heads numerous, 
but small, of 4 or d Jloivers. Calyx-leaves elliptic-oblong, con- 
cave, obtuse, pale brown, with a broad, white, membranous mar- 
gin ; the innermost rather the smallest, often with a rose-co- 
loured hue, well noticed by Haller. Caps, roundish, or broadly 
obovate, pointed, triangular, of a light shining brown, scarcely 
so long as the calyx. Seeds very small, not tunicated. 
Most botanists have confounded this with J. acut'iflorus, but they 
are now sufficiently distinguished, nor can either be mistaken 
for lampocarpus, which, though the smallest plant, has much the 
largest capsule. 

23. J . po/i/cep/ialtis. Many-headed Jointed Rush. 

Leaves apparently jointed, awl-shaped, cyl indrical. Panicle 
erect, twice or thrice forked, with nearly simple branches. 
Heads many-flowered. Calyx-leaves 'lanceolate, acute, 
rather shorter than the elliptic-ovate bluntish capsule. 

J. polycephalus. D. Don Mss. Hook. Scot. 109. 

In the Highlands of Scotland. Mr. G. Don. 
Perennial. 

Ramifications of the panicle very simple. Heads few, large, of from 
^ 5 to 8 spreading/o/re;-.v, each on a short stalk. Hooker! 
This descri])tion, except the acute cali/x, answers well to J. ustu- 

latiis of Hoppe's Collection of Dried Grasses. I have seen no 

specimens. 

191). LUCIOLA. Wood-rush. 

Luzula. '' DeCand. Fr. r. 3. 1 ^S. Devaux in Journ. de Bot. v. 1 , 

1 29." Br. Prodr. 591. Bicheno Tr. of L. Soc. v. 1 2. 329. 
Juncoides. Mich. Gen.AX. ^31. 

Nat. Ord. see. 7i. 198. 

Cal. inferior, of 6 oblonpr, acute, permanent leaves ; 3 of 
tliem internal, and rather the smallest. Cor. none. 
Filam. capillary, very short, attached to the base of the 
calyx-leaves. Aiiih. oblong, erect, of 2 cells, bursting 
lengthwise. Germ, superior, triangular, of 1 cell, witK 
rudiments of 3 seeds only. Style simj)le, thread -shaped, 
deciduous. Stigmas .3, 'tapering, downy, as long as the 
style, or longer. Caps, ovate, triangulaV, smooth, sub- 
tended by the permanent calyx, of I cell, and 3 rather 
horny valves, witli a longitucliiinl ridge along the middle 
ol each. Seeds 3, at the bottom of the capsule, erect, 

VOL. n. X 



178 HEXANDRIA--MONOGYNIA. Luciola. 

roundish, with a tumid crest^ various in shape and posi- 
tion. 

Roots fibrous or creeping, perennial. Stem leafy, simple. 
Leaves grassy, more or less fringed with long irregular 
hairs ; often serrated, callous at the point. Particle many- 
flowered, cymose, or somewhat spiked. FL brownish, 
with 2 membranous close bracteas to each. Caps, gene- 
rally shining. 

The establishment of this genus, so different in habit from 
Juncus, and now so well determined by the character of 
its capsule, and the number as well as insertion of its 
seed^, can hardly be controverted. I only beg leave to 
make an indispensable correction in the orthography of 
the name. The hairy heads of flowers, wet with dew, 
and sparkling by moonlight, gave the elegant Italians an 
idea of their lucciole, or glow-worms ; sometimes written 
luzziole, but this is a provincial corruption. Hence how- 
ever John Bauhin got the name of Gramen luzulce, or 
Glow-worm Grass, for he never called it Luzula, which 
would have been the same as actually calling it a Glow- 
worm. From a similar derivation, [liiceo, to shine,) a La- 
tin name, Luciola, has been given to the Adder' s-tongue, 
Ophioglossum ; whether from the shining hue of that 
plant, or rather perhaps from its resemblance in form to 
a lamp with its wick, is of no consequence. The name 
so applied by Gesner and Dodonaeus, extant in Ambro- 
sinus, and even in Ainsworth, is now supei'fluous for the 
Ophioglossum, and is in fact the Latin of Luzula, this lat- 
ter being altogether corrupt, neither Latin nor good Ita- 
lian. 

1 . L. pilosa. Broad-leaved Hairy Wood-rush. 
Panicle cymose, widely spreading and reflexed. Flowers 
solitary. Capsule pointless. Crest of the seeds hooked. 

Luzula pilosa. Willd. Enum. 393. Bicheno Tr. of L. Soc. 329. t. 9. 

/ 1. Hook. Scot. 110. Forst. Tonbr. 44. 
Juncus pilosus. Lin7i. Sp. PI. 468. Willd. v. 2. 21 6. FL Br. 384. 
Engl. Bot.v.W.t. 736. Curt. Lond.fasc.b.t.2b. Leers 90. tA3, 

f. 10. 
J. vernalis. Ehrh. Calam. 109. Hoffm. Germ, for 1800. 168. 
J. n. 1325. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 1/2. 
Gramen nemorosum hirsutum vulgare. Rail SynAl6. 
G. hirsutum latifolium majus. Bauh.Pin.7. Moris, v.3,225. secLS. 

t.9.f\. 
G. hirsutum latifolium minus. Scheuchz. Jgr, 315. 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Luciola. 179 

G. hirsutum nemorosum. Ger. Em. 19./. Lob Tc. 16. f? 

G. rore lucidum nemorense, sive Luzulae. Bauh. Hist.v.2. 492. 

In shady groves, thickets, and on broken banks, among dead leaves, 

frequent. 
Perennial. March, April. 

Hoot fibrous, increasing by runners. Stem from 9 to 12 inches 
high, erect, round, slender, polished, leafy. Leaves linear-lan- 
ceolate, entire, sheathing at the base, of a bright shining green, 
many-nbbed, fringed with a few long, white, lax hairs, especi- 
ally in an early state -, the radical ones numerous and large. 
Panicle terminal, of numerous, unequal, capillary branches, 
spreading and reflexed in various directions, partly forked, partly 
in some degree racemose. Fl. terminal, lateral, and axillary, 
always solitary, and nearly sessile, except the terminal ones. 
Bracteas 2, close to eaeh flower, unequal, ovate, brown, with 
membranous edges. Calyx-leaves ovate, acute, keeled ; brown 
and striated at the back ; white and membranous at the mar- 
gin ; the 3 inner ones rather the smallest. Caps, ovate with 3 
angles, blunt, pointless, pale green, scarcely so long as the ca- 
lyx. Seeds elliptic-oblong, large, with a terminal hooked crest, 
nearly of their own length. 
Lobel's figure, above quoted, like that in Bauhin's Theatrum, 101, 
has the panicle, but not the capsules or leaves, of our L. Forsteri, 
which those authors might have seen, without distinguishing be- 
tween these two species. Mr. Bicheno well remarks that the 
marginal hairs of the leaves are, when dry, twisted together in 
small parcels. The herbage is eaten by cattle, in the early spring 
only, when little else is to be had. 
J. pilosus, FL Dan. t. 44], is too unlike every known species to be*' 
safely quoted for any. 

2. L. Forsteri. Narrow-leaved Hairy Wood-rash. 

Panicle cymose, erect. Flowers solitary. Capsule pointed. 

Crest of the seeds straight and obtuse. 
Luzula Forsteri. DeCand. Ic. PL GalL \.t.2. Bicheno Tr. of L. 

Soc.v. 12. 33\.t. 9. f.2. Hook. Scot. 1 10. Lond.t.GS. Forst. 

Tonbr. 44. 
Juncus Forsteri. Fl.Br. 1395. Engl. Bot. v. 18. t. 1293. 
Gramen pilosum, Luciola ab Italis dicta. Gesn. Fasc. 12. /. 6./. 14 ; 

excluding the synonyms and Jig. A. 

In groves and thickets, especially on a calcareous or gravelly soil. 

Perennial. May. 

Root of many fibres. Herb like the last, but rather Uiller, and the 
leaves are much narrower, the upper ones, as Mr. Biciieno ob- 
serves, being the largest. To the same accurate botanist we are 
also ol)lige(l for romarking an essential difVerence in tlic crest of 
the seed, which in the present species is shorter, and not liooked. 

N 2 



180 HEXANDKIA— MONOGYNIA. Luciola. 

The panicle however affords sufficient marks of distinction, hav- 
ing upright, often corymbose, branches, and the capsule has 
pointed valves, rather more bordered or thickened at the edges. 

3, L. sylvatica. Great Wood-rush. 

Panicle cymose, doubly compound. Flowers and bracteas 
aggregate. Capsule pointed. Crest of the seeds obso- 
lete. 

Luzula sylvatica. Bicheno Tr. of L. Soc. v. 12. 331. ^ 9./ 3. Forst. 

Tonbr. 44. 
L. maxima. Willd.Efi urn. 393. Hook. Scot. WO. 
Juncus sylvaticus. Hiids. 15 1 . Fl. Br. 385. Engl, Bot. v. W.t, 737. 

Curt. Lond.fasc. 5. t.26. Light/. 186. 
J. pilosus §. Linn. Sp. PI. 468. 

J. maximus. Ehrh. Calam. \36. Willd.Sp.Pl.v.2.2l7. mth. 349. 
J. latifolius. Jacq. Col. v. 3. 59. 
J. n. 1324. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 171. 

Gramen nemorosum hirsutum latifolium maximum. Rail Syn.4]6, 
G. hirsutum latifolium minus. Bauh. Prodr. 15./. Theatr. 102./. 

7iot the description. See also Moris, sect. 8. t. 9./ 2. 
G. hirsutum latifolium maximum, junceapanicula. Moris, v. 3. 225. 

sect.8.t.9.f.2. 
G. nemorosum hirsutum latifolium majus. Scheuchz. Agr. 317. 
G. Luzulse maximum ; also medium. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 493.//. 

In woods J and hilly, open, or bushy ground. 

Perennial. May, June. 

Root somewhat woody and creeping, with many fibres. Stems 12 
or 18 inches high, leafy. Leaves of a paler green than either of 
the two preceding, with several principal ribs, but hairy in like 
manner at the edges ; the radical ones numerous, much the 
largest, a span long, composing a very coarse, elastic and slip- 
pery turf} those on the stem small, with very long tubular sheaths. 
Panicle large, spreading horizontally, with slender, smooth, sub- 
divided, corymbose branches. Bracteas white and filmy ; at the 
subdivisions of the panicle sheathing ; under the flowers some- 
what imbricated. Fl. 2 or 3 together, smaller than in the two last, 
variegated with brown and white. Calyx-leaves lanceolate, point- 
ed, concave, very thin and membranous at the edges. Caps. 
ovate, pointed, not half the size of the two last. Seeds elliptical^ 
very small, with little or no appearance of a crest, as Mr. Bicheno 
has justly described them. 

The oldest specific name, given by Hudson, who first determined 
this plant, ought, most assuredly, to be kept sacred. 

There is a variety with a more dense panicle, w]\\c\\ I have gathered 
in the woods at Roslin castle, and Mr. E, Forster near Highgate. 
This preserves its original appearance when cultivated, but 1 have 
found no specific distinction. 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Luciola. 181 

4. L. campestris. Field Wood-rush. 

Panicle of three or four ovate, dense, partly stalked, clus- 
ters. Capsule obovate, obtuse, with a small point, shorter 
than the calyx. Seeds stalked, without a crest. Leaves 
flat. 

Luzula campestris. Br, Prodr. 591. Willd.Enmn. 394. Bicheno Tr 

ofL. Soc. i'. 12. 334. t. 9./. 4. Hook. Scot. 110. Forst. Tonbr.44. 
Juncus campestris. Linn. Sp. PI. 468, a. Willd. v. 2. 221. Fl. Br. 

385. Engl. Bot. v. 10. t. 6/2. Curt. Lond.fasc. 2. t. 19. Dicks. 

H. Sicc.fasc. 14. 17. Leers 9\. <. 13./.5. Ehrh. Calam. 67. 
J. n. 1330. HaU.Hist. r. 2. 1/4. 

Juncoides villosum, capitulis pr,yllii. Scheuchz. Agr.3\0. 
Gramen exile hirsutum. Raii Syn. 416. Gcr. Em. 1 /. f. 
G. hirsutum, capitulis psyllii. Bauh.Pin.7. Prodr. 15. f. Theatr 

103./. Moris, v. 3. 225. sect. 8.t.9.f.4. 
G. exile hirsutum cyperoides. Lob. Ic.lo. f. Buuh. Hist. v. 2 493 
/. 494. 

In dry barren pastures frequent. 

Perennial, Jpril, May. 

Root tough, scaly, creeping and tufted. Stems solitary, from 3 or 
4 to 10 inches high, simple, straight, round, bearing about 2 
leaves, which, like the more numerous radical ones, are flat 
many< ribbed, dark green, extremely liairy at the margin, and es- 
pecially at the top of the sheathing part. Clusters 3 or 4, one 
of them nearly sessile, the rest on spreading, lax, simple stalks, 
composing a small panicle; each ovate, or roundish, of from 4 
to 6 or 8 crowded, nearly fiesfi\\e,Jlowers, enveloj)ed with mem- 
branous, partly brown, sheathing, wrinkled hracteas. Calyx- 
leaves lanceolate, pointed, dark brown, with a stout ribbed keel, 
and pale membranous margin. Capsule broadish-obovate, con- 
siderably shorter than the calyx, pale brown, obtuse and rounded 
at the extremity, with a small point originating in the base of 
the style. Mr. Bicheno's figure of the whole capsule is reversed. 
The seeds have no crest, except their short thick stalks, running 
up one side, be considered as such. 

5. L. congest a. Many-headed Bog ^V^ood-^llsll. 

Panicle of numerous, roundish-ovate, dense, partly stalked 
clusters. Capsule obovate, ol)tuse, with a small point, as 
lon^r as the calyx. Seeds .stalked, without a crest. Leaves 
flat, rou^li-edged. 

Luzula congcsta. " DcCand. Fr. r.5.3()."»." i'o/sV. Tonhr. II. 
L. c;imj)cstris 3- IHrhenn Tr. of L. Soc. r. I 'J. 33 I. Hook. Scot. \ 10. 
.Tuncus (anipfstris y. Linn. Sp. PI. 169. Jl'illd. r. 2. 'JJl. 
J. campestris S. Fl. Br. 3S6. 



182 HEXANDRIA-»MONOGYNIA. Luciola. 

J. campestris multiflorus. Ehrh. Calam- 127 ? 

J. liniger. Purt. suppl. 352. t. 9. 

Gramen hirsutum elatius^paniculajunceacojppacta. Rail Syn, 416, 

G. hirsutum, capitulo globoso. Bauh. Pin. 7. Theatr. 104./. Moris, 
sect. 8. t. 9. first Jig. on the left. 

G. Luzulse minus. Bauh. Hist. v. 2.493./. 

G. capitulis globosis. Ger. Em. 18./. 

In marshy turfy ground, not uncommon. 

Perennial. June. 

The late Mr. Teesdale proved this plant to be unaltered by culti- 
vation J and its natural place of growth, size, and whole ap- 
pearance, have always seemed so strongly to indicate a distinct 
species from the common little L. campestris, that I am induced 
at length to concur with those botanists who have separated 
them. L. congesta has veiy erect stems, 18 inches high. The 
leaves are much narrower than the last, with a minute callous 
roughness all along their edges, scarcely discernible in that. The 
quantity of white hairs varies in both. The panicle of the pre- 
sent is certainly very different, consisting usually of 7 or 8, 
roundish or ovate, dense obtuse clusters or spikes, the first almost 
sessile, the rest on long, partly spreading, stalks. Calyx rather 
paler, more taper-pointed, scarcely extending beyond the cap- 
sule, which is of a rather narrower obovate form. 

The figures of the old authors represent too small a number of clus- 
ters. Mr. Purton's plate is excellent. The plant figured in Linn. 
Fl. Lapp. t. 10./. 2, the original specimen of which is in the Lin- 
nsean herbarium, has paler, smaller, more oblong spikes, rather 
than clusters; a more pointed calyx; narrower, less hairy, though 
rough-edged, leaves ; and according to Dr. Wahlenberg, who 
calls it Juncus pallescens, in his Fl. Lapp. 87, a weak, compressed, 
nearly decumbent, stem. There is another species, closely al- 
lied to these, in Virginia, whose leaves, nearly as tall as the stem^ 
are not so properly rough-edged as minutely and remotely ser- 
rated. 

6. L. spicata. Spiked Wood-rush. 

Panicle dense, compound, oblong, lobed, drooping. Cap- 
sule elliptical, with a small point. Crest of the seeds ob- 
solete. Stem-leaves channelled. 

Luzula spicata. Bicheno Tr. of L. Soc. v. 12. 337. Hook. Scot. U 1. 
Juncus spicatus. Linn. Sp. PI. 469. Fl. Lapp. n. 125. t. 10./. 4. 

mild. V. 2. 222. Fl. Br. 386. Engl. Bot. v. 17. 1. 1 176. Dicks. 

Dr. PL 33. H. Sicc.fasc. 15.11. Fl. Dan. t. 270. Wahlenb. 

Lapp. 88. 
J. n. 1330 7, erroneously marked /3. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 174. 
Juncoides n. 7. Mich. Gen. 42. 

On the loftiest mountains of Scotland and Westmoreland. 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Luciola. 183 

On the grassy summit of Ben Lomond. — Found by Mr. Joseph 
Woods, on Fairfield, near Ambleside, Westmoreland. Mr, Bi- 
cheno. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root of many tufted fibres. Stem solitary, a span high, erect, 
round, striated, slender, bearing 2 or 3 leaves. Radical leaves 
several, tufted, shortish, spreading, linear-lanceolate, nearly or 
quite flat, bearing a few long scattered hairs ; stem-leaves chan- 
nelled, upright, narrow, with long sheaths. Panicle with 1 or 
2 erect, leafy bracteas, solitary, terminal, drooping, an inch or 
more in length, dark chocolate-coloured, ovate-oblong, obtuse, 
many-flowered, dense, compound, more or less lobed, especi- 
ally at the base, intermixed with lanceolate, pointed, membra- 
nous, fringed or jagged, brown, interior bracteas, various in 
length. Fl. nearly sessile, crowded, erect. Calyx-leaves lan- 
ceolate, dark brown, with a slender point, rather longer than the 
capsule, which is elliptical rather than ovate, slightly pointed 
with the base of the style, of a varnished chocolate brown ; the 
valves thickened at the edges, and each furnished with a central 
rib, or rudiment of a partition, but not more than in other spe- 
cies. Seeds elliptical, nearly sessile, with some occasional traces 
of a lateral line, but no decided crest. 

Juncus pediformis of Villars, unknown in Britain, is indeed nearly 
akin to this plant, but much larger, paler, more lax in the pa- 
nicle, and with broader leaves. The capsule is ovate, tapering 
into a sharp point. Wahlenberg associates it with the following, 
as a variety, but tlicy appear very different. 

7. L. arcuata. Curved Mountain Wood-rush. 

Panicle somewhat umbellate, partly compound, with droop- 
ing branches. Heads globose, of few flowers. Bracteas 
membranous, fringed. Capsule elliptical. Leaves chan- 
nelled. 

Juncus arcuatus. Wahlenh. La/)}). 87. t. ]. 

On the mountains of Scotland. 

On the most stony and barren summits of Cairngoruni. and others 
of the Grampian mountains. Professor Hooker. 

Perennial. Jnfy. 

Root rather woodv ; tufted and branched at the summit, invested 
with several ribbed scaly sheaths. Stem 3 or l inches high, 
erect, round, striated, bearintc 1 or 2 leaves. Radical leaves 
numerous, tufted, incurved, linear, cliannelled, very slightly 
and partially hairy ; sUm-lcavcs somewhat flatter, with long 
reddibh sheaths. Fl. about 3 together, in small, round, more or 
less Btidked, heads, collected into a terminal paniclr, whose 
somewhat umbellate, recurvi-d branches, various in number and 
length, occtsionallv divided, are shc.itlicd al their origin with onr 



184. HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Berl)eris. 

or more thin, membranous, deeply fringed^ bracteas. The more 
ovate pellucid bracteas, close to each j^oiier, are also fringed. 
Cahjx-leaves lanceolate, acute, brown, with membranous edges. 
Caps, shorter than the calyx, pale, elliptical rather than ovate, 
bluntish, with a small deciduous point, originating in the base 
of the stifle. Seeds with scarcely any crest. 

200. BERBERIS. Barberry. ii^^^xr^i, 

Linn. Gen. 175. Juss.2S6. Fl.Br.3S7. Tourn. t\^S5y' Lam. t. 253, 
Gcerfn. t. 42. 

Nat. Ord. doubtful. Linn. Berherides. Juss. *78. Berber 
ridecc. DeCaiid. Syst. v. 2. ord. 8. 

Cal. inferior, of 6 spreading, obovate, concave, coloured, 
deciduous leaves : the 3 outer ones smallest. Pet. 6, op- 
posite to the calyx, and not much longer, roundish -ovate, 
concave, spreading, deciduous; the short claw of each 
bearing internally two oblong, more deeply coloured, pro- 
bably nectariferous glands. Filam. linear, flattened, ob- 
tuse, opposite to the petals, but shorter, attached to the 
base of each. Anth. of 2 separate lobes, on the opposite 
edges of the summit of the filament, each opening by a 
valve, from the bottom upwards. Germ, superior, ellip- 
tic-oblong. Style none. Stigma single, orbicular, broader 
than the germen, acutely bordered, permanent. Berry 
oblong, obtuse, of 1 cell, pulpy, opening at the top. Seeds 
2 or 3, oblong, cylindrical, erect, attached by short stalks 
to the lower part of the cell. 

Stem shrubby. Leaves alternate, stalked, serrated ; simple 
"^j or pinnate; fringed or prickly at the edges; the earliest 
ones abortive, replaced by simple or divided thorns. FL 
yellow, in cliisrers from lateral leafy buds. Berries very 
acid. Juices of every jxirt of the plant acid and astrin- 
gent. The name is of Arabian origin. 

1. ^. vulgaris. .CoVk\n\o\\ Barberry. •■/'-!, .^ 

Thorns three-cleft.^'^ Clui^ters pendulous. Leaves obovate- 
oblong, with bristly serratures. Petals entire. "^ ' 

B. vulgaris. Linn. Sp. PIA7\, JVilld.v.2.227. Fl. Br. 387. Engl, 
Bot. V. \. t. 49. Tracts 165. Woodv.siippL t.234. Hook. Scot. 
111. DeCand. Syst.'v.,2. 5. L;L Da^, t. 904. , Clus^His^, .v. 1. 



120./. Ccmer.Epit. 86. f. 



■,\ r ,-\) 



■ v^iifid vtU'ihi'q hm:. 



B. n. 828. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 3691. 
B. dumetorum. Bauh. Pin. 454. RaiiS7jn. 465. Mill. Ic. 42. t.63. 
Spina aclda,sive O.wucautha. Ger. U//?. 1325./. Dod. Pcmpt,749. 
f.750. 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Frankenia. 185 

Oxyacantha. Fiichs. Hist. 5 4 2. /. 5 43 . . v, . 
Crespinus. Matth. Valgr. v. 1. 150./.. ;;.,, ; 

In hedges, and on bushy calcareous hills. 

Shrub. May, June. 

A bushy smooth shrub, 2 or 3 feet high in a wild state^ much taller 
in gardens. Branches flexible, alternate, angular, with a pale 
brown bark. Leaves deciduous, stalked, in tufts from lateral 
buds ', on the young branches alternate j all somewhat obovate, 
more or less pointed, finely fringed. Thorns at the base of each 
leaf-bud, three-cleft, spreading, sharp ; channelled underneath. 
Clusters solitary from the centre of each bud, stalked, simple, 
many-flowered, pendulous, longer than the leaves. FL bright 
yellow, with red glands ; their scent faint and oppressive. Ber- 
ries scarlet, powerfully but ver}' gratefully acid • reported to be 
sometimes yellow, sometimes white, purple, or black. There is 
a cultivated variety without seeds. 

The stamens have been found irritable in one small spot near the 
base, on the inner side, only, as explained by the writer of this 
in Phil. Trans, v. 78. 158, and in a vol. of Tracts, above quoted. 
Many botanists mistake this phsenomenon. Jussieu speaks of 
the Jilaments as elastic, and embraced for a while by the glands j 
neither of which has any foundation. Tliey contract bv irrita- 
bility, like the muscles of animals, and thus' throw the pollen on 
the stigma. Dr. Darwin, on my authority, attributes something 
of sympathy to the filaments, which does not exist, nor have I 
indicated any thing of that nature. 

Many agriculturists charge the Barberry-bush with causing bar- 
renness, blight, or mildew, 1 cannot precisely say which, in 
wheat growing in its neighbourhood -, which others as positively 
deny. Many highly respectable authorities, on each side, render 
me unable to form an opinion ; nor am I aware of any hypothe- 
sis that could explain tlie fact. 

201. FRANKENIA. Sea-heatli. 

Linn. Gen. ]76. Juss.303. Fl.Br.2S7. Lam. t. 262. 
Franca. Mich. Gen. 23. t.22. 

Nat Ord. Calycanthemcv. Liiui. 1 7. Akin to CanionhuUccv 
Juss. 82. 

Cid. inferior, of 1 leaf, somewhat cylindrical, with five an- 
gles, permanent ; the border with* 5 acute spreadiiirr teeth. 
Pet, 5; their claws the length of the calyx; limh of each 
obovate, or wedire-sha})cd, spreading. Xcct, a cluiniR'lled 
membrane, on the inner side of each chnv. Filam. (), (he 
hngtl) of the calyx, tlncad-shnped, nearly e(jiial. Au(h. 
olli rounded lobes. Ch'rm. superior, ovate-obJong, willi 
.'{ lurrows. Slijlc erect, cylindrical, Jiearly, ec^ual lo the 



186 HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Frankenia. 

stamens. Stigmas 3, oblong, obtuse, downy, spreading. 
Caps, oval, of 1 cell and 3 valves. Seeds numerous, ovate, 
minute. 
Maritime decumbent plants, mostly shrubby, copiously 
branched. Leaves small, opposite, simple, entire. Fl, 
axillary or terminal, small, reddish. 

1, F. lavis. Smooth Sea-heath. 

Flowers solitary. Leaves linear, revolute, crowded; fringed 
at the base. 

F. Isevis. Linn. Sp. PL 473. Willd. v. 2. 241 . Fl. Br. 387. Engl 

Bot.v.3.t.205. 
Franca maritima supina saxatilis glauca ericoides sempervirens, 

flore purpureo. Mich. Gen. 23. t. 22. f. 1. 
Lychnis supina maritima, Ericse facie. Raii Syn. 338. 
Polygonum serpillifolium. Ger. Em. 566./. 
P. maritimum minus, foliolis serpilli. Bauh. Pin. 281. 
P. fruticosum supinum ericoides cinericium, thymi folio hispanicujn. 

Barrel. let. 71^. 
P. alteram, pusillo vermiculato serpilli folio. Lob. Ic. 422. f. 
P. alterum, serpylli folio. Dalech. Hist. 1 124./. 
Cali, sive Vermiculari marinse, non dissimilis planta. Bauh, Hist, 

v.3.703.f. 
Sea Heath. Pet.H. Brit. t.lO.f.W. 

In muddy salt marshes. 

Chiefly on the eastern shores of England. 

Perennial. July. 

Root woody. Stems quite prostrate, forked, round, slightly downy, 
with leafy, partly ascending, branches. Leaves somewhat glau- 
cous, about a quarter of an inch long, revolute 3 fringed at the 
base ; convex and smooth above, accompanied by axillary leafy 
tufts, or short leafy branches. Fl. from the forks of the stem^ 
partly terminal, solitary, sessile, flesh-coloured. Nectary a yellow 
scale, attached to the claw of each petal, 

2. F. pulverulent a. Powdery Sea-heath. 

Leaves obovate, abrupt ; downy and somewhat powdery be- 
neath. 

F. pulverulenta. Linn. Sp. PI. 47 4. Willd. v. 2. 243. Fl. Br. 388. 

Engl.Bot. v.3l.t. 2222. Fl. Gro'c. v. 4. 37. t.344. 
Franca maritima quadrifolia annua supina, chamsesyces folio et 

facie, flore ex albo purpurascente. Mich. Gen. 23. 
Alsine maritima supina, foUis chamsesyces. Tourn. Inst. 244. Dill. 

in Raii Syn. 352. 
Anthyllis maritima, chamaesyces similis. Bauh. Pin. 282. 



HEXANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Peplis. ]87 

A. valentina. Clus. Hist, v, 2. 186./. Ger. Em. 566./. Lob. Ic. 
421./ 

Quadrifoglio annuo di Persia. Zannon. 1st. 164. t. 66. 

Valentia Knot-grass. Pet. H. Brit. 1. 10./ 8. 

On the sea coast of Sussex, very rare. 

Found by Mr. Brewer on the Sussex coast. Dillenius. Between 
Bognor and Brighthelmston. Huds. 

Annual. July. 

Root fibrous. Stems numerous, prostrate, leafy, downy, branched 
from the very base, forked. Leaves opposite, or 4 together, on 
fringed stalks, single -ribl>ed, slightly revolute , smooth and 
green above j hoary, as if powdery, beneath. Fl. pale redj chiefly 
from the forks of the stem. 

202. PEPLIS. Purslane. 

Linn.Gen.XH. Juss. 333. Fl.Br.3S9. Lam. t.262. Gartn. t.bl. 

Portula. Dill. Gen. 133. t. 7. 

Glaucoides. iMich. Gen. 21. t.lS.f. 1. 

Nat. Ord. Calycajithemcje. Linn. 17. Salicarice, Juss. 91. 

CaL inferior, of 1 leaf, bell-shaped, large, permanent, in 6, 
rather deep, acute segments, with as many intermediate 
plaits. Pet. 6, very minute, obovate, inserted into the 
throat of the calyx, between its segments. Filam. thread- 
shaped, incurved, shorter than the calyx, alternate with 
the petals. Anth. roundish. Germ, superior, globular, 
furrowed. St7/le very short, cylindrical. Stigjna capitate, 
globose. Caps, globose, membranous, pellucid, of 2 cells, 
not bursting, with a transverse partition. Seeds numerous, 
minute, obtuse, triangular, inserted into the central co- 
lumn. 

Herbaceous, with opposite or alternate, simple leaves, and 
SLiiiAWavy Jlowers. 

1 . P. Portula. Water Purslane. 

Petals wanting, or scarcely visible. Leaves opposite, ob- 
ovate, stalked. 

P. Portula. Linn.Sp.PLA7A. mild. v. 2. 243. FL Dr. 3S9. Engl, 
hot. V. 17. <. 121 1. Curt. Land. fuse. 4. t. 27. Hook. Scot. 111. 
Fl. Dan. t. 64. 

P. n. 856. Hall. Hist. r. 1.379. 

Portula. Ddl. Giss. 120. append. 1,33. /. 7. Uaii Sijn. 368. 

Glaucoides palustre, portulacoe folio, flore purpureo. Mich. Gen. 21 . 
M8./1. 

Glaux aquatica, folio subrotundo. Locs. Pruss. 106. /.20. 

G. altera palustris reptns subrotundo folio. Bote. Mus. 107. t.?>\. 
f. 1. radl.Par.HO. t. 15./ 5. 



188 HEXANDRIA—DIGYNIA. Oxyria. 

Alsine rotundifolia, sive Portulaca aquatica. Ger. Em. 6)4./. 
A. palustris minor serpillifolia. Baiih. Pin. 251 . Prodr. 1 18. 
Anagallis serpillifolia aquatica. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. 372. f. 

In watery places, on a gravelly^ sandy, or heathy soil, frequent., , 

Annual. July) August. 

Root fibrous. Stems prostrate, floating, or creeping, a few inches 
in length, square, smooth, leafy. Leaves opposite, stalked, ob- 
ovate, entire, smooth, hardly an inch long. Fl. small, axillary, 
soUtary, nearly sessile, reddish. Pet. generally almost concealed 
by the calyx, very fugacious, often altogether wanting. 



HEXA^DRIA DIGYNIA. 
203. OXYRIA. Mountain-sorrel. 

" Hill Veg. Syst. v. 10. 24." Gcertn. v.2. 180, obs. Br. in Ross's 
Fay. ed. 2. v. 2. 1 92. Hook. Scot, 99. 

Nat. Ord. Holcracea;. Linn. 12. Polygoncce, Juss. 28. 
A^. 204 the same. 

Cal. inferior, of 2 opposite, lanceolate, spreading, penna- 
nent leaves. Pet. 2, alternate with the calyx-leaves, and 
larger, obovate, obtuse, erect, permanent. Filam. 6, awl- 
shaped, shorter than the calyx. Anth. erect, of 2 oblong 
lobes. Germ, superior, ovate, compressed, with membra- 
nous edges ; cloven at the summit. Styles one from each 
point of the germen, very short, erect. Stigmas in many 
fine, tufted segments. Seed 1, naked, ovate-oblong, com- 
pressed, with a dilated, nearly orbicular, flat, vertical, 
membranous,, cloven, undulated wing; emhrijo centvdily 
straight. 

Herbaceous, perennial, acid, smooth. Leaves almost all 
radical, stalked, undivided, with radiating ribs. 67^w ;pa- 
nicled. FL whorled, on capillary stalks, green. .„^^,,j^j') 

1. O. reiiiformis. Kidney-shaped Mountain-sorrel. 

O. reniformis. Hook. Scot. HI. 

Rumex digynus. Linn. Sp. PL ISO. mild. v. 2. 258. Fl. Br. 395. 



HEXANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Oxyria. 189 

Engl.BoLv.\:^.L9lO. Jlmh. \:>Q. li'ith.'y^J . Light/. \90. FL 
Dan. L 14. G(Ertn. v. 2. 180. /. 119. 

Rheum digynum. IVahleyib. Lapp. \0\. t.d.f.2. 

Lapathum n. 1595. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 273. 

Acetosa rotundifolia repens P^boracensis, folio in medio deliquium 
patiente. Moris, v. 2. 583. sect. 5. t. 36. f. last but one. Rail 
St/n. 143. 

A. repens Westmorlandica, cochlcariae foliis, apicibus nonnihil si- 
nuatis. Plu/c. Almag. 8. Phijt. t. 252./. 2. 

A. rotundifolia alpina. Bank. Pin. 1 14. Prodr. 55. 

A. rubra. Martens Spitzherg. 41. Italian ed. 98. 

Welch Sorrel. Pet. H. Brit. t.S.f. 4. 

In mountain bogs, rills, and moist clefts of rocks. 

In Wales, Scotland, and the north of England, about the summits 
of the loftiest mountains^ plentiful. 

Perennial. Ju7ie. 

Root strong, running deep into the ground, subdivided and tufted 
at the crown. Stems solitary, erect, a span liigh, roundish, 
striated, panicled, almost leafless. Leaves almost all radical, on 
\ong\sh footstalks, kidney-shaped, bright green, somewhat wavy, 
abrupt, with more or less of a central sinus j ribs all radiating 
from the insertion of the footstalk. Panicle erect, branched, twice 
as tall as the leaves, Bracteas sheathing, membranous. Fl. 
small, drooping, on capillary, whorled, simple stalks. Anth. and 
stigm. reddish, as well as the wing of the seed. 

The whole herb is powerfully and gratefully acid, with some as- 
tringcncy. Sir John Hill, it seems, 4rst separated this plant 
from Rumex, and gave it the above generic name. Sometimes, 
as Linnaeus says, a blind hen meets with a grain of corn. Gsert- 
ner approved of the suggestion, though he did not follow it ; but 
Mr. Brown has fully established the name and the genus. The 
intelligent Dr. Wahlenberg conceived our Oxyria to be a Rheum, 
deprived of one third of the due number of parts in the fructifi- 
cation, of which there are many similar examples. But though 
these two genera agree together in having a central, not lateral 
or marginal, embryo, in which tliey differ from Rumex ; such a 
character, too obscure for common practical use, can only be 
taken as indicative of generic distinctions or agreements, here 
confirmed, and essentially marked, by the respective numbers of 
parts of the flower. By these Rheum diflcrs from Ruinex on the 
one hand, as Oxyria docs on the other. Rumex is deprived of 
a third part of the sta)nf'ns of Rheum, Oxyria of one third of the 
styles of each. Its winged seed, and central embryo, accord with 
Rheum ; its distinct calyi and corolla with Rumex ; for tlie Na- 
tural Order to which they all belong, is one in which the nature 
of these last parts is not uniform throughout. The radiating ribs 
of the leaves in Oxyria, pointed out by Dr. Wahlenberg, as evin- 
cing some affinity to Rhci(m,occm- in several Rumices ; witness 
R.scutaius, otherwise closely related to O.u/ria. 



190 



liEXANDRIA TRIGYNIA, 

204. RUMEX. Dock, and Sorrel. 
Linn. Gen. 178. Juss. 82. Fl. Br. 390. Lam. t.27l. Gartn. M 19. 
Nat. Ord. see w. 203. 

CaL inferior, of 3 obtuse, spreading, permanent leaves, more 
or less combined at the bottom. Pet. 3, ovate, larger 
than the calyx, but similar in hue, though thinner in tex- 
ture, and more veiny, subsequently enlarged, converging 
round the seed, and permanent, bearing, in some species, 
a dorsal grain or tubercle. Filam. capillary, very short. 
Anth. erect, oblong, of 2 lobes. Geim, superior, trian- 
gular, rather turbiiiate ; sometimes in a separate flower. 
Styles capillary, spreading, protruding between the petals. 
Stigm. large, in many fine tufted segments. Peric, none, 
except the enlarged, closed petals. Seed 1, triangular, 
polished, with 3 sharp edges ; embryo oblong, at one side 
of the alhmneiu 

Perennial, smooth, more or less astringent, or acid, herhs^ 
rarely shrubby. Leaves oblong, wavy, seldom divided, 
mostly alternate and stalked. Fl, numerous, green, form- 
ing whorled terminal clusters ; in some species monoe- 
cious, dioecious, or polygamous. Each partial JtoiaeV' 
stalk has a joint near the base. 

* Flowers all perfect. 

1. 'R. sanguineus. Bloody-veined Doek. |3. Green- 
veined Dock. 

Permanent petals entire, oblong, one of them at least tu- 
berculated. Leaves lanceolate ; somewhat heart-shaped. 

R. sanguineus. Linn. Sp. PL 476. Willd. v. 2. 250. Ft. Br. 390. 

Engl. Bot. V. 22. f. 1533. Hook. Scot. 112. Ehrh. PL Off. 153. 

Winch Guide v. 1 . 34. 
Lapathum folio acuto rubente. Bauh. Pin. 115. Maii Syn. 142. 

Moris. V. 2. 579. 
L. sanguineum. Munt. BriL f. 1 13. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 988./. 989. 
L. sativum sanguineum. Ger. Em. 390./. 
L. rubens. Dod. Pempt. 650./ Cariier. Eplt. 229. /. 
Blood-veined Dock. Pet. H. Brit. t. 2./ 5. 
/3. viridis. Slhth. 118. Fl. Br. 390, 



HEXANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Runiex. 191 

Rumex Nemolapathum. Ehrh. Phytoph. 94, Linn, suppl. 2]2. 

mild. Sp. PL V. 2. 252. 
R. acutus ^. Huds. 155. 
Lapathum viride. Dill, in Baii Syn. 141. 
Bloodless Dock. Pet. H. Brit. t. 2./. 6. 

In shady places, and by road sides. 

In woody situations about Hampstead, Merret. Near Maidstone". 
Huds. On Headington hill, near Oxford. Sibth. In Kingston 
wood, Cambridgeshire. Relh. In the county of Durham. Hlnch. 
At Lowestoft, Suffolk, and about Bristol. 

/3 is veiy common in woods and other dry shady places. 

Perennial. July. 

Root tap-shaped, black j internally of a dull red. Stem 2 or 3 feet 
high, erect, branched, angular, leafy, smooth, reddish. Leaves 
all stalked, lanceolate, acute, smooth, veiny, slightly crisped at 
the edges j the radical ones largest, heart-shaped at the base. 
Clusters terminal, long, a little drooping, formed of numerous, 
not very distant, whorls, of pendulous green ^ower^ ,- some of 
the lower whorls accompanied by small solitary leaves. CaL 
quite entire, as well as the petals. The latter become oblong, 
converging, one or more of them bearing at the back a large red 
tubercle. Seed small, brown, polished, with 3 prominent blunt- 
ish angles, and deep intermediate furrows. 

The footstalks and veins of the leaves abound with a fine deep 
crimson juice, wanting in the far more common variety /3, 
whose herbage is of a peculiarly bright and pleasant green. 
Curtis has certainly confounded this with his description of 
R. acutus. fasc. 3. ^ 21. 

2. R. crispus. Curled Dock. 

Permanent petals ovate, entire, all tuber culated. Leaves 
lanceolate, wavy, acute. 

R. crispus. Linn.Sp.PlAlQ. Willd.v.2.2:A. Fl.Dr.39\. Engl. 
Hot. V. 28. t. 1998. Curt. Land. fasc. 2. t. 20. Hook. Scot. 112. 

Lapathum n. 1589. Hall. Hist. v. 2.27 \. 

L. folio acuto crispo. Raii Syn. 141. 

L. longifolium crispum. Munt. Brit. t. 104. 

Curled Sharp Dock. Pet. H. Brit. t. 2./. 2. 

In waste ground, pastures, and by road sides, common. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root tapering, yellowish. Stem 2 or 3 feet high, angular, furrowed, 
somewhat zigzag, smooth to the touch, paniclcd, leafy. Leaves 
lanceolate, acute, strongly undulated and crisped at the edges, 
smooth, of a lightish green ; the radical ones on long stalks ; 
the uppermost narrower, and nearly sessile. Clusters of nume- 
rous, rather crowded, tufts, or whorls, of drooping pale green 
flowers } in tlie lower part leafy. Petals always much larger 



192 HEXANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Rumex. 

than the calyx, veiny, waved, each bearing a large, ovate, brown 
tubercle. Seed contracted at each end, with 3 bhint or tumid 
angles, larger than the foregoing. \ 

A very troublesome and unprofitable weed. 

3. R. acutus. Sharp Dock. 

Permanent petals oblong, obscurely toothed, all tubercu- 
latecl. Leaves oblong-heart-shaped, pointed. Clusters 
leafy. 

R. acutus. Linn. Sp. PI. 478. TVilld. v. 2. 353. FL Br. 391. Engl. 

Bot. v.U.t. 724. Curt. Lond.fasc. 3. t. 21, the figure at least. 

Hook. Scot. IVZ} 
R. paludosus. With. 354, by the descr. 
Lapathum n. 1590. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 271. 
L. acutum. Raii Syn. 142. 

L. acutum, sive Oxylapathum. Bauh.Hist.v. 2. 983./. 984 -^ 
L. aquaticum minus. Bauh. Pin. 116. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 987./. 
Smooth Sharp Dock. Pet. H. Brit. t. 2./ 3. 
/S. Lapathum acutum minimum. Dill, in Raii Syn. 141. Bauh. 

Hist. V. 2. 985./. Lob.Ic.284.f. 
Small Sharp Dock. Pet. H. Brit. t.2.f.4. 

In low meadows, and watery places, not uncommon. 

Perennial. July. 

Root blackish, rather slender. Stein angular, furrowed, smooth, 
leafy, alternately branched, a little zigzag, sometimes purplish, 
about 2 feet high, somewhat reclining. Leaves stalked, flat j 
the lowermost heart-shaped at the base j the upper ones copi- 
ous, small and narrow. Branches lax, elongated, bearing nu- 
merous distant whorls, mostly accompanied by leaves. Petals 
rarely and sparingly toothed at the base, oblong, each constantly 
bearing a large tubercle, at first red, subsequently brown. Seed 
small, ovate, acute, with 3 prominent, obtuse angles. 

Sometimes the flowers are partly separated, and the late Mr. 
Sowerby detected 12 stamens in some of the barren ones. 

Authors appear not yet to understand this species, which is totally 
different from the bright-green variety of R. sanguineus, and al- 
ways gi'ows in wateiy situations. 

4. R. ohtusifol'ius. Broad-leaved Dock. 

Permanent petals toothed; one principally tuberculated. 
Radical leaves heart-shaped, obtuse. Stem roughish. • "^ 

R. obtusifolius. Linn. Sp. PL 478. TVilld. v. 2. 254. Fl. Br. 391 
Engl. Bot. V. 28. t. 1999. Curt. Lond.fasc.3. L 22. Hook. Scot. 
113. 

Lapathum n. 1592. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 272. 

L. vulgare, folio obtuso. Raii Syn. 141. 



HEXANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Rumex. 193 

L. sylvestre, folio minus acuto. Ger. Em. 388,/. Lob. Ic. 285./. 
L. vulgare album, folio subrotundo. Munt. Brit. t. 68, bad. 
Lapathum. Cmner. Epif. 228./ 
Broad Dock. Pet. H. Brit. t. 2./ 9. 

In waste ground, pastures, and by road sides, very common. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root black, many-headed j yellowish within. Stems a yard high, 
erect, branched, round, furrowed, leafy, rough chiefly in the 
upper part. Radical leaves very large, stalked, deep green, 
veiny, heart-shaped, more or less blunt j the rest narrower, 
more pointed, on shorter stalks ; all crenate and crisped in 
some degree. Clusters long, of numerous, many-flowered 
whorls, of which the lower ones are most distant, and leafy. 
Pet. large, oblong, obtuse, veiny ; subsequently furnished with 
3 sharp teeth at each side, one of them also bearing a brown or 
reddish tubercle, of a smaller proportion than in most species. 
Seed rather large, acute, with 3 sharp angles. 

This rank and troublesome weed can be conquered only by stub- 
bing up the root. Mowing is to little purpose. 

5. R. pulchcr. Fiddle Dock. 

Permanent petals toothed; one principally tuberculated. 
Radical leaves fiddle-shaped. Stem smooth, stragghng. 

R. pulcher. Linn.Sp. Pl.477. mild. v. 2. 254. El. Br. 393. Engl. 

Bot.v.22,t. 1.576. IJook. Scot. 113. 
Lapathum n. 1.193. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 272. 
L. pulchrum Bononiense sinuatum. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 988./ Rail 

Syn. 142. 
L. ramis procumbentibus, seminis involucro dentato, foliis inferio- 

ribus fidium instar. Moris, v. 2. 580. sect. 5, t. 27./ 13. 
Fiddle Dock. Pet. //. Brit. t. 2./ 10. 

In pastures, church-yards, and dry waste gravelly ground. 

Perennial. August. 

Root taj)ering. Stems spreading, straggling, often procLimi)ent, 
much branched, striated, smooth, leafy. Radical leaves on long 
footstalks, oblong, obtuse, slightly notched, contracted more or 
less about tlie middle, so as to resemble a fiddle or lute. Stem- 
leaves very numerous, alternate, small, lanceolate, undivided, 
accompanying the numerous whorls oijlowcrs. Pet. much en- 
larged after flowering, deeply and sharply toothed tliroughout, 
each bearing an oblong redclisli tubercle, which in one of them 
is commonly larger than the rest. Seed polished, witli very 
sharp angles. 

n. 11. )/iar}f'ntufs. Golden Dock. 

Permanent petals triangulaK, tiihercnlated, iVinivrd witji 
lajxM' teeth. Leaves linear. Whorls erowilcul. 

Vt)I.. II, o 



194 HEXANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Rumex. 

R. maritimus. Linn. Sp. PL 47S. TVilld. v. 2. 253. Fl. Br. 393. 

Engl. Bot. v.W.t. 725. Hook. Scot. 1 13. Fl. Dan. t. 1208. 
R. aureus. Witli.3bQ. Hull7S. Abbot SI. 
Lapathum folio acuto, flore aureo. Bauh. Pin. 1 15. Rail Syn. 142. 
L. sylvestre^ quartum genus. Dalech. Hist. 603. f. 
L. anthoxanthum. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 987./. 988. 
Bur Gold Dock. Pet. H. Brit. t. 2. f. 8. 

In marshes, especially near the sea. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root with many whorled fibres. Stem branched, leafy, angular, 
furrowed, often zigzag, sometimes of a tawny red, from 1 to 2 
feet high. Leaves stalked, linear, acute, entire, flat, not undu- 
lated. FL very numerous, in dense leafy whorls, very near to- 
gether, and finally confluent, assuming, like the whole plant, a 
rich tawny-golden hue, very conspicuous. The petals, as the 
seeds ripen, become dilated, triangular, fringed at each side with 
about 4 bristle-like teeth, exceeding their own length, and 
spreading widely, giving the whole dense cluster a hairy ap- 
pearance. Each petal bears a large, tawny, very prominent, ob- 
long, not globular, tubercle. The seeds are acutely triangular, 
very small. 

7. R. palustris. Yellow Marsh Dock. 

Permanent petals lanceolate, tuberculated, toothed at the 
base. Leaves linear-lanceolate. Whorls distinct. 

R.palustris. FLBr.394. EngLBot.v. 27. J. 1932. G alp. Camp. 30. 

Hook. Scot. 113. ^ 

R. maritimus. Huds. 155(3. With. 356. Hull 78. Curt. Lond. 

fasc. 3. t.23. Ehrh. Herb. 74. 
Lapathum aureum. Dill, in Raii Syn. 142. 
L. aquaticum, Luteolae folio. Bocc. Mus. t. 104. 
L. aquaticum, angustissimo acuminato folio. Ibid. 1 43. 
Hvdrolapathum minus. Lob. Ic. 286. f. Ger. Em. 389./. 
Gold Dock. Pet.H.Brit.t.2.f.7. 

In marshes, ditches, and waste boggy ground, remote from the sea. 

About London in several places. Dill. Curt. By Acle dam, Nor- 
folk. Mr. Pitchford. At Saham, Norfolk. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root tapering, red internally, with whorled fibres. Stem 2 feet 
high, or more, nearly upright, stout, branched, furrowed, leafy, 
roughish, sometimes tinged with red. Leaves stalked, linear- 
lanceolate, acute, slightly crisped at the edges j the radical 
ones large, a span long, ovate at the base ; the rest much 
smaller ; those which accompany most of the flowers very small 
and narrow. Whorls numerous, many-flowered, at first consi- 
derably distant ; but those of the lateral branches, at least, be- 
come crowded as the seeds ripen. In this state the petals are 



HEXANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Rumex. 195 

elongated, bluntly lanceolate ; in their upper half quite entire j 
in the lower furnished at each side with 3 taper teeth, much 
shorter than the petal itself ; the disk of each bearing an ob- 
long, reddish, prominent tubercle. The whorls when in fruit as- 
sume a tawny aspect, but far short of the golden hue of the last. 
Many eminent botanists have confounded these two species, 
though the form of their petals, when in seed, is no less per- 
manently distinct, than the number, shape, length and situa- 
tion of tiie teeth which border them. There are several foreign 
species nearly allied to them, but equally distinct. 

8. R. Hijdrolapathum. Great Water Dock. 

Permanent petals ovate-oblong, nearly entire, unequally 
tuberculated. Leaves lanceolate, acute at each end. 
Whorls rather crowded, almost entirely leafless. 

R. Ilvdrolapathum. Huds.V^A. mild. v. 2. 25\. IViih.Sjj. Sibtli. 
1 IS. Abbot 82. IVoodv. Med. But. t. 1 78. Purt. r. 1. 183. v. 3. 
253. 

R. aquaticas. H. i?r.394. Engl. Bot. v.^0. t.2\0A. nuUed.2. 
V. 1. 102. Light/. 190. Hook. Scot. 112. Relh. 144. Ehrh. Pi, 
Of. 114. 

R. Britannica. Iluds. ed. 1. 135. 

Lapathum n. 1588. Hall. Hist. v. 2.27 \. 

L. maximum aquaticum, sive Hydrolapathum. Eaii Si/n. 140. 
Bauh.Hist. v.2.986.f.9S7. 

Great Water Dock. Pet. H. Brit. t.2.f.\. 

In marshland ditches, stagnant waters, and the margins of great 
rivers, abundantly. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root large and tuberous, with numerous long hairy fibres. Stem 
from 4 to () feet high, erect, stout, hollow, cylindrical, with nu- 
merous deep furrows, and strong, intermediate, smooth, reddish 
ridges, branched, leafy, co))iously panicled. Leaves stalked, lan- 
ceolate, acute, smooth, slightly glaucous, coriaceous, entire, 
but minutely crisped at the edges ; tapering, not heart-shaped, 
at the base ; tlie h^wermost often near 2 feet in length ; the 
uppermost small and narrow, almost linear, accom|)anying 2 or * 
3 of the lower whorls. Branches of tiie panicle a little zigzag, 
beset with numerous, close, many-llowercd uhorls, most of them 
leafless. i7. drooping, on stalks of very unequal lengths, swelling 
Tit the top, and jointed, like all the foregoing, towards the base. 
Petals in every stage much longer than the rahjx, linally ovate- 
oblong, obtuse, reticulated with prominent veins, for the most 
])art entire at the margin, though several of them are wavy or 
notched, hardly toothed ; one (ir two of them bear an ovate- 
oblong, reddish tubercle, and thi third a smaller one ; but the 
tubercles, tliough generallv present on every petal, vary remark- 
ably in size and shape. Seid ovate, acute, with thin sharp angles. 



m 



196 HEXANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Rumex. 

The true R. aquaticus of Linnaeus, a Swedish plant, which is R. 
acutus of Ehrh. PL Off. 104, and to which the synonyms of 
Lobel, Gerarde and Camerarius, quoted in Fl. Brit, belong, so 
nearly resembles this plant, that I have hitherto confounded 
them, supposing the absence or presence of tubercles to be va- 
riable. Linnaeus had already fallen into the same error. A 
more strict scrutiny has proved them distinct, and justified 
Mr. Hudson in establishing the present species, whose very 
astringent root has been celebrated as a cure for the scurvy. 
The real aquaticus has its leaves heart-shaped at the base, and 
the permanent petals are broadly ovate, more finely veined, a 
little toothed, all entirely destitute of tubercles. This is well 
figured in Camer. Epit. 232 ; Lob, Ic. 285./. 2 j Ger. Em. 389. 
/. 1 i and Dalech.Hist. 604./. 3. 

R. paludosus, Huds. 154, still remains unascertained. 

** Flowers separated, 

9. R. Acetosa. Common Sorrel. 

Flowers dioecioiis. Leaves oblong, arrow-shaped. Perma- 
nent petals tuberculated. 

R. Acetosa. Linn. Sp. PL 481. Willd. v. 2. 260. FL Br. 396. 
EngL Bot. V. 2. t. 127. M'oodv. Med. Bot. t. 69. Hook. Scot. 113. 
Lapathum n. 1597. HalL Hist. v. 2. 274. 
L. acetosum vulgare. Raii Syn. 143. 
Oxalis. Fuchs. Hist. 464./. 

O. sive Acetosa. Matth. Valgr. v. 1 . 405./ Ger. Em. 396./. 
O. vulgaris. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 989./ 990. 
O. major. Camer. Epit. 230./ 
Acetosa. Brunf. Herb. v. 2. 6S.f. 
A. pratensis. Bauh. Pin. 114. 

/3. A. montana maxima, Bauh. Pin. 1 14. Dill, in Raii Syn. 143. 
Oxalis sylvatica maxima. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 990. 

In meadows and pastures, common. 

Perennial. June. 

Root long- and tapering, astringent, somevv^hat woody. Herb smooth, 
powerfully and agreeably acid. Stem from 1 to 2 feet high, erect, 
simple, leafy, striated. Lower leaves stalked, somewhat ovate j 
arrow-shaped, with 2 lateral teeth ; upper sessile, more oblong 
and narrower. Stipula interior, tubular, membranous, fringed. 
Clusters erect, compound, whorled, leafless. Barren jl. green, 
with a reddish tinge. Pet. ovate, rather larger than the calyx. 
Anth. pale yellow. Fertile ji. on a separate plant, rather redder. 
Cat. at length reflexed. Permanent pet. ovate, obtuse, red, en- 
tire, each bearing a pale oblong tubercle. 

If Dillenius be correct in the synonyms which he applies to our (3, 
found by Mr. Llwyd in Merioneti.sliire, that supposed variety is 



HEXANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Tofieldia. 197 

a very distinct species, Haller's n. 1598, R. arifolius of Allioni, 
if not of Willdenovv, whose petals are orbicular-heart-shaped, 
destitute of tubercles. The whole plant is twice the size of the 
common It. Acetosa, with divaricated lobes to the leaves. Welsh 
specimens require to be examined. It is reported that several 
species have, in Germany, been confounded under the present j 
but 1 know not on what their distinctions depend, nor whether 
wc possess more than one in Britain. Professor Hooker appears 
to describe a different plant from mine. 

10. R. Acetosella. Sheep's Sorrel. 

Flowers dioecious. Leaves lanceolate, hastate. Permanent 
petals without tubercles. 

R. Acetosella. Linn. Sp. PL 481 . WiUd. v. 2. 260. FL Br. 396. 

Engl.Bot. V. 24. t. 1674. Curt. Loud, fasc.o. t. 29. Hook. Scot. 

113. Ehrh. PI. Of . 404. 
Lapathum n. 1596. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 2/4. 
L. acetosum repens lanceolatum. Rati Syn. 143. 
Oxalis sive Acetosa minor. Matth. Valgr. v. 1. 406. / Camer. 

Epit.23\.f. 
O. tenuifolia. Ger. Em. 307./. 
O. minor. Ibid. 308. f. 

O. tenuifolia sinuata vervecina. Lob. Ic. 291. /. 
O. parva auriculata repens. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 992./. 

In dry gravelly pastures and fields, abundantly. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Not half the size of the last. Roots creeping. Stems wavy, branch- 
ed, slender, leafy, often decumbent. Leaves more or less stalk- 
ed ; the loiver ones hastate, with narrow spreading lobes, entire ; 
7ipper for the most part sim))ly lanceolate ; in autumn they all 
turn red. FL small, separated, on different roots, in numerous, 
whorled, leafless clusters. Pet. oblong, entire, all destitute of 
tubercles. Seed light brown, polished, with 3 blunt angles. This 
herb is acid, with some astringency, like the preceding, but its 
much smaller bulk causes it to be generally neglected. 

205. TOFIELDIA. Scottish AsphodeL 

Huds. 157. FL Br. 397. Tr. of L. Sue. v. 12. 238. DeCand Fr 

r.3. 193. 
Anthericum. Linn. den. cd. 1. 106. 
Narthccium. Juss. 47. Lam. t. 268. 

Nat. Ord. Coronnricv. TJnn. 10. /hplunUl}. Juss. 16. Mc- 
lanthaccd'. \\\\ Pr. 272. Hook. 8cot. IS2. 

CaL inferior, small, of I kal", membranous, tlircc-cloft, per- 
manent. Pet. 6, oblon«;, concave, r(|ual, >pnadiii«% per- 



198 HEXANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Scheuchzeria. 

manent, many times longer than the calyx. Filam. oppo- 
site to the petals, awl-shaped, simple, smooth, the length of 
the corolla. Anth. incumbent, roundish-heart-shaped. 
Germens 3, superior, converging, pointed, terminating in 
3 very short, vertical, distant styles. Stigmas capitate. 
Caps. 3, tumid, keeled, membranous, connected at the 
base, each of 1 cell and 2 valves, bursting chiefly at the 
inner edge. Seeds numerous, elliptic-oblong, angular, at- 
tached to the inner margins of the valves, at each side. 
Herbaceous, perennial, with sword-shaped leaves; an almost 
naked stem ; and capitate, spiked or clustered, green or 
yellow, modoYows Jlowers. Six species are now described 
in Tr. of L. Soc. 

1. T.palustris. Marsh Scottish Asphodel. 

Flowers in an ovate head. Stem smooth, thread-shaped, 
leafless. Petals obovate, obtuse. Germens roundish. 

T. palustris. Huds. 157. Fl. Br. 397, excluding all the synonyms 

but the \st, 2d, and 8th. Engl. Dot. v. 8. t, 536. Hook. Scot. 1 14. 

Lond. t. 100. Winch Guide v. 1 . 35. 
T. borealis. Wahlenb. Lapp. 89. 
Anthericum calyculatum. Linn. Sp. PI. 417. Ft. Lapp. ed. 2, 106. 

t. 10./.3. Light/. 181. t.S.f.2. Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc. 13. 11. 

FL Dan. t.36. 
Helonias borealis. Willd. Sp. PL v. 2, 274, with great confusion of 

syn. 
Phalangium Scoticum palustre minimum, iridis folio. Rail Syn. 37 o. 

Tourn. Inst. 369. 
In the black boggy margins of pools and rills, on the mountains of 

Scotland, the north of England, and Ireland. 
Common in the Highlands of Scotland. Sent to Professor Hooker, 

from near Middleton in Teesdale, Durham, by the Rev. J. Dal- 

ton. I have it also from the Rev. J. Harriman. 
Perennial. August. 
Root a little woody, with many long fibres. Herb smooth. Leaves 

sword-shaped, ribbed, incurved at the point, about 2 inches long, 

in two-ranked radical tufts. Stem solitary, 4 or 5 inches high,^ 

bearing a small oblong spike or head of green ish-vvhite^ozf;er*. 

206. SCHEUCHZERIA. Scheuchzeria. 

Linn. Gen. 178. Juss. 46. Lam. t 268. 

Nat. Ord. Tripetaloidece. Linn. 5. Jiinci. Juss. 13. N, 207 
the same. 

Cal, none, except the corolla be taken for such. Pet* 6, in- 



HEXANDKIA— TRIGYNIA. Triglochiii. 199 

ferior, oblong, acute, recurved, firm, permanent. Filam, 
capillary, lax, opposite to the petals and not so long. 
Aiith. terminal, longer than the filaments, dependent, 
linear, flattened, of 2 cells, opening at the inner side, by 
2 longitudinal, parallel fissures. Germens 3, superior, 
ovate, compressed, nearly the length of the petals. Styles 
none. Stigmas lateral, oblong, obtuse, at the outer mar- 
gin of each germen. Ccqjs. 3, roundish, compressed, 
pointed, inflated, spreading, each of 1 cell and 2 valves. 
Seeds solitar\^, oblong. 
Root creeping. Herbage smooth. Stem leafy, simply race- 
mose. Z/mt;<?5semicylindrical, sheathing. Fl. of a brownish 
green. Only 1 species known. 

1 . S. palustris. Marsh Scbeuchzeria. 

S. palustris. Linn. Sp. PL 482. Fl. Lapp. ed.2. 103. t. 10. / 1. 
mild. V. 2. 263. Engl Bot. v. 26. M801. Comp. .57. Don H. 
Br. 208. Fl.Dan.t.76, Ehrh. Phijt.2\. Roth Germ. v. I. ]50. 
v.2.p. 1.419. 

S. n. 1310. H(dl. Hist. V.2. 166. 

Juncus floridus minor. Bauli. Pin. 12. Prodr. 23. Theatr. 190. 

Juncoidi affinis palustris. Scheuchz. Agr. 336. 

Gramen junceum aquaticum, semine racemoso. Loes. Pruss. 1 14. 
t. 28. 

In wet spongy mountain bogs, very rare. 

Found in Lakeby Car, near Borough-bridge, Yorkshire, in 1807, 
by the Rev. J. Dalton ; nor has it been observed in any other 
spot in Britain. 

Perennial. June. 

Root long, creeping, tough, with a lax, white and shining cuticle. 
Stems erect, wavy, simple, a span high, round and smooth. 
Leaves few, erect, alternate, distant, semicylindrical, obtuse, 
with a terminal ])ore ; spongy within ; sheathing and membra- 
nous at the base. Fl. about .'), in a terminal cUister, seldom quite 
so tall as the leaves. Bracteas solitary, lanceolate, membranous, 
with a leafy point. Capsules tlie size of a pea, coriaceous, tumid, 
wrinkled. 

A very rare plant in Switzerland, more plentiful in Sweden, Den- 
mark, Norway and Lai)land. 

207. TRIGLOCIIIN. Arrow-grass. 

Linn.Gcu. 179. ,//m. 47. Fl. lir.lW)^ Lam. f.'270. Caihi. /. 81. 
Juncago. TotiDi. t.\A2. Midi. Gen. 13./, 31. 

Nnl. Ord. see //. 2()fS. 



200 HEXANDRIA— TKIGYNIA. Triglocliin. 

Cal. inferior, of 3 roundish, obtuse, concave, deciduous 
leaves. Pet. 3, ovate, concave, bluntisli, similar to the 
calyx, but somewhat longer. Filam. very short, 3 op- 
posite to the calyx, 3 to the corolla. A7ith, large, round- 
ish, of 2 lobes. Germeii superior, large, ovate-oblong, 
with 3 or 6 furrows. Styles none. Stigm. 3 or 6, re- 
flexed, feathery. Caps, linear, or ovate-oblong, obtuse, 
with as many cells as there are stigmas, opening at the 
base with pointed valves. Seeds solitary, oblong, pointed, 
triangular. 

Perennial marsh herbs ; with copious, radical, linear leaves; 
and a stalked, oblong cluster, of numerous, small, green 
Jlomers, 

1 . T. palustre. Miirsh Arrow-grass. 

Capsule nearly linear, of tliree cells ; tapering at the base. 
Root fibrous. 

T. palustre. Linn. Sp. PL 482. MllU.v.2.264. Fl.Br.39S. Engl 
Bot. V. 6. t. 366. Hook. Lonci. t. 98. Scot. 1 14. FL Dan. t. 490. 
Leers 92. t. 12./. 5. Ehrh. Calam. 119. 

T. n. 1. Linn, in Stockh. Trans, for 1742. 147. t. 6.f. 1, 2, 3. 

T. n. 1308. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 165. 

Juncago palustris et vulgaris. Raii Sijn. 435. 

Gramen triglochin. Bank. Hist. v. 2.508./. DalecJi. Hist. 431./ 

G. junceum spicatum, sea Triglochin. Bauh. Pin. 6. Thcatr. 81 ./. 
Moris. V. 3. 228. sect. 8. t. 2./ 18. 

G. aquaticum spicatum. Ger. Em. 13 ; not the/. 

G. marinum spicatum. Ger. Em. 20 ; the figure only, 

G. marinum spicatum alterum. Loh. Ic. 17. f. 

Calamagrostis, Trag. Hist. 670. left handf, 

C. n. 4. Dalech. Hist. 1000./ 

In wet boggy meadows, frequent. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root fibrous. Leaves all radical, numerous, sheathing, in 2 ranks, 
linear, channelled, smooth, about a span long, nearly upright. 
Stalk solitary, axillary, not central, a foot high, simple, naked, 
round, or slightly angular. Cluster erect, of 20, or more, small, 
reddish-green, upright, ixlteinvde fiowers, without bracteas. As 
the capsules ripen, their sharp elastic valves, separating at the 
base, give tliem the apjjcarance of a three-barbed arrow-head. 
There are rudiments of 3 intermediate cells. The leaves have a 
salt flavour, and are therefore thought salutary, as they certainly 
are acceptable, to sheep. Cows are said likewise to feed on this 
plant. 



HEXANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Colchicum. 201 

2. T. maritimum. Sea Arrow-grass. 

Capsule ovate, of six cells. 

T. maritimum. /J»«. .S>. T/. 483. mild. v. 2. 265. H. Br. 399. 
Engl. Bot. V. 4. /. 255. Hook. Lend. t. 99. Scot. 1 14. Fl. Dan. 
«.306. Ehrh. Calam. 137. 

T. n. 2. Linn, in Stoclch. Trans, for ] 7 42. 147- t. 6.f. 4, 5. 

Gramen marinum spicatum. Rnii Sijn. 435. Loh. Ic. 16./. 

G. spicatum alterum. Bauh. Pin. G. Theatr.82.f. Ger. Em. 20. f. 

G. spicatum, cnm pericarpiis parvis rotundis. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 
508./. Moris, v. 3. 228. sect. 8. t. 2./. 19. 

In salt marshes, and the muddy margins of large rivers, abun- 
dantly. 

Perennial. May — August. 

Root somewhat woody. Herb like the last, but the leaves are semi- 
cylindrical, luid more fleshy. Germen ovate, tumid, with G fur- 
rows, and as many equal lobes. Caps, of G cells, with G oblong 
valves, constructed exactly like the foregoing, the valves being 
suspended by the summit, and separating from the base up- 
wards, only they do not spread so much. 

The qualities are similar to those of T. palustre, and all domestic 
cattle are re])orted to be fond of the herbage, which has still 
more of a salt flavour. 

208. COLCHICUM. Meadow-saffron. 

Linu.Gen.\SO. Juss.47, Fl. Br. 399. Tourn. t. \S\, \S2. Lam. 
t.267. Gcortn. t. \8. 

Nat. Ord. Spathacccc. Linn. 9. Junci. .Tuss. 13 ! Mdan- 
thacecc, Br. Pr. 272. Hook. Scot. 182. 

Cal. none. Cor. of 1 petal ; tube radical, angular, much 
longer than the limb, which consists of 6 deep, elliptic- 
oblong, concave, upright segments, the 3 innermost ra- 
ther the smallest. Filam. awl-slia]ied, inserted into llie 
tube of the corolhi, shorter than the limb. .-//////. oblong, 
of 2 cells and 1 valves, jieltate, incumbent. Cjcrm. im- 
bedded in the root, roundish. Styles 3, thread-shaped, the 
length oi' tlie stamens, converging below. Stigmas linear, 
- recurved, channelled, downy. Caps. '), superior, stalked, 
oblong, single-celled, inllated; convex externally; acute 
nt the inner c(.h^v^ whore they are combined longitudi- 
nally, and where they finally burst anil separate. .SV<7/n 
numerous, globose, attached irregularly to each margin 
of the capsule. 
/hot bulbous. Stem none, /.caves oblong, scb^ile.. bliealh- 
iiig, radical as well a^ [\\vJ/oivcrs, which are purple, their 



202 HEXANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Colchicum. 

tubes and germens enveloped in one common sheath, and 
accompanied by many interior more membranous ones. 
The Jiovoers are autumnal ; leaves and J?'uit vernal. 

1. C. autinnnale. Common Meadow-saffron. 

Leaves flat, lanceolate, erect. Segments of the corolla ob- 
long. 

C. autumnale. Linn. Sp. PL 485. Wilkl v. 2. 273. Fl. Br. 399. 

Engl. Bot. V. 2. t. 133. Hook. Scot. 114. Mart. Uust. t. 60. 

Woodv. Med. Bot. t. \77. Bidl. Fr. t. 18. 
C. n. 1255. Hall. Hist. V. 2. \24. 
C. commune. Bauh. Pin. 67. Bail Syn. 373. Budb. Elys. v. 2. 123. 

/. 1,2. 
C. anglicum purpureum et album. Ger. Em. \57.f. 
Colchicum. Trag. Hist. 7^9./. Fuchs. Hist.3DG,357.fJ. Matth, 

Valgr.v. 2. 450, 4D\.f,f. Camer. Epit. 845./. 
/3. floribus serotinis. Engl. Bot. v. 20. t. 1432. 
C. vernum helveticum. Bauh. Pin. 69. 
C. vere prodiens. Camer. Epit. 846. f. 

In moist rich meadows, but not common. 

Chiefly in the north and west of England. Ray. At Little Ston- 
ham, Suffolk. Mrs. Cobbold. Near Bury. Mr. Mathew. At 
Filkins and Bradwell, Oxfordshire. Bishop of Carlisle. In Weston 
park, Staffordshire. 

/B. Near Devizes, Wilts. Mr. Salmon. 

Perennial. September. j3 April, May. 

Bulb ovate, large. Leaves dark green, very smooth, obtuse, above 
a foot long, 1 \ inch broad, somewhat keeled, produced in spring, 
along with the capsides. Fl. several, radical, leafless, bright 
purple, with a long white tube. Capsules distinct, though 
forming together one oblong, elliptical fruit, with intermediate 
fissures. Seeds whitish, polished. The flowers in the variety ^ 
accompany the leaves in spring, and have long, narrow, greenish- 
white segments, violet-coloured at the base. 

A spiritous tincture of the root or seeds of Colchicum is thought 
to be a famous quack medicine for the gout, called eau medici- 
nale. At least such a tincture, in the dose of 40 or 50 drops, 
twice a day, has been found very useful in gout and rheuma- 
tism. 



203 

HEXANDRIA POLYGYRIA. 
209. ALISMA. Water-plantain. 

iiwn.Gen.18l. Juss. 46. Fl. Br. 400. Br.rrodr.342. Lam.t.272. 

Gartn. t. 84. 
Damasonium. Tourn. t. 132. Juss. 4G. 
Actinocarpus. Br. Prodr. 342. 

Nat. Ord. Tripetaloidccu. Linn. 5. Junci, Juss. 13 ! Alis- 
macece, Br. Prodr. 342. 

Cal. inferior, of 3 ovate, concave, permanent leaves. Pet, 3, 
roundish, much larger than the calyx, and alternate there- 
with, flat, widely spreading, deciduous. Filam. awl-shaped, 
shorter than the corolla. A?ith. roundish. Germeiis supe- 
rior, more than 5, ranged variously, tumid or compressed. 
Styles simple, slender, oblique. Stigmas obtuse. Caps. 
as many as the germens, compressed, externally rounded. 
Seeds small, solitary, rarely 2 together ; embryo undivided, 
curved. 

Aquatic, perennial, smooth herbs, with simple, entire leaves, 
and numerous, stalked, white, yellowish, or purphsh, pa- 
nicled or umbellate, modioxous Jlotsoers. 

1. K, Plantago, Greater Water-plantain. 

Leaves ovate, acute. Capsules obtusely triangular. 

A. Plantago. Linn. Sp. PI. 486. Wiild. v. 2. 276. H. Br. 400. 

Engl. Bot. V. 12. t. 837. Curt. Lond.fasc. 5. /. 27. Hook. Scot. 

114. Fl.Dan.t.:)6\. Ehrh. Herb. \2S. PL Of. 4\4. Br. 

Prodr. 342. 
Damasonium n. 1 1 84. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 79. 
Plantago aqiiatica. Rail Sijn. 237. Matth. Falgr.v. 1.438. f. Camer. 

Epit. 264./. Fuchs. Hist. 42./. Dalech. Hist. 1056. /. 1057. 

Bauh.Hist.v.3.p.2.7S8.f. 
V. luiuatica latifolia. Bauh. Pin. 190. 
P. aquatica major. Ger. Em. 417./. 
Broad Water Plantain. Pet. H. Brit. t. 43./ 6. 
/3. Alisma lanccolata. With. 362. Si/m. 90. 
Plantago aquatica longifolia. Dill, in Uaii Si/n. 257. 
Narrow Water Plantain. Pet. H. Brit. t. 43./. 7. 
y. Plantago aquatica leptomacrophyllos. Dill, in Raii Sijn. 233. 

Locs. Pruss. 199. <. 62. 

In pools, ditches, and the margins of rivers^ common. 
Perennial. July. 



201 HEXANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Alibma. 

Root fibrous. Leaves all radical, on long stalks, erect, ovate, 
acute, ribbed -, in deep or running water lengthened out more 
or less, and then constituting the varieties (3 and y ; in the latter 
they are perfectly linear. Flower-stalk rising 2 or 3 feet above 
the water, panicled, with innumerable whorled, compound, 
spreading, bracteated branches and subdivisions. Bracteas ag- 
gregate, lanceolate, membranous, brownish. Fl. terminal, soli- 
tary, small, of a delicate pale purple. Capsules ranged side by 
side in a circle. 

The remark in Fl. Brit, referring this, in character or qualities, to 
the Ranunculucece, is altogether erroneous. 

2. K» Damasonium, Star-headed Water-plantain. 

Leaves oblong ; heart-shaped at the base. Styles six. Cap- 
sules tapering. 

A. Damasonium. Linn. Sp. PL 486. Wdld. v. 2. 277. Fl. Br. 401 . 

Engl. Bat. v. 23. t. 1615. Curt. Loud. fasc. 5. t. 28. Forst. 

Tonbr. 47. 
Damasonium stcllatum. Dalech. Hist. 1058./. RaiiSijn.372. 
Plantago aquatica minor stellata. Ger. Em. 417./. 
P. aquatica minor altera. Loh. /c. 301./. 
Star Water Plantain. Pet. H. Brit. t. 43. f. 5. 

In ditches and pools, on a gravelly soil, but not common. 

About London in several places. Ray, Curtis. On Hounslow heath, 
and on Winkfield plain near Windsor. Bishop of Carlisle. " Near 
Ellesmere, Shropshire. Dr. Evans. At Framlingham, Suffolk. 
Rev. Mr. Crabbe. In Sussex. Mr. Borrer."' Bat. Guide. On 
Waterdown Forest, and in the ponds at Abergavenny Park, near 
Tonbridge. Mr. Forster. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root of many long pale fibres. Leaves all radical, floating, blunt- 
ish, with 5 ribs ; a little heart-shaped at tlie base. Footstalks 
very broad, with many ribs and a membranous border, tapering 
upwards. Flower-stalks scarcely a span high, bearing 1 or 2 
whorls of whitej^o?6-er.5, yellow in the middle. Capsules 6, spread- 
ing in the form of a star, half-ovate, keeled, compressed, acute. 
Seeds 1 or 2 in each capsule. 

3. A. natans. Floating Water-plantain. 

Leaves elliptical, obtuse. Flower-stalks simple. Capsules 
striated. 

A. natans. Linn. Sp. PI. 487. Willd. v. 2. 278. Fl. Br. 402. Engl. 

Bot. v.W.t. 77b. Davies Welsh Bot. 36. FT. Dan. t. 1 573. 
Damasonium repens, Potamogetonis rotundifolii foRo. Vaill. Act, 

Paris. for 1719. 31 1. ^ 4./ 8 j German edition. 

In the lakes of Nortli ^Vales and Cumberland. 



HEXANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Allsma. $05 

In the great lake, below the old castle, at Llanberris, North Wales. 
Mr. Brewer. At the south end of Bala lake, Merionetiishire. 
Rev. W. Wood. In Keswick lake, Cumberland. Right Hon. 
Charles Greville. Not uncommon in the Welsh lakes, thougli 
seldom flowering. i?eu. //. Davies. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root fibrous. Stems floating, thread-shaped, varying in length 
from 3 to 10 feet, according to the dej)th of the water, and 
throwing out radicles, as well as a few leaves and flowers, from 
every joint. Leaves floating, about an inch long, on still longer 
footstalks, with membranous, ovate, concave stipulas. There 
are numerous, radical, membranous, ribbed, tapering/oo^s^/ZA**, 
3 or 4 inches long, bearing no leaves. Flower -stalks 1 or 2 from 
each joint, erect, simple, single-flowered. Pet. large, orbicular, 
white, with a yellow spot near the claw. Caps, from G to 12, 
oblong, recurved, beaked, copiously striated. 

4. A. raminculoides. Lesser Water-plaintain. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate. Capsules angular, acute, nume- 
rous, in a globular head. Stem none. 

A. ranunculoides. Linn. Sp. PI. 487. fVUld. v. 2. 2/9. Fl. Br. 402. 
Engl. Bot. V. :>. t. ?,2G. Hook. Lond. t. 28. Scot. 1 1.>. FL Dan. 
t. 122. Redout. Liliac. t. 2G8. 

Plantago aquatica minor. Raii Syn. 2o7 . 

P. aquatica humilis. Ger. Jim. 41 7./. 

P. aquatica humilis angustifoHa. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 77S, 2. J. 
Lob. Ic. 300./. 

Small Water Plantain. Pet. H. Brit. t. 43./. 8. 

Ranunculus aquaticus, plantaginis folio angustissimo. Pet. Gaziph. 
V, \.6.t.2G.f. 12. 

in swamps, and turfy bogs, not very common. 

Perennial. August. 

Root fibrous. Leaves all radical, linear-lanceolate, 3-ribbed, erect, 
on long, flattish, or semi-cylindrical, liiglily vascular sUilks. 
Flower-stalks radical, erect, from 3 to 10 inches high, bearing 
I or 2 whorls of liglit-|)ur|)le //o//-rr.v. Capsules numerous, col- 
lected into a globular head, obovate, compressed, pointed, with 
.'"» strong ribs. 

F). A. rcpcns. Creeping Water-plantain. 

Leaves lanceohite. Capsules compressed, acute, numerou'^, 
in a globular head. Sleuis prostrate, creepiug. 

A. repens. Davies ll'tlsh Hot. DG. Cuvnu. Ir. v. 1.11. /. '»."). 

On the margins of several lakes in North ^^'ales. Un. II. Darirs: 

Perennial. Sejdemhrr, Octohrr. 



206 HEXANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Alisma. 

Like the last in general appearance, but differing essentially, ac- 
cording to the authors quoted, in having several procumbent 
leafy stems, throwing out radicles, with 1 or 2 leaves, and as 
va2ir\y flowers, here and there, from the joints, in the manner of 
A. natans. Towards the ends of the stems it appears that the 
flowers are not accompanied by leaves. The petals are pale 
purple, and, according to Cavanilles, crenate. I have not seen 
a specimen. 



Class VII. HEPTANDRIA. Stam.7. 
Order I. MONOGYNIA. Pistil 1. 

210. TRIENTALIS. Cal. of 7 leaves. Cor. in 7 deep 
segments, equal and flat. Caps, of about 7 valves. 
Seeds tunicated. 

Ulmiis 4. 



HEPTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

210. TRIENTALIS. Chickweed Winter- 
green. 

Rupp. Jen. ed. 1. 20. Linn. Gen. 183. J?m. 06. Fl. Br. 40G. 7?m 
Cycl.v.36. Lam. t. 275. Gccrtn. t.50. 

Nat. Ord. Rotacecc. Linn. 20. Lysimachice. Juss. 34^. 

C«/. inferior, of 7 awl-shaped, acute, spreading, permanent 
leaves. Cor. of 1 petal, wheel-shaped, in 7 deep, spread- 
ing, elliptic-lanceolate, nearly equal, segments, alternate 
with the calyx, very slightly connected. Filam. capillary, 
spreading, the length of the calyx, shorter than the co- 
rolla, inserted into the base of each segment. A)it/i. ter- 
minal, oblong, recurved. Germ, globose, superior. Style 
cylindrical, rather swelling upwards, the length of the 
stamens. Stigma obtuse. Caps, globose, of 1 cell, and 7 el- 
liptic-oblong valves, rarely fewer, shorter than the calyx, 
with obtuse recurved points. Seeds few, roundish, some- 
wliat angular at the inner sitle, each invested with a lax, 
white, membranous, reticulated tunic, and all together 
covering the large, central, globose, cellular receptacle. 

The parts of fructification were observed by Liiuianis to 
vary occasionally as to number. 



208 HEPTANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Trientalis. 

Herbage smooth. Stem simple, leafy at the top. Fl. white, 
on simple axillary stalks. 

1. T. europcea. European Chickvveed Winter-green. 
Leaves obovate-oblong ; the lowermost very obtuse. 

T. europcPa. Linn. Sp. PL 488. Fl. Lapp. ed. 2. 109. TVilld. v. 2. 

282. Fl.Br.406. Engl. Bot.vA. t.\5. Hook. Scot. \\5. FL 

Dan. t.SA. Ehrh. Herb. S4. 
Herba Trientalis. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. 536./. .537. 
Alsinanthemos. Rail Syn. 280. Thai. Harcijn. 15. 
Pyrola alsines flore Europsea. Bauh. Pin. 191. Moris, tr. 3.505. 

excluding sect. 12. t. 10. /. 6. ; which is copied from Bauhin's 

cut, Prodr. 100, of a Brasilian specimen. 
Chickweed Winter-green. Pet. H. Brit. t.62. f. 13. 

On turfy heaths, and woody declivities, in mountainous countries. 

In several parts of the north of England, but most plentiful in Scot- 
land. 

Perennial. May, June. 

Boot slightly tuberous, somewhat creeping. Stem solitary, simple, 
erect, roundish, 3 or 4 inches high, almost naked, except at the 
top, where it is crowned with a tuft of leaves and very elegant 
white^o?t'er6'. Leaves crowded, on short stalks, obovate-oblong, 
more or less blunt, bright green, beautifully veined, entire, or 
obscurely serrated ; tapering at the base ; a few dispersed ones 
beneath much smaller and more obtuse. Flower-stalks 1, 2 or 
3, among the leaves, not quite so long, erect, capillary, simple, 
naked. Flowers solitary, sometimes only 5- or G-cleft, of a bril- 
liant white, tinged with pink as they fade. Jnth. and stigma 
often reddish. Seeds dotted, black, with snow-white reticulated 
tunics, like fine lace. 

Few persons have seen the fruit of this plant, and it was most un- 
accountably mistaken, even by Linnreus and Gsertner, though 
what little is said on the subject by Thalius is correct. I have 
explained the histor)' of this error in Dr. Rees's Cyclopcedia, and 
the above description will serve to correct that in Fl. Brit. The 
valves of the ripe capsule become concave externally j convex 
and polished within, and have been taken for a permanent co- 
rolla. But they are opposite to the calyx-leaves, which the seg- 
ments of the cor. are not. The beautiful tunics of the seeds were 
.supposed to be the skin of a dry berry, and are not faithfully re- 
presented by Gaertner. 

Mr. Brown has suggested that this plant may probably be a real 
species of Lysimachia ; nor is there any thing against it but these 
tunics, and the number of the several parts of fructification. 



Class Vm. OCTANDRIA. Stam. 8 



Order I. MONOGYMA. Pistili. 



* Fl. complete. 

219. ACER. Pet. 5, Ca/. 5-cleft, inferior. Caps.w'mged. 
Seeds 1 or 2. 

212. EPILOBIUM. Pet.^. Cr//. 4-cleft, superior. Caps. 

of 4 cells. Seeds bearded. 

211. CENOTHERA. Pet.^. C«/. 4-cleft, superior. Caps. 
of 4 cells. Seeds beardless. Anth. linear. 

213. CHLORA. Cor. in 8, or 6, deep segments. CaL 

inferior, of as many leaves. Caps, of 1 cell. 

214. VACCINIUM. Cor. of 1 petal. C«/. 4-cleft. Beny 

inferior. 

215. MENZIESIA. Cor. of 1 pet. Cal. of 1 leaf. Cap- 

side superior ; partitions double, from the margins of 
the valves. 

217. ERICA. Cor. of 1 pet. Cal. of 4 leaves. Caps, su- 

per" or ; partitions simple, from the centre of each 
valve. 

216. CALLUNA. Cor. of 1 pet. Cal. double; each of 4 

leaves. Caps, superior ; partitions from the column, 
alternate with the valves. 

Monotropa. 

** Fl. apetalous. 

218. DAPHNE. rV//. coloured, four-cleft, inferior. Berry 

with 1 seed. 



{DIGYNLl. Pist.2.) 

See Polygonum^ Chrysosplenium, Scl era n thus. 

vol.. Jl. V 



210 



Order II, TRIGYNIA, Pistils 3. 

220. POLYGONUM. Cal. coloured, in several deep seg- 
ments, inferior. Cor. 0. Seed 1, naked. 



Order III, TETRAGYNIA, Pistils 4. 

222. ADOXA. Ccd. half-inferior. Cor. in 4 or 5 segments. 

Beny invested with the calyx. Seeds 4, bordered. 
221. PARIS. Cal. of 4 leaves. Pet. 4. Ber7y superior. 
Seeds numerous, globose. 

223. ELATINE. Cal. of 4 leaves. Pel. 4. Caps, supe- 

rior, of 4 cells ; partitions from the column. Seeds 



oblong. 



Sas^ina 2. 



OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 
211. OENOTHERA. Evening-primrose. 

Linii.Getu 187. Juss. 319. Comp.bd. Lam. t. 279. 
Onagra. Tourn. t. \j6. Gcertn.t.32. 

Nat. Ord. Calycanthemcc. Linn. 17. Onagrce. Juss. 88. 
iV. 212 the same. 

Cal. superior, of 1 leaf, deciduous ; tube cylindrical, erect, 
bearing the pet. and stam. ; limb in 4 deep, oblong, acute, 
reflexed, partly combined^ segments. Pet. 4, inversely 
heart-shaped, equal, flat, attached to the summit of the 
tube of the calyx, and as long as the limb. Filam, from 
the throat of the tube, awl-shaped, incurved, shorter than 



OCTANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. GEnothera. 211 

the petals. Anth. linear-oblong, peltate, incumbent. 
Germ, inferior, oblong, furrowed. Style thread-shaped, 
the length of the stamens. Stigma in 4- thick, obtuse, 
spreading segments. Caps, oblong, bluntly quadran- 
gular, widi 4 furrows, 4< cells, and 4 valves. Seeds nu- 
merous, angular, beardless. Receipt, linear, quadrangular, 
unconnected. 
Herbs with simple, entire, toothed, or cut, leaves. Fl. soli- 
tary, from the bosoms of the upper leaves, large and 
handsome, short-lived, yellow, white, or purple. Most 
of the species are natives of America, or of the Cape of 
Good Hope. 

1. CE. biennis. Common Evening-primrose, 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, flat. Stem rough, somewhat hairy. 
Stamens equal. Petals undivided. 

CE. biennis. Linn. Sp. PL 402. Willd. v. 2. 30G. Engl. Bot. v. 22. 

i. 1534. Comp. 59. Part. v. 3. 355. Ait. II. Kew.ed. 2. v. 2.341. 

Roth Germ.v. 1 . ] G8. v. 2. p. 1. 439. Fl. Dan. t. 44G. 
(E. foliis ovato-lanceolatis planis. Linn. Virid. Cliff. 33. Milt. 

Ic. 126. t. 189./. 2. 
CE. n. 994. Hall. Hist. v. 1 .425. 

Lysimachia lutea corniculuta. Bauh. Pin. 245. app. 5\6. 
L. lutea corniculata non papposa, virginiana^ major. Moris, v. 2. 

27\.sect.3.t. W.f.l. 
L. lutea siliquosa virginiana. Park. Parad. 264. t.263.f. 6. 
Ilyosckimus virginianus. Alpin. Exot.325. ^ 324. 

On sandy banks, on the west coast of England. 

iietwcen the first and second ranges of sand-banks, on tlic coast 
of Lancashire, a few miles north of Liverpool, in the greatest 
abundance. Dr. JJustock and Mr. John Shepherd. It covers se- 
veral acres of ground near Woodbridge, Suffolk. Mr. D. Turner. 
On the banks of the Arrow, ^Varwickshi^c. Mr. Purton. 

Biennial, Jv.lij — Scptentbcr. 

Rout tapering. Stem 2 or 3 feet high, often branched, leafy, an- 
gular, rough with minute tubercles, and more or less hairy. 
Leaves alternate, ovate, or lanceolate, acute, toothed, downy, 
gra.ss-green j the lowermost stalked, wavy, much the largest. 
Flowers numerous, bright yellow, forming terminal leafy spikes. 
They expand in an evening, and are delicately fragrant. C'apsuh' 
short, rough. 

'Hiis Q'lnoihcra is common in gardens, and often escapes from 
thence into rich waste ground. Hut on the dreary sands of our 
I^ancashire coast it is truly wild ; being planted there by the 
hand of Nature, tijough perhaps transported, by natural means, 
tVoiu liu' other Mile of the Atlantic. 



212 OCTANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Epilobium. 
212 EPILOBIUM. Willow-herb. 

Linn. G. PL 188. Juss. 319. FL Br. 409. Lam. t. 278. Gcrrtn. 

f.3]. 
Chamsenerion. Tourn.t.\o7. 

Nat. Orel. See ?i.2ll. 

Cal. superior, of 1 leaf, in 4< deep, oblong, pointed, coloured, 
deciduous segments. Pet. 4, dilated upwards, more or 
less cloven, spreading, inserted between the divisions of 
the calyx. Filam. awl-shaped, from the throat of the 
calyx; four alternate ones shorter. Anfh, attached by 
the back, oval, com})ressed, obtuse. Germ, inferior, cy- 
lindrical, slightly (juadrangular, very long. Style thread- 
shaped. Stigma thick, obtuse, either undivided, or usually 
in 4 deep, recurved segments. Caps, very long, (jua- 
drangular, furrowed, with 4 cells and 4 linear valves, with 
central partitions. Seeds numerous, small, oblong, each 
with a feathery crown. Recept. very long, linear, quadran- 
gular, pliant, coloured, its angles meeting the central 
partition of each valve. 

Herbs with simple, generally toothed, leaves. FL purple, in 
terminal, leafy clusters or spikes, without scent. Secd- 
doxvn silky. 

* Flowers irregidar. 

]. E. angust'foliifyn. Rose-bay Willow-herb. Per- 
sian, or French Willow. 

Leaves scattered, linear- lanceolate, veiny, smooth. Petals 
unequal. Stamens declining. 

E.angustitolium. Linn. Sp. PL 493. Hllld. v. 2. 3]3. H. Br. 409. 
EngL Bot. V. 28. t. 1947. Curt. Land. fuse. 2. t. 24. Hook. 
Scot. 1 1 6. Winch Guide v. 1 . 3(3. FL Dan. t. 289. 

E. n. 1000. HalL Hist. v. 1. 426. 

Lvsimachia speciosa, quibusdam Onagra dicta, siliquosa. Bauh. 
^ Hist. V. 2. 906./. Raii Syn. 310. 

L. Chiimaenerion dicta latifolia. Bauh. Pin. 245. 

Chamsenerion. Ger. Em. 477 .f. 

Onagra. Dalech. Hist. 865./. ^ 

In meadows and moist shady places, chiefly in the north of En- 
gland. 

In meadows near Sheffield, and in several other places in the 
North, plentifully. Ray. Near Alton, Hants. DdL Curt. At 
Gravs, near Henley, (Oxfordshire. Rev. Mr. Lightfoot. On the 
Cheviot hills. Mr. Winch. Teesdale. Rev. Mr. Harriman. In 



OCTANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Epilobium. 213 

many places in the south of Scotland. Hooker. On a rising 
ground, beyond the Robin Hood inn, in the road to Kingston- 
upon-Thames, 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root creeping, fleshy, with numerous buds. Stems from 3 to 6 
feet high, erect, roundish, leafy, smooth, reddish, seldom branched. 
Leaves scattered, numerous, nearly sessile, linear-lanceolate, 
acute, various in breadth, entire, or slightly toothed, smooth, 
veiny, single-ribbed ; glaucous beneath. Fl. crimson, inodorous, 
very handsome, numerous, in long, terminal, upright clusters, 
with a small linear bractea under each partial stalk. Cermcns 
hoary, purj)lish on the upper side. Stam. and style bent down- 
war(ls. Pollen blue. 

A very ornamental flower, common in gardens, where it in- 
creases but too rapidly ; thriving, like many mountain plants, 
even in the smoky air of London. There is a white variety. 
Bauhin's «. 7, L. Chnmcenerion dicta angustijoiia, usually taken > 
to be this plant, seems, from some of his synonyms, what is now 
named E. angustissbnuin , which is likewise his ;/. 8. 

** Flowers rc<rular. Sligma dccplij ^-cleft. 

2. E. hirsutftni. Great Hairy Willow-herb. Cod- 
lings and Cream. 

Leaves half clasping the stem, ovate-lanceolate, hairy. Stem 
copiously branched. Root creeping. 

E. hirsutum. Linn. Sp. PL 494. JVilld. v. 2. 315. FL Br. 410. 
Engl. hot. V. 12. ^.838. Curt. Land. fasc. 2. t.2\. Hook. 
Scot. 117. Fl.Dan. t.326. 

E. ramosum. Huds. 1G2. Ehrh. Herb. loS, 

E. n.99r>,a. HalL Hist. v. \. 425. 

Lysimachia siliquosa hirsuta, magno flore. Bauh. Pin. 245. Raii 
Sun. 311. Moris, v. 2. 270. sect. 3. M 1 . /. 3. 

L. siliquosa. Ger. Em. 476./. 

L. pur|)urea. Fuclis. Hist. 49 1 ./. 

In watery i)laces, ditches, and margins of rivers, among reeds, 
coarse grasses, and willows, common. 

Perennial. July. 

Root creej)ing extensively. Whole herb downy, soft, and clammy, 
exhaling a ])eculiar acidulous scent, justly comi)ared to the fla- 
vour of boiled codlings and cream. Stems 4 feet, or more, in 
height, round, leafy, branched and bushy. Lower leaves oppo- 
site, cUtsping the stem, or in some measure dicurrent ; u/>i>pr 
alternate, and merely sessile ; all toothed. FL in leafy cor^m- 
bose clusters, large, of a delicate pink, with cloven regular 
petah. and erect stamens and style. Germen downy, very long. 



211 OCTANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Epilobium. 

3. E. parviflorum. Small-flowered Hoary Willow- 
herb. 

Leaves sessile, lanceolate, downy. Stem nearly simple, 
woolly. Root fibrous. 

E. parviflorum. Schreh.Li'psAAQ. mth.367. H. Br. 4\0. Engl. 

Bot. V. 12. t. 795. Hook. Scot. 117. 
E. pubescens. Willd. Sp. PL t\ 2. 315. 
E. hirsutiim. Hucls. 1 Gl . Linn. Sp. PL 494, (3. 
E. villosum. Curt. Lond. fasc. 2. t. 22. Rclh. 152. Slbth. 12 i. 

Abbot 84. Ehrh. Herb. 104. 
E. foliis longis dentatis villosis, flora uarvo. HalL Erium. 410. FL 

Dan. L347. 
E. n. 995, /3. HalL Hist. v. 1. 425. 
Lysimachia siliquosa hirsuta, parvo flore. Bauh. Pin. 245. Prudr. 

116. Rail Sijn.Sil. Moris, v. 2. 2/0. sect. 3. t. 11./. 4. 
L. siliquosa hirsuta, flore minore. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 906./. 

Frequent in watery places and about the banks of rivers. 

Perennial. Juhj. 

Root fibrous. Stem about 2 feet high, either quite simple, or 
slightly branched at the top only, round, leafy, clothed more or 
less with a soft dense wooiliness. Leaves most of tliem opposite, 
sessile, minutely toothed ; soft and downy on both sides. FL 
but a quarter the size of the last, light purple, in long leafy 
clusters. Stigma deeply 4-cleft, as in the two foregoing species 
and the following. 

4. E. montanum. Broad Smooth-leaved Willow- 
herb. 

Leaves stalked, ovate, toothed. Stem round. Stigma in 
four deep segments. 

E. montanum. Linn. Sp. PL 494, Willd. v.2.3\ 6. FL i?r. 4 1 1 : 
EngL Bot. V. 17. t 1177. Curt. LoncL fasc. 3. t. 24. Hook. 
Scot 117. FL Dan. t. 922. Ehrh. Herb. 114. 

E. n. 996. HalL Hist. v. 1. 426. 

Lysimachia siliquosa glabra major. Bauh. Pin.245. Moris, v. 2. 
270. sect. 3. LU.f.5. 

L. campestris. Ger. Em. 478. f. Raii Sijn. 311. 

In dry, shady, hilly, or stony, places -, on old walls^ or cottage 
roofs, frequent. 

Perennial. July. 

Root slightly creeping, with red shoots. Stem 1 1 or 2 feet high, 
erect, round, leafy, smooth or minutely downy, scarcely branched, 
usually red. Lower leaves opposite, on short stalks, ovate, broad, 
toothed, smooth and pliant, with hoary veins 3 upper alternate 



OCTANDRIA—MONOGYNIA. Epilobium. 215 

and narrower. FL light purple, few, in a terminal, leafy, corym- 
bose cluster, rather smaller than the last. 

*** Fl. regular. Stigma imcUvidaL 

5. E. roscum. Pale Smooth-leaved Willow-herb. 

Leaves stalked, ovate, toothed. Stem erect, with four ob- 
solete angles. Stigina undivided. 

E. roseum. Schreb. Lips. 147. Forst.in Sym. Syn. 19J^. Tonbr. 48. 

FL jBr. 4 1 1 . Engl. Bot. v. 10. t. 693. Ehrh. Herb. 144. 
E. montanum y. Uwd. Sp. PL v. 2. 316. 
" E. minus, flore albo. Schmidel in Gesn. Fuse. 2. 28. t. 20. f. 73." 

In waste boggy ground, or watery places, rare. 

In Lambeth marsh. 3Ir. Curtis. At Moreton, near Ongar, Essex. 
Mr. E. Furster. Near \Vithyam, Sussex, licv. S. Bale. 

Perennial. July. 

Root fibrous. Herbage not unlike the last, but the stem is more 
branched, and at the upper part obscurely quadrangular. Leaves 
smooth, thin and delicate ; the upper ones alternate. FL paler 
than the preceding ; petals streaked at the base. Sdgyna small, 
club-shaped and undivided, by which it esseptially difl'ers from 
E. montanum , and agrees with tetragonum hereafter described. 
Yet it is too abundantly propagated by seed to be supposed a 
mule production. 

6. E. tetragonum. Square-stalked Willow-herb. 

Leaves lanceolate, sessile, minutely toothed. Stem erect, 
unequally cpmdrangular. Stigma \jiidivided. 

E. tetragonum. Linn. Sp. PL 494. mikl. i?. 2. 3 1 7. FL Br. 412. 
Engl. Bot. V. 28. t. 1 948. Curt. Lond.fasc. 2. t. 23. Hook. Scot. 
117. FLI)an.t.\029. E/irh.Herb. 43. 

E. n. 997. HulLHlsLv. I.42G. 

Lysimachia siliciuosa glabra minor. Bauh. Pin. 24r>. 

L. siliquosa glabra media, sive minor. Cer.Em.479. Raii Syn.'Sl 1 . 

In ditches, and watery marshy places, common. 

Percnniid. July. 

Root somewhat creeping. Herb nearly or quite smooth. Stem 
erect, 12 or IS inches high, seldom a little downy, roundish, 
with 4 angular ribs at uncipial distances. Lcarcs for the most 
part altJ-rnale, generally sissile, much narrower than the last, 
minutely and unequally toothed. 77. few, in leafy clusters. Ptt. 
pale i)urph\ cloven. .Slignia ovate, or clul)-shaped, always un- 
divided. Caps, and flowtr-stidkx a little hoary. — Mr. Curtis 
thoii;;ljl /'.". rosrntn a variety of the present spcries ; but from 
long observation I ;iiu now j)cr.sua(k(l tluy aic pti inajuntly di- 
stinct. 



216 OCTANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Epilobium. 

7. E. palustre. Round-stalked Marsh Willow-herb. 

Leaves sessile, linear-lanceolate, slightly toothed. Stem 
round. Stigma undivided. 

E. palustre. Linn. Sp. PL 495. Willd. v. 2. 317. FL Br. 412. 
Engl. Bot. V. 5. ^.346. Hook. Scot. 117. Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc.2, 
15. Ehrh.Herb. 105. FL Dan. t 1574. 

E. n. 998. HalL Hist. v. 1. 426. 

Lysimachia siliquosa glabra anguslifolia. Bauh. Pin. 245. 

L. siliquosa glabra minor angustifolia. Raii Syn. 311. 

Chamsenerion alteram angustifolium. Ger.Em. 477. f. 

In boggy turfy ground^ near ditches and rivulets. 

Perennial. July. 

Root somewhat creeping. Herb nearly or quite smooth, extremely 
variable in luxuriance, and on turfy bogs sometimes very dimi- 
nutive. Stem always erect, generally branched, from 4 or 6 
inches to 12 or 18 in height, round, leafy. Leaves for the most 
part opposite, sessile, linear-lanceolate, bluntish, smooth, slightly 
and occasionally toothed ; the upper ones alternate and most 
entire. Clusters leafy. Pet. inversely heart-shaped, pale pur- 
ple, with darker streaks. Stigma linear, obtuse, undivided. — The 
wooden cut in Gerarde, indicated above, is applied to various 
species by different authors. Haller doubted whether E. palustre 
were a gv od species, but the stigma is narrower, and differently 
shaped from that of tetragonum , and the leaves, as Ray observes, 
are darker coloured, nearly entire, and more contracted at their 
base. 

8. E. alsinifoliu77i. Chickweed-leaved Willow-herb. 

Leaves stalked, ovate, acute, toothed. Stigma undivided. 
Root creeping. Stem decumbent, obtusely quadrangular. 

E. alsinifolium. Villars Datiph. v.3. 5\l. Comp.60. Engl. Bot. 

V. 28. ^.2000. Hook. Scot. 117. 
E. n. 361 . Winch Guide v. 1 . 36. v. 2. pre/. 4. 
E. montanum 5. Willd. Sp. PL t;. 2.316 ? 
Lysimachia siliquosa glabra minor latifolia. Raii Hist. v. 1.862. 

' Syn. 311. 
L. siliquosa nana prunellse foliis acutis. Bocc. Mus. 161. t. 108. 

On the margins of mountain rivulets. 

In rivulets on the sides of the Cheviot hills, as mentioned by Ray. 

Mr. Winch. On many of the Highland mountains of Scotland. 

Mr. G. Don and Mr. J. Mackay. Foimd by Mr. Murray on 

Ben Nevis ; and by Mr. Arnott on Hart-fell, near Moffatt. 

Hooker. 
Perennial. July. 
Root creeping extensively, forming broad matted tufts, which are 



OCTANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Chlora. 217 

leafy throughout the winter. -SYems simple, numerous, leafy, de- 
cumbent, hardly a span long, roundish, with 4 angles ; the 
flowering extremldes ascending ; the base when luxuriant throw- 
ing out a few weak leafy branches. Leaves opposite, on short 
stalks, more resembling E. rostum than any other species, but 
more pointed and of a deeper green. Fl. in leafy clusters ; the 
Jloral leaves often alternate. Petals broadly heart-shaped, rose- 
coloured, veiny, full as large as those of E. palustre. Germen 
and base of the calyx clothed, more or less, with fine, close, hoary, 
recurved hairs. Capsule long and slender, generally smooth. 
There can be no doubt of the wide difference between this and all 
varieties of the following, with which it was long confounded. 

9. Ya. alpinum. Alpine Willow-herb. 

Leaves slightly stalked, elliptic-lanceolate, obtuse, mostly 
entire. Stem decumbent, two- or three-flowered. 

E. alpinum. Linn. Sp. PL 495. Willd. t;. 2.318. FL Br.AVS. 

Engl. Bot. V. 28. ^.2001. Lighlf. 199. t. 10./. 1. Hook. Scot. 1 18. 

Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc. 2. 14. Villars Dauph. v. 3. 510. Fl. Dan. 

t. 322. 
E. n. 999. Hall. Hist. v. 1.426. 

By the sides of alpine rivulets in Scotland. 

On Ben Lomond, about two thirds of the way up ; and on all the 
Highland mountains. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root creeping. Steins 3 or 4 inches long, unbranched, except a 
few leafy shoots occasionally from the base, weak, decumbent, 
leafy, slightly angular, sometimes downy. Leaves usually half 
an inch long, elliptical, obtuse, smooth and entire ; sometimes 
toothed, sometimes elongated, and tapering at the base, but not 
increased in breadth ; the few floral ones only alternate. Fl. 
about 2, rarely 1 or 3, alternate at the summit of the stem, 
erect, stalked, bright red, rather smaller than the last. Pet. 
cloven. .S7/>»?i« club-shaped. Germen\ong, downy. Capsule 
declining, or variously curved. 

213. CHLORA. Yellow-wort. 

Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. v. 2. 267. Schreb. Gen. 256. Juss. 142. 
Fl. Br.4\'3. Lam. t.296. 

Blackstonia. Hnds.ed. 1.1 40. 

Nat Ord. liotaccic. Linn. 20. Gcutiancv. Juss. 46. 

Cal. inferior, of 8 linear, spread ing, permanent leaves. Cor. 
of 1 ])etal, salver-shaped ; tube shorter than the calyx, m- 
vestinjr the germen ; limb in 8, rarely luil H, deep, equal, 
elliptic-oblong segments, spiral in tlic bud, longer than 



218 OCTANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Vaccinium. 

the tube. Filam. thread-shaped, short, from the mouth 
of the tube, as many as the segments of the h*mb, and al- 
ternate with them, yinth. linear, erect, shorter than the 
corolla. Germ, superior, ovate-oblong. aS/'j//^ cylindrical, 
rather longer than the tube, erect. Stigmas 2, ovate-ob- 
long, cloven. Caps, ovate, with a furrow along each side, 
invested with the enlarged, membranous tube of the co- 
rolla, of 1 cell, and 2 valves with inflexed margins. Seeds 
very numerous, angular, minutely granulated, inserted in 
many rows along the inflexed margins of the valves. 
Herbaceous, annual, smooth, glaucous, very bitter. Leaves 
opposite or perfoliate, undivided, entire. Fl. terminal, 
stalked, aggregate or solitary, yellow. 

1 . C. perfoliata. Perfoliate Yellow- wort. 
Leaves perfoliate. Panicle forked, many-flowered. 

C. perfoliata. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 1 2. v. 2. 267. mild. Sp. PL v. 2. 
340. Fl. Br. 413. Engl Bot. v.l.t. 60. Hook. Lond. t. 2. Dicks. 
H. Sice, f CISC. 14. 13. Purt. ?;. 1. 193. 

Chlora. Renealm. Spec. 80. t. 76. 

Gentiana perfoliata. Linn. Sp. PI. 335. 

G. n. 649. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 289. 

Centaurium luteum perfoliatum. Bauh. Pin. 278. Raii Syu.287. 
Camer. Epit. 427. f. Moris, v. 2. 565. sect. 5. t. 26. f. I. 

C. parvum luteum Lobelii. Ger. Em. 547. f. 

On chalky hills, or banks, as well as on a clay soil, not very un- 
common. 

Annual. July, August. 

Root of a few twisted fibres. Stem 12 or 18 inches high, erect, 
round, leafy, unbranched, terminating in an upright, leafy, re- 
peatedly forked panicle, of many elegant, bright yellow^ow;e7\9, 
open in sunshine only, with scarlet stigmas. Leaves ovate, acute, 
combined and perfoliate. The whole herb is very glaucous, sub- 
ject to mildew ; its qualities similar to those of Gentiana and 
Erijthrcea, but weaker. Fl. without scent. There is some mis- 
take in Professor Hooker's citation of Fl. Dan. t. 332. 

214. VACCINIUM. Wbortle-berry. 

Linn.Gen.\9\. Juss.\62. Fl. Br. 414. Rees's Ojcl. v. 36. Lam. 

t.2S6. Gccrtn. t.2S. 
Vitis Idaea. Tourn. t. 377. 
Oxycoccus. Tourn. t. 431. 

Nat. Ord. Bicornes. Linn. 18. EriccV. Juss. 51. Vacci- 
nia:. DeCand. 71. 



OCTANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Vaccinium. 219 

CaL superior, of 1 leaf, small, permanent, 4-toothed. Cor. 
of 1 petal, bell-shaped, with 4<, more or less deep, revo- 
lute segments. Fllam. awl-shaped, flattened, inserted into 
the receptacle, equal. AntJi. terminal, erect, oblong, with 
2 points, opening by a terminal pore in each. Germ, in- 
ferior, roundish.' Shjle simple, cylindrical, erect, longer 
than the stamens. Sti<^ma obtuse. Berri/ globular, with 
a central depression, l-celled. Seeds few^, small, angular. 

One fourth is occasionally added to the number of each part 
of the fructification. 

Shrubs, mostly of very humble growth, with simple, alter- 
nate, evergreen or deciduous, leaves. Fl. stalked, soli- 
tary or aggregate, reddish or white, very elegant. Berries 
blue, black, or red, acid and eatable. The genus is chiefly 
American, and the folinge turns red in decay. It is an 
insurmountable stumbling-block in the way of all received 
principles of natural classification, being of the Erica 
tribe, with an inferior germen ! 

* Leaves clecidtioiis. 

1. Y.Mfjrtillus. Black Whortlc-berry. Bilberry. 

Stalks solitary, single-flowered. Leaves ovate, serrated, 
membranous, smooth, deciduous. Stem acutely angular. 
Calyx wavy, nearly entire. 

V. Myrtillus. Linn. Sp. PL 498. IVdld. v. 2. 348. FL Br. 414. 
EngL Dot. V. 7. t. 45G. Hook. Scot. 118. FL Dan. t, 1)74. Ehrh. 
Arb. 82. 

V. n. 1020. HaU. Hist. v. 1. 43G. 

Vaccinia nigra. Ger. Em. 1415./. Dod. Pcmpt. 768. f. 

Vitis Idiea angulosa. Bauh. Hist. v. 1 . ;>20, ivilh a wrong Jigurc. 
Kaii Sijn. 4.17. 

IdcTa Vitis. Didcch. Hist. 191 ./ 

Myrtillus. Trag. HisLd74.f.i)75. Malth. Valgr. v.\.2\0.f. Ca- 
nier. Epit. 135./. 

On stony heaths, and in woods where the soil is turfy, chiefly in 
mountainous countries, abundantly. 

Shrub. May. 

Stem busliv, from I to 2 feet high, with irregular, smooth, green, 
leafy, angular branches. Leaves stalked, ovate, serrated, about 
an inch long, bright green, smootli, thin, delicate and veiny, de- 
ciduous. Slipnlas none. FL on simple, axillary, solitary, droop- 
ing stalks. Caliii dilated and wavy, seareely toothed. Cor. ovate, 
bright red, with a waxy tratispareney ; generally :)-rlelt. Simu. 
10. Anth. with 2 lateral liorns. Bttrits blueish-blaek, oL) cells, 



220 OCTANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Vaccinium. 

acid, but not agreeable nor wholesome, except when dressed. 
They are nevertheless eaten raw in some countries, with boiled 
cream, and sugar. 

2. V. idiginosum. Bog Whortle-beriy. Great Bil- 
berry. 
Stalks somewhat aggregate, single-flowered. Leaves ob- 
ovate, entire, smooth, deciduous. Branches round. 

V. uliginosum. Linn.Sp. PL A99. Willd. v. 2. 350. Fl. Br. 4\5. 

Engl.Bot.v.9.t.5Sl. Hook. Scot. 118. Fl. Dan. t. 231. Ehrh. 

Arb. 52. 
V. n. 1021. Hall Hist. v. 1.437. 
Vitis Idaea magna quibusdam,sive Myrtillus grandis. Rail Sijti. 457. 

Bauh. Hist.v. 1.5 18, not the Jig. which is Arbutus alpina. 
V. Ida.^a foliis subrotundis major. Ger. Em. 1416./. 
V. Idsea secunda. Clus. Hist. v.\.6\.f. 62. 

On boggy mountainous heaths. 

At Gamblesby, 6 miles from Penrith, Cumberland ; also in Whin- 
field forest^ Westmoreland. Ray. In the Highlands of Scotland. 
Lighffoot. Not rare in the Highlands j in low moist ground, as 
well as at the summits of the mountains. Hooker. 

Shrub. May. 

Taller than the preceding, with round branches. Leaves stalked, 
rather coriaceous, obovate, obtuse, occasionally somewhat point- 
ed, entire, slightly revolute, veiny, smooth ; glaucous beneath. 
Fl. several together, flesh-coloured, generally 4-cleft, with 8 
stamens ; the anthers horned. Berries large, blueish black, less 
acid, and less wholesome than the former. Seeds finely striated. 

** Leaves evergreen. 

3. V. Vitis IdcEa, Red Whortle-berry. Cow-berry. 

Clusters terminal, drooping ; with ovate concave bracteas, 
longer than the flow^er-stalks. Leaves obovate, revolute, 
minutely toothed ; dotted beneath. Corolla bell-shaped. 

V. Vitis Idaea. Linn. Sp. PL 500. Willd. v. 2. 354. FL Br. 415. 

EngL Bot. V. 9. t. 598. Hook. Scot. 1 18. FL Dan. t. 40. Ehrh. 

PL Of. 163. Girard Obs. 15. t. 2. 
V. n. 1022. HaU. Hist. v. I. 437. 

Vaccinia rubra. Ger. £w. 1415./. Dod.Pempt.770.f. 
Vitis Idsea sempervirens, fructu rubro. Rati Syn. 457. Bauh. Hist. 

V 1.522./ 
V. Idaea rubra. Camer. Epit. 136./ 
On dry stony, turfy heaths, or in mountainous woods, in Scotland, 

Wales, and the north of England. Plentiful in Derbyshire. 



OCTANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Vacciuium. 221 

Shrub. June. 

Roots creeping. Stems erect, 3 or 4 inches high, with a few irre- 
gular, wavy, leafy, downy branches at the summit. Leaves va- 
rious 'in size, on short stalks, rigid, evergreen, obovate, blunt, 
notched, or somewhat pointed, convex, a little revolute, veiny ; 
of a dark shining green above 5 pale, with glandular dots, be- 
neath ; more or less distinctly toothed towards the end, by no 
means entire. Clusters terminal, drooping, of several very pretty 
flesh-coloured Jlowers, without scent, each having a pale, oval, 
concave, fringed, deciduous bractea, at the base of its partial 
stalk. Cal. deeply 4-cleft. acute, fringed. Cor. rather cylindri- 
cal than bell-shaped, 4-cleft. Anthers double-pointed, without 
horns. Berries globose, deep red, astringent and acid, with 
much bitterness, which they lose by immersion, for some hours, 
in water, before they are made into pies, rob, or jelly. In the 
latter state this fruit is excellent for colds and sore throats ; as 
well as for eating with venison, or other roast meat, as is prac- 
tised generallv in Sweden. 
Linnseus had much difficulty to convince Haller that this plant was 
different from Arbutus Uva Urs'i. See their letters on the sub- 
ject of Uva Ursi in the Correspondence of Linncpus, S^c. v. 2. 

4. V. Oxijcoccus. Marsh AMioitle-berry. Cran- 
berry. 

Leaves ovate, entire, smooth, revolute, acute. Stems creep- 
ing, thread-shaped, smooth. Flowers terminal. Corolla 
deeply four-cleft. 

V Oxycoccus. Linn. Sp. PI. 500. mild. v. 2. 354. FL Br. 416. 
Engl. Bot.v. 5. t. 3\9. Hook. Scot. \\\). FL Dan. t. SO. Ehrh. 

Arb.?>3. 
V. n. 1023. Hall. Hist. v. 1.437. 
Vaccinia palustria. Ger. Em. \\\9.f. Dod. Pempt.770.f. Lob. Ic. 

u. 2. 109./. 
Oxycoccus, seu Vaccinia palustria. Rail Sijn. 267. Bauh. Hist. v. 1 . 

525./. 

Oxycoccum. Cord. Hist. WO. 2./. 

Schollcra Oxycoccus. Roth Germ. v. \. \ 70. v. 2. p. 1 . 442. 

In clear watery turfy bogs, among mosses. 

Shrub. June. , 1 • 1 

Roots creeping, with many long fibres. Stems slender, wiiy, trail- 
ing and creeping, with numerous leafy branches. Leaves alter- 
nate, erect, on' short stalks, small, perennial, convex, rigid; 
glaucous underneath. Flowers very elegant, drooping, on simple, 
red stalks, several together at the end of each brancli, and bear- 
in^' a few scattered hrarteas. Cor. divided, nearly to the bottom, 
inU) 4 oblong, reflexed segments. Fdam. downy. AntU. with 
2 long tubular points, but no horn.s. Berrits spotted in an early 



f22 OCTANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Menziesia. 

state, finally deep red, very acid, highly grateful, to most people, 
in tarts, or other preparations with sugar -, though in Sweden 
they serve only for an acid liquor to boil silver plate in, to eat 
away the minute external particles of the copper alloy. 

215. MENZIESIA. Menziesia. 

Sm. Plant. Ic.fasc. 3. 5G. Comp. 59. M'illd. Sp. PL v. 2. 355. Jitss. 
in Ann. du Mus. v. 1. 55. 

Nat. Orel. Biconics. Linn. 18. Rhododendra, Juss. 50. 
Ericinece. DeCand. 72. sect. 3. 

CaL inferior, of 1 leaf, more or less deeply 4- or 5-cleft, per- 
manent. Cor, of 1 petal, inflated, nearly ovate, decidu- 
ous ; limb in 4 or 5 small, spreading, equal segments. 
Filam. 8 or 10, thread-shaped, equal, sliorter than the 
corolla, inserted into the receptacle. AntJi. oblong, with- 
out horns or crest ; cloven at the base; opening by 2 pores 
at the summit. Germ, superior, roundish, furrowed. Style 
erect, angular, rather longer than the stamens. Stigma 
obtuse, with 4 or 5 small notches. Ccqjs. elliptic-oblong, 
with 4 or 5 furrows, and as many valves and cells, open- 
ing from the top downward ; partitions double, formed of 
the inflexed margins of tiie valves. Seeds numerous, small, 
oblong, acute, affixed to the ribs of a large central column. 

Stem shrubby. Leaves scattered, evergreen or deciduous, 
with a callous or glandular tip. Fl. aggregate, stalked, 
drooping, purplish, rusty, or yellowish. 

1. M. ccorulea. Scottish Menziesia. 

Leaves linear, obtuse, with cartilaginous teeth. Flower- 
stalks terminal, aggregate, simple. Flowers five-cleft, 
decandrous. 

M. cserulea. Swarlz Tr. of L. Soc.v. 10.377. ^.30./. A. Comp.Gl. 

Engl. Bot. V. 35. t. 2469. Hook. Scot. 126. 
Andromeda cserulea. Linn. Sp. PL 563. FL Lapp. ed. 2. 133. t. 1. 

/. 5. Lapland Tour v. 1 . 272. FL Dan. t. 57.' 
A. taxifolia. Pall. Ross. v.]. p. 2. 54. t 72. f. 2. 
Erica cserulea. JVilld. Sp. PL v. 2. 393. 
E. 11.22. GmeLSib.v.4. 131. t.57.f.2. 
On dry heathy moors, rare. 
Near Aviemore in Strathspey, where it was first noticed by Mr. 

Brown of Perth. Mr. Patrick Neill. In the western isles of 

Shiant. Mr. G. Don, and Dr. De Pa)nu}. 
Shrub. June, July. 



OCTANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Menziesia. 223 

Stem determinately branched, 4 or .> inches high, decumbent in the 
lower part, leafy above 3 branches round, scarred, not hairy or 
downy. Leaves crowded, spreading every way, on short single- 
jointed stalks, linear, flat, obtuse, single-ribbed, of a bright 
sliining green, not half an inch long 5 rough-edged and finely 
toothed ; marked with a narrow central furrow above ; the rib 
downy beneath. Fl. 4 or 5 at the top of the highest branch, 
drooping, on long, simple, upright stalks, clothed with red glan- 
dular hairs, without hracteas. Cal. in 5 deep, acute, rather hairy 
divisions. Cor. much longer, ovate, of a livid or pale blueish 
red ; ill coloured, from a dried specimen, in Palkiss figure. 

The synonym of Buxbaum, Cent. 4. t. 43, seems, by the figure, 
very uncertain. 

2. M. polifoUa. Irisb Menziesia. 

Leaves ovate, revolute ; downy and white beneath. Flowers 
four-cleft, octandroLis, in terminal leafy clusters. 

M. polifolia. Juas. in Ann. clu Mus. v. 1. 55. Ait. //. Kew. ed. 2. 
V. 2. 3G0. Sm. in Rees's Cycl. v. 23. n. 3. Hull r. 1. 1 1 1 . 

M. Dabeoci. Conip. 61. 

Erica Dabeoci. Linn. Sp. PL 509. Fl. Br. 420. Engl. Dot. v. 1 . 
t. 35. Huds. 160. Don H. Br. 1C2. 

E. Daboecia. mild. Sp. i'l. v. 2. 3S3. fVilh.372.^ 

E. cantabrica, florc maximo, foliis myrti, sublus incanis. Toiirn. 
Inst. 603. Dill in Raii Sijn. 472. ' 

E. hibernica, foliis myrti pilosis subtus incanis. Pel. Gazoph. 6. 
/. 27./.4. 

Andromeda Daboecia. Linn. Syst. Vcg. cd. 13. 33S. ed. 14. 40G. 

Vaccinium Cantabricum. finds, cd. 1. 143. 

On mountains in the west of Ireland, in a boggy soil. Ray. 

On Croagh Patrick, in the county of Mayo. A. B. Lambert, Esq. 
Very abundant in the district of Cunnemara, county of Galway. 
fVa'de PI. liar. Ilib. 28. 

Shrub. June, July. 

Stems bushy, 12 or 18 inches high, with many simple, upright, 
leafy branches, at length decumbent and spreading. Leaves 
numerous, rather crowded, on short stalks, ovate, half an inch 
long, slightly revolute, entire, siugle-ril)be(l,dark green, shining, 
and besprinkled with glandular hairs, above ; densely clotheil 
with snow-white cottony down, beneath ; tlie lower ones opj)o- 
site^ and sometimes 3 together. Clusters terminal, simple, of 
numerous large, handsome, i)urj)lisi)-red, (lrooping7A>»t'/A-, each 
accompanied by a little, oblong, hairy, leafy bractca. Cal. in 4 
deep, acute, hairy, viscid segments. Cor. ovate, with 4 blunt 
angles, and 4 recurved segments. Staw. 8. Caj)s. of 4 cells, 
with partitions from the edges of the valves, which is never the 
case in any true Andromeda, nor have iUv //(tuers, as (ar as 1 
have seen, nu)re than 4 segment.s. 



^4 OCTANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Caliuna. 
216. CALLUNA. Ling. 

Salisb.Tr of L.Soc.v. 6.317. HullvA. 112,113. Hook. Scot. \\6. 
Erica. Ga:rtnt.63. Lam. t. 287./. I. 

Nat. Ord. Blcornes. Linn. 18. Erica. Juss. 51. Ericinece. 
DeCand. 72. sect. 1. A^. 217 the same. 

Cal. inferior, permanent, double; outermost of 4 ovate-oblong, 
thick, blunt, fringed leaves ; inney^ of 4 elliptic-lanceolate, 
concave, coloured, polished leaves, concealing the corolla. 
Cor. of 1 petal, bell-shaped, deeply 4-cleft, erect, much 
shorter than the inner calyx. Filam. from the receptacle, 
thread-shaped, short, curved. Anth. terminal, erect, 
lanceolate, acute, with 2 lateral oblong orifices, each 
combined, before the discharge of the pollen, with the 
similar orifice of its neighbour at each side; the base 
bearing 2 deflexed bristles. Germ, superior, orbicular, 
depressed, furrowed. Stijle nearly erect, cylindrical, the 
length of the inner calyx. Stigma capitate, with 4 notches. 
Caps, concealed by the inflexed, permanent, inner calyx, 
orbicular, a little depressed, with 4 furrows, 4 simple 
valves, and 4 cells ; the partitions simple, flat, alternate, 
and unconnected with the valves, fixed vertically to a 
large, ovate, pitted, permanent, central column. Seeds 
numerous, small, elliptic-oblong, dotted, attached to the 
column. 

Shrubby, of humble growth, with litde, opposite, imbricated, 
evergreen leaves, and small, elegant, clustered, drooping, 
rose-coloured^ow^y'5. 

Although there is but one known species of this genus, the 
most common, if not perhaps the original. Erica, of Dios- 
corides, Tournefort, or Linnaeus, its generic distinctions 
are so very important, that I gladly concur with Mr. Sa- 
lisbury, who first pointed out those distinctions. To avoid 
the inconvenience of giving a new generic appellation to 
the hundreds of plants, familiar to every body as Ericce^ 
or Heaths, he has judiciously called our common Ling, 
Caliuna, from xaXAuvw; which is doubly suitable, whether, 
with Mr. Sahsbury and Dr. Hull, we take it to express a 
cleansing property, brooms being made of Ling ; or whe- 
ther we adopt the more common sense of the word, to 
ornament or adorn, which is very applicable to the flowers. 
Gaertner indeed was so struck with the pecuhar construc- 
tion of the capsule, that he adds a mark of admiration to 
his description. He takes the plant as the type of Erica, 



OCTANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Erica. 225 

not aware perhaps that no other supposed TLrica has been 
found to have such a capsule, or indeed such a cali/jc, 

1. C. vulgaris. Common Ling. 

C. vulgaris. Hull t\ 1 . 1 14. Hook. Scot. 119. 

Erica vulgaris. Linn. Sp. PL 50]. PVilld. v.2. 373. Fl.Br.4\7. 
Engl. Bot. i\ 15. ^. 1013. Curt. Lond.fasc. 5. t. 30. Rail Syn. 
470. Bull.Fr.t.3n.FLDan.t.677. Ger. Em.] 380./. Ehrh. 
Fl.Off. 173. 

E. n. 1012. Hall. Hist. V.]. 432. 

Erica. Matth. Valgr.v. \. ]37 .f. Comer. Epit. 75./. Trag.Hist. 
952./. Fuchs. Hist.2bA.f. 

,3. E. vulgaris hirsuta. P^.aii Syn. 471 . Don H. Br. 56. 

E. ciliaris. Huds. ed. 1. 144; not of Linnaeus. 

Common every where on dry moors, heaths, and open barren 
wastes ; as well as in woods where the soil is sandy or turfy. 

Shrub. June, July. 

Stems bushy, repeatedly and irregularly branched. Leaves deep 
green, minute, sessile, acute, keeled, somewhat arrow-shaped, 
closely imbricated on the young branches, making a quadrangu- 
lar figure, like a close-beaten chain ; they are generally smooth, 
but in /3 densely hoary all over. Fl. stalked, drooping, in longish 
unilateral clusters, soon overtopped by leafy shoots. Inner calyx, 
which is the most conspicuous part of the flower, of a shining 
permanent rose-colour. Cor. paler and much shorter. Anth. not 
reaching beyond the corolla. Style longer. 

Grouse and other birds, as well as some quadrupeds, eat the seeds 
and young shoots. 

There is a white-flowered variety ; and a very beautiful double red 
one, cultivated in gardens, whose //o?rer5, from a copious multi- 
plication of the corolla, resemble little roses. 

217. ERICA. Heath. 

Linn. Gen. ]92. Juss. ]ijO. Fl.Br.4\7. Tourn.t.373. Lam. 
<. 287./. 2— 5. 

Nat. Ord. see n. 21G. 

Cal. inferior, of 4 ovate-oblong, permanent leaves. Cor. of 
1 i^etal, ovate-oblong or btll-sha])ed, more or less elon- 
gated, l-cleft, withering. Filam. iiom the receptacle, 
capillary. Anth. terminal, erect, cloven, opening by lateral 
orifices,' which adhere to those of the next anther till the 
pollen is discharged. Gnm. sui)crior, roundish. Stijle 
thread-shaped, erect. Stigma obtuse. Caps, roundish, 
witii 4- fiuTows, 4- cells, and l- valves, each bearing a par- 
tition from the centre. Scrds numerous, minute. 

VOL. II. o 



226 OCTANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Erica. 

In some species the anthers bear at the base a pair of horns, 
in others a double notched crest. The above description 
of the capsule agrees with all our English, and numerous 
exotic, European as well as Cape, species. There are 
some indeed whose partitions are formed from the mar- 
gins of the valves. The most able botanists however 
scruple to divide so natural a genus, nor is any one, as 
yet, furnished with sufficient materials to attempt it. 

The stem is shrubby. Leaves evergreen, opposite, or 
whorled, mostly linear. FL numerous and beautiful, on 
simple bracteated stalks. Cor. of various shapes, sizes 
and colours; never blue. No species is wild in America. 

1. E. Tetralix. Cross-leaved Heath. 

Anthers horned. Style nearly concealed. Corolla ovate. 
Leaves fringed, four in a whorl. Flowers in round tufts. 

E. Tetralix. Linn. Sp. PL ^02. Jrmd.v.2.36S. FL Br. 4\S. Engl 
Bot. y. 15. ^. 1014. Curt. Lond.fasc. l.t.2l. Hook. Scot. 119. 
FLDan.t.81. 

E. brabantica, folio coridis hirsuto quaterno. Rail Syn. 471. 

E. ex rubio nigricans scoparia. Bauh. Pin. 486. 

E. decima tertia. Clus. Hist. v. 1. 46. 

E. tertia. Dalech. Hist. 186./.; but not of Dodona-us. 

E. anglicana parva^ capitulis hirsutis. Bauh. Hist. v. I. p. 2. 358./^ 

On heathy boggy ground. 

Shrub. Juhj, August. 

Roots creeping. Stems erect, from 4 to 6 or 8 inches high, leafy, 
furrowed, hairy and downy, branched at the bottom. Leaver 
crowded, spreading, 4 in a whorl, stalked, ovate, or lanceolate, 
revolute, downy, and bristly with glandular hairs ; glaucous be- 
neath. FL remarkable for their delicate wax-like hue, of every 
shade of rose-colour, sometimes snow-white, on hairy cottony 
stalks, collected into a dense, round, terminal, capitate cluster, 
all elegantly pendulous towards one side. CaL oblong, downy 
and hairy, with 2 bracteas at the base. Cor. oblong, a little 
downy near the mouth. Stigma slightly protruding. Anth. con- 
cealed, each with a pair of simple bristles, or horns, at the base. 
Valves of the capsule hairy, concave, with a fixed partition from 
the centre of each. 

It is wonderful that this most elegant, and not uncommon, plant 
is scarcely delineated at all by the old authors ; nor by any of 
them correctly. 

2. E. c'lnerea. Fine-leaved Heath. 

Anthers crested. Style a little prominent. Stigma capitate. 
Corolla ovate. Leaves three in a whorl. 



OCTANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Erica. 2^ 

E.cinerea. Linn, Sp.PlA)0\ . mild.i\2. 37S. H.Br.AlS. Engl. 
Bot. V. 15. t. 1015. Curt. Lomlfasc. 2. t. 25. Hook, Scot. 119. 
Fl. Dan. t. 38. Bull. Fr. t. 237. 

E. tenuifolia. Ger. Em. 1282./. Raii Si/n. 4/1. 

E. coridis folio sexta. Clus. Hist. v. 1 . 43./. Dalech. Hist. 1 89./. 

E. pumila, calyculato unedonis flore. Lob. Ic. v. 2.212./ 

On dry turfy heaths, every where, plentifully. 

Shrub. Jubj — October. 

Stem a foot high, or more, ^vith numerous, upriglit, round, hoary, 
flowery and leafy branches. Leaves linear-lanceolate, flat above, 
entire, smooth, with a dorsal furrow, 3 together, on short stalks, 
and accompanied by short, leafy, axillary young shoots. Fl. 
numerous, in dense leafy panicles, drooping. Bracteas 2, at 
the base of the cahjx, which is smooth, acute, somewhat mem- 
branous. Cor. crimson, with a tinge of blue or grey, membra- 
nous and everlasting 5 occasionally pure white. Anth. \\A\\\ Vi 
double, serrated, dependent crest. Stigma with 4 notches. 
Capsule like the last, but smooth. 

3. E. vagctifs. Cornish Heath. 

Anthers simple, dee})ly cloven, prominent as well as the 
style. Corolla bell-shaped. Leaves four in a whorl. 
Flowers on simple, crowded, axillary stalks. 

E. vagans-. Linn. Mant. 2. 230. Willd. Sp. PL v. 2. 412. JViih. 373. 

FL Br. 4 1 9. EngL Bot. v.\.t.3. Dicks. Dr. PL 62. 
E. multiflora. Huds. 166. 
E. didyma. JVith. ed. 2. 400. 
E. fulio corios multiflora. Bad Stjn. 4/1 ; but r.ot of J. Bauhin. 

On heaths in Cornwall, abundantly. 

Shrub. Jubj, August. 

Stem woodv, 1-1 or 2 feet high, copiously and deterniinately 
branched, with a smooth, ])ale, deciduous bark. Leaves ever- 
green, smooth, linear, acutely rcvolute, 1 in a whorl 3 convex 
on the up])er side. Flower-stalks axillary, capillary, coloured, 
crowded together, in great numbers, for a considerable sj)ace 
about the middle of each branch, simple, single-flowered, rather 
shorter than the leaves, each bearing a pair of small bracteas 
towards the middle. Calyx-leaves ovate, smooth, coloured. 
Cor. red, often white, bell-shoped, with a (lee])ly 4-cleft, sj)read- 
ing limb. Anthers small, of 2 distinct ovate lobes, without any 
apj)en(lages, having an oval orifice at each side. Stigma obtuse, 
with 4 slight notches. Caps, smooth. 

Our early botanists, even Ray himself, confounded this with the 
Einniean E. multiflora, common in the south of Europe. 



Q .' 



22S OCTANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Daphne. 

218. DAPHNE. Mezereon, and Spurge- 
laurel. 

Linn. Gen. 192. Juss. 11. Fl. Br. 420. Lam. t. 290. 

Thymelcea. Tourn. t. 366. GcEvtn. t. 39. 

Nat. Ord. Vepread^. Linn. 31. Thijmelacs. Juss. 25. 

Cal. inferior, of 1 leaf, tubular, withering; tube cylindrical, 
coriaceous, longer than the limb, imperforate at the base, 
containing the stamens ; limb in 4- deep, ovate, spreading, 
coloured segments. Pet. none. Filam. short, in 2 rows, 
from about the middle of the tube. Anth. roundish- 
oblong, of 2 cells, simple, contained within the tube. 
Gm?2? superior, ovate. %/^ very short, terminal. Stigma 
capitate, depressed, entire. Berry oval, of 1 cell. Seed 
solitary, pendulous, oval, large, with a thin brittle skin. 

Shrubs, with a silky inner bark. Leaves simple, undivided, 
entire. Fl. highly fragrant. Whole plant generally in- 
tensely acrid and dangerous. 

\,Y). Mezereum. Common Mezereon, Spurge-olive. 

Flowers naked on the stem, sessile, about three together. 
Leaves lanceolate, deciduous. 

D Mezereum. Linn. Sp. PI. ^09. mild. v. 2. 415. Fl.Br.420. 

Eno-l Bot. r. 20. ^. 138 1 . IVoodv. Med. Bot. t. 23. Meyrick Misc. 

Bot't.l. Purtonv.S.33. Fl. Dan. t.26S. Bull.Fr.tA. Ehrh. 

PL Of. 3\3. 
Daphnoides. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 557./. Camer. Epit. 931. f. tucks. 

Hist. 221. f. 
D. vulgare. Gesn. Fasc. 1. 9. ^ 3./. 10. 
Thymeleea. Trag. Hist. 951./. 
Th. n. 102 4. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 438. 

In woods, but rare. 

Near Andover plentifully. Miller. At Laxfield, Suffolk. Mr. Wood- 
ward. In Needwood forest, Staffordshire ; Mr. Pitt. Withering. 
At Eastham and Stanford, Worcestershire. Uev. E. Whitehead. 
Near Appleton, Berks. Professor Williams. In Witch -wood 
forest, Oxfordshire ; Mr. Isaac ^\1-leeler of Oxford. Purton. 

Shrub. March. 

Stem bushy, 4 or 5 feet high, with upright, alternate, smooth, 
tough and pliant branches ; leafy while young. Leaves scat- 
tered, stalked, lanceolate, smooth, 2 inches long, appearing 
after the flowers, and soon accompanied by flower-buds for 
the next season. Fl. highly, and to many persons too power- 
fully, fragrant, seated in little tufts on the naked branches, with 
several brown, smooth, ovate bracteas underneath. Calyx like 



OCTANDRIA—MONOGYNIA. Acer. 229 

a corolla in texture, crimson all over ; the tube externally hairy. 
Berries scarlet, the favourite food of some species of Finch, 
Loxia. There is a variety with white Jlowers, and the berries 
also vary to a yellow or orange hue. 

2. D. Lauveola. Spurge-laurel. 

Clusters axillary, simple, each of about five flowers, droop- 
ing, shorter \han the smooth, obovate-lanccolate, ever- 
green leaves. Calyx obtuse. 

D. Laureola. L?«/i. % P/. 510. rf'i/W. t,. 2. 418. FL Br. 42\. 
EngL Bot. V. 2. ^ 1 19. Hook. Scot. 119. Jacq. Austr. t. 183. 
Bidl. fr. t. 37. Ehrh. Arh. 153. 

Daphnoides verum, vel Laureola. Gesn. Fasc. 1.7. /. 6./. 9. 

Thvmekea n. 1025. HaU. IFist. v. 1 . 439. 

Laureola. RaiiSyn.AGj. Docl. Pempt.36o.f. Ger. Em. \404JJ. 

L. et Daphnoides. Lob. Ic. 3G8./,/. 

In woods, thickets, and hedges. 

Shrub. March. 

Whole i)lant very smooth. Stem 2 or 3 feet high, with round, pale 
brown, upright, tough and pliant branches, crowned with tufts 
of evergreen leaves, elegantly drooping in all directions, and 
about 2 or 3 inches long, on short footslalks. FL deep green, 
with orange anthers, 4 of which are just visible in the throat of 
the calyx. Their scent, resembling saflVon, with an overpower- 
ing sweetness, is })erceptible in an evening only, and has been 
observed by very few people. An oval, concave bractea accom- 

• })anits each short partial stalk, at the base. Berry oval, black, 
l^^very part is very acrid, producing, like the Mezereon, a burn- 
ing heat in the mouth and throat. 

The charming D. pontica, long very little known, and now so hardy 
in our gardens, has many-flowered upright clusters, cdch of 
whose long partial stalks' bears 2 Jhmcrs ■ by which it dilVeis 
es.sentiallyVrom our Enurrola. The calyx moreover is taper- 
pointed. The characters of these two species arc not well con- 
trasted by LinuLcu-s or his copiers. 

219. ACER. Maple. 

Linn. Gen. ^VK). Juss. 20 1 . FL Dr. 12 1 . Toinn. /.386. Lam. t.SW. 

Gcrrtn. t. I Hi. 
Nat. Oril. TrihilaliC. Linn. 23. Accra. Juss. 66. 
C(d. inferior, of 1 leaf; Hat and orbicular at the bn.se; the 

margui in .5 doej), acute, oblong, permanent segments. 

Pet. 5, obovate-oblong, of the sha))e and substance of the 

segments of the calvx, and altcrjjale with them. Filain. 

awl-shapcd, inserted Into the calyx. Anth. pellate, round- 



230 OCTANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Acer. 

ish, of 2 lobes. Germ, superior, compressed, of 2 lobes. 
Style C34indrical, gradually elongated. Stigm. 2, or 3, 
pointed, revolute. Caps, as many as the stigmas, com- 
bined at the base, roundish, compressed, each terminat- 
ing in a rounded, firm, membranous, spreading wing. 
Seeds 1 or 2, roundish ; cotyledons folded. 

The anthers are imperfect in some of the flowers, the pistils 
in some others, but many flowers are perfect in both or- 
gans. The divisions of the calyx^ as well as the petals^ 
vary in number, and the stamens accord with them. 

Trees or shrubs, with opposite branches and leaves ; the lat- 
ter lobed, cut, mostly palmate, stalked, smooth, decidu- 
ous, without stipulas. Fl. green or yellowish, numerous, 
in drooping or upright, often downy, clusters. Wood va^ 
luable, often beautiful. 

=^1. K. Pseudo-platanus. Greater Maple, or Syca- 
more. 
Leaves five-lobed, unequally serrated. Clusters pendulous, 

A. Pseudo-platanus. Linn. Sp. PL 1495. M'illd. t;.4.983. FL Br. 

422. EngL Bot.v. 5. t. 303. Hook, Scot. 120. Ehrh. Arb. 80, 

Fl. Dan. t. i575. 
A. n. 1029, 5. HalL Hist. v. 1 .443. 
A. majus. Raii Syn. 470. Ger. Em. 1484./. Gesn. Fuse. 1. 15. ^. 8, 

/. 18. Dod.Penijn.S40.f. 
A. montanum candidum. ]3auh. Pin. 430. Duhnm. Arb. v. 1. 27, 

A. latifolium. Clus. Hist. v. 1. V.f. 10. 

Fl'dtanua. Trag.Hist.U2o.f. 

^. var. 2. PVith. 369. 

In hedges, and about houses, common, but not truly wild. 

Tree. May. 

A large, handsome tree, of quick growth, with a smooth ash- co- 
loured bark, and round, spreading branches. Leaves on long 
footstalks, 4 or 5 inches broad, palmate, v/ith 5 acute, variously 
serrated lobes ; the middle one largest 3 2 outermost very small j 
veiny, smooth, except a little hairy tuft at the base 3 pale or 
glaucous beneath. Clusters axillary, solitary, pendulous, com- 
pound, many-flowered, downy. FL green, the size of a currant- 
blossom. Anthers hairy between the lobes. Capsules with 2, 
or 3, broad spreading wings, above an inch long. 

The wood is v.'hite and soft, useful for many purposes. The sap is 
said to yield some portion of sugar, and to be made into wine 
in the Highlands of Scotland. 

Our variety /3, pointed out by the late Mr. Andrew Caldwell of 
Dublin, appears to have more elongated, distantly serrated. 



OCTANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Acer. '231 

lobes to the leaves, which are more or less glaucous beneath ; 
but this latter circumstance, like the degree of hairiness of the 
stanums, is a variable character. 

2. A. campcstre. Common Maple. 

Leaves fivc-lobed, obtuse, somewhat cut. Clusters corym- 
bose, erect. 

A. campestre. Linn. Sp. PL 1-197. mild. Sp. PL v. 4. 989. Fl. Br. 
422. Engl. Bot.v. 5. t. 304. Hook. Scot. 120. Fl. Dan. t. 1288. 

A. campestre et minus. Bank. Pin. 431. Duham. Arb. v. 1. 28. 
t. 10. f. 7. 

A. n. 1029, 6. Hall. Utst. v. 1. 443. 

A. minus. Raii S/jn. 470. Gcr. Em. 1484./. Dod. Pempt. S40.f. 

Acer. Trag.Ilist. 1123./. 

Massholder Tragi. Gasn. Ease. 1.16.^. 9./. 19. 

/S. Acer campestre et minus, fructu rubente. Vaill. Par. 2. Dill, in 
Rail Syn. 470. 

In hedges and thickets common ; rare in Scotland, and the north 
of England. 

Tree. Mai/, June. 

A rather small tree, of much more humble growth than the preced- 
ing, with more spreading branches ; the bark corky and full of 
fissures J that of the branches smooth. Leaves about 1^ inch 
wide, downy while young, like their/oo/6^«//iS, obtusely ."i-lobed, 
here and there notched, sometimes quite entire. Clusters ter- 
minating the young shoots, hairy, erect, ^short and somewhat 
corymbose. FL green, not unlike those of the preceding. Antli. 
hairy between the lobes. Caps, downy, horizontally spreading 
nearly in a right line, with smooth, oblong, reddish wings. 

The wood is compact, of aline grain, sometimes l)eautifully veined, 
celebrated among the ancient Romans for laldes, though now 
superseded by Mahogany, and even our native Oak. 



232 



OCTJNDRIA TRIGYNIA. 

220. POLYGONUM. Persicaria, Bistort, Knot- 
grass, and Buckwheat. 

Linn. Gen. \95. Juss. 82. Fl. Br. 423. Tourn. t.290. Lam.t.3\5. 

Gcertn. t.\\9. 
Persicaria. Tourn. t. 290. Gcertn. f. 1 19. 
Bistorta. Tourn. i. 291. 
Fagopyrum. Tourn. t. 290. Gcertn. t. 119. 

Nat. Orel, hloleracea:. Linn. 12, s. Polygonec^, Juss. 28. 

Cat. inferior, turbinate, more or less coloured, in 5 deep, 
ovate, obtuse, permanent segments. Cor. none. Filam. 
various in number, from 5 to 6, 7, or most generally 8, 
awl-shaped, very short. Anfh. roundish, incumbent. 
Germ, superior, roundish, either triangular or com- 
pressed. Styles generally 3, in those with a compressed 
germen only 2, thread-shaped, very short, in some species 
partly combined. Stigmas simple. Perk, none, except 
the closed calyx. Seed solitary, either triangular or com- 
pressed, pointed ; embryo enveloped in a farinaceous al- 
bumen. 

Generally herbaceous, v/ith knotty, alternately branching 
stems. Leaves alternate, simple, revolute in the bud; 
either sheathing at the base, or attached to an interior, 
membranous, ribbed, tubular or sheathing, stipula. Fl. 
axillary, or terminal, simply stalked, clustered, or spiked; 
either red, or particoloured with red, green and white. 
Seed brown, often polished. 

* Styles usually bid 2. 

1. P. amphibium. Amphibious Persicaria. 

Styles two, united half way up. Stamens five. Spike ovate. 

P. amphibium. Linn. Sp. PL 5 1 7, Willd. v. 2. 443. FL Br. 423, 
EngL Bot.v.7.t.43D. Curt. Lond.fasc.4.t.2S. Hook. Scot. \2\. 
FL Dan. t. 282. 

P. n. 1565. HaU. Hist. v. 2. 261. 

Persicaria salicis folio perennis. Rail Syn. 145. 

Potamogeton salicis folio. Bauh.Pin. 193. 

P. angustifolium. Gar. Em. 821. f. 

P. altera. Dalech. Hist. 1008./. 

P. sive Starhvites. Lob. Xc 30/, /, 



OCTANDllIA— TRIGYNIA. Polygonum. 233 

In ponds and ditches, or about their banks. 

Perennial, July, August. 

Root creeping, with numerous whorls of white or red fibres. Stem 
round, branching in the lower part, leafy. Leaves stalked, ge- 
nerally floating, ovate-lanceolate, more or less acute, single- 
ribbed, minutely serrated, smooth, bright green j slightly heart- 
shaped at the base. Sfipula embracing the stem within the 
footstalk, abrupt, wavy, smooth. Flowers crimson, in elegant 
ovate, dense, stalked, bracteated spikes, raised above the surface 
of the water. Stam. ^>, alternate with the 5 segments of the 
calyx, variable in length. Styles 2, combined in their lower half. 
Stigmas globular, red. Seed ovate, compressed, with 2 obtuse 
edges. 

Wiien the roots are thrown out of the water, with the mud of 
ditches, the sterns become shortened, and upright 5 the leaves 
narrower, and, as well as the stijmlas, hairy. The j^ou-ers are in 
that case sparingly produced. This is the p of W'illdenow,- the 
Persicaria acidaoi iwn^e\'m^wx\. See Linn. Correspoiid. v. 2.367 . 

\A''ater fowl are said by Curtis to be fond of the seeds. 

2. P. Persicaria, Spotted Persicaria. 

Styles two, united half way up. Stamens six. Clusters 
dense, ovate-oblong, erect, on smooth stalks. Stipulas 
fringed. 

P. Persicaria. Linn. Sp. PI. 518. Willd. v. 2. 416. PL Br. 424. 

Engl. Bot. V. 11. t./oG. Curt. Lond.fasc. \,t.23. Hook. Scot. 

121. PL Dan. t.702. 
P. n. 1557. Hall. Hist. v. 2.257. 

Persicaria. Puchs. Hist. 631./. G30. Dad. Pempt. 608./. 
P. altera. Matth. Falgr.v.\.5'S4.f. Camer. Epit.3D3.f. 
P. mitis, maculosa et non maculosa. Bauh. Pin. 101. 
P. maculosa. RaiiSyn. 145. Ger. Em.AAb.f. Pet. H. Brit, t.3, 

/.7. 
P, mitis. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 77\.f. 
P. mitis maculosa. Lob. /c. 315./. 
/3. P. folio subtus incano. Tourn. List. 510. Dill, in Raii Syn. 145. 

Pet. //. Brit. t.3.f.H. 
Polygonum incanum. M'illd. Sp. PL v. 2. 416. 
P. Persicaria y. Linn. Sp. PL 518. 
P. n. 1556. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 257. 

7. Persicaria folio Salicis albre vulgaris. Dtll. in Raii Syn. 145. 
P. argcntea. Pet. H. Brit. t. 3./. [). 

In ditches, wet fields, and watery places, common. 

Annual. July, August. 

Hoot fibrous. Stum erect, sometimes tlnowing out radicles from 
the lowermost joints, 1 to 2 feet high. I'lanched, leafy, round, 
smooth, often 1 eddish, sliglitiy swelled in general above each 



234 OCTANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Polygonum. 

joint. Leaves on short stalks, spreading, a I'ttle drooping, lan- 
ceolate, entire, rough on the rib and margin, mostly marked, 
about the middle, with a black, crescent-shaped spot j tlie un- 
der surface in |3, and both in some degree in y, are clpthed with 
close, white, cottony, or silvery, hairs ; but the slightest expe- 
rience or inquiry will determine them to be mere varieties. The 
stipulas are rather short and wide, membranous, strongly ribbed, 
downy, partly fringed. Clusters several, solitary, terminal and 
axillary, erect, dense, obtuse, their stalks smooth, various in 
length, as the clusters are in size. FL rose-coloured, or whitish. 
Cal. with 5 segments ; Haller often found but 4 in the hoary 
variety. Stam. always 6. Styles united full half way up 5 oc- 
casionalfy 3. Seed obscurely triangular. 

3. P. lapathifoUum, Pale-flowered Persicarla. 

Styles two, distinct. Stamens six. Flower-stalks rough. 
Stipulas beardless. Seeds concave at each side. 

P. lapathifolium. Linn. Sp. PI. 517. fVilld. v. 2. 442. Fl. Br. 425. 
Engl.Bot.v. 20. t. 1382. Sym. 9G. Hook. Scot. 121. Ait.H. 
Kew.ed.2.v.2.4\7. Relh. 156. Sibth. ]29. Abbot 89.- 

P. pensylvanicum.. Curt. Lond.fasc. 1. ^.24,25. Huds. ed. I. 148. 

P. persicaria ^. Huds. ed. 2. 1 70. 

P. pallidum, mth. 38\. Hull 85. 

Persicaria mitis major, foliis pallidioribus D. Bobarti. Rail Syn. 1 45. 
Pet. H.Brit. t.3.f. \\. 

Hydropiper. Lob. /c. 315./. Ger. Em. 445. f. 

/S. With red stems and flowers. Curt, under t. 25. 

Persicaria major, lapathi foliis, calyce floris purpureo. Tourn. Inst. 
510. 

y. Stem spotted. Curt. f. 25. 

Persicaria latifolia geniculata, caulibus maculatis D. Rand. Rail 
Syn. 145. 

?. Leaves hoary beneath. Curt, under t. 25. From the author. 

Persicaria maculosa procumbens, foliis subtus incanis. Dill, in Rail 
Sy7i.\46. Pet. Ff. Brit. f.3.f. 10. 

In cultivated ground, especially such as is rich and moist, and on 
dunghills. 

Annual. July, August. 

Root fibrous. Stem with numerous, spreading, often decumbent, 
branches, swelled above the joints, various in luxuriance. Leaves 
ovate-lanceolate, acute, rough-edged, sometimes hoary ; some- 
times marked with a black spot in the middle ; always thickly 
sprinkled at the back with glandular dots 3 tapering at the base 
into short roughish footstalks. Stipulas obtuse, ribbed, occa- 
sionally very slightly fringed. Flow er -stalks rough with minute 
glandular points. Clusters dense, short, obtuse, erect, finally 
drooping. H. either greenish while, or reddish. Slam, shorter 



OCTANDRIA—TRIGYNIA. Polygonum. 235 

than the calyx, always Q, though the segments of the calyx are 
but 5. Styles separate to the base, except a very small portion, 
forming an abrupt beak to the seed, which is orbicular, hollowed 
out at each side, thick at the edges, sometimes triangular, when 
probably there are 3 styles. 

4. P. Hydropiper, Biting Persicaria. 

Styles two, united halfway up. Stamens six. Clusters lax, 
interrupted, drooping. Stem erect. Leaves lanceolate, 
wavy, without spots. 

P. Hvdropiper. Unn. Sp. PL 5 1 /. inild. v. 2. 44^. FL Br. 426. 
E)igL Bot. V. 14. t. 989. Curt. Lond.fasc. l.t. 26. Hook. Scot. 
121. Bull. Fr.t. 127. FL Dan. t. Ij7(j. 

P. n. 1554. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 236. 

Persicaria acris, sive Hydropiper. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 772. f. 
Rail Si/n. 144. 

P. vulgaris. Pet. H. Brit. t. 3./. 5. 

Hydropiper. Fuchs. Hist. 842./. 843. Matth. Valgr. v. 1 . 533./ 
Camer. Epit.3j2.f. 

Common every where in ditches and clear watery places. 

Annual. September. 

Boot fibrous, whorlcd, as in most of the genus. Herb smooth. Stem 
erect, 2 feet high, branched, round, more or less red and shin- 
ing 3 swelled above each joint. Leaves lanceolate, \mdulated, 
stalked, pale shining green, without spots. Stipulas fringed 
with unequal bristles, very obscurely ribbed. Clusters terminal, 
long and slender, curved,' interrupted, leafy in their lower part j 
their partial flower-stalks erect, close, longer than in the two 
preceding species, and accompanied by tubular, sheathing, ab- 
rupt, coloured bractcas. Cal. 4- or 5-cleft, variegated with red, 
white and green, covered with glandular dots, such as are scat- 
tered, more or less universally, over the whole herbage, and in 
which its acrid quality resides. Stainens G, rarely 8. Stifles 
united nearly half way' up. Stigmas capitate, often red, some- 
times 3. Seeds compressed, purj)lish black. 

5. P. viinus. Small Creeping Persicaria. 

Styles two, combined. Stamens six. Clusters lax, slender, 
nearly iipriglit. Stem trailing at the base. Leaves linear- 
lanceolate, flat. 

P. minus. Huds. td. 1. 148. II did. Sp. PI. v. 2.445. FL Br. \26. 
Engl. Bot. v. 15. /. 1043. Curt. Lond.fasc. 1. /. 28. Hook. Scot. 
121. 

P. Persicaria (3. Linn. Sp. PL 518. 

P. nydroj)iper /3. Huds. 170. 

P. intermedium. Lfirli. Herb. 94. 



236 OCTANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Poiygoniim. 

P. n. ]555. [Tall. Hist. v. 2. 257. 

Persicaria pusilla repens. Ger.Em.446.f. Loh. Ic.SlG.f. Rail 

Sijn. 145. Dalech. Hist. 1 04 1 . /. 
P. minor. Bauh. Pin. 101. 31oris. d.2.589. sect. 5. t. 20. f. 5. 
P. angustifolia. Bauh. Pi?i. \0]. Prodr. 43. 
P. angustifolia, ex singulis geniculis tlorens. Raii Sijn. 145. 

On gravelly watery commons. 

About London in various places, as Tuthill fields, Blackheath, Put- 
ney common, &c. On Costesy common, near Norwich. Found 
by'Dr. Stokes in a gravel-])it on Malvern chace, Worcestershire. 

Annual. September. 

Whole plant much smaller than P. Hydropiper, to vdiich it is most 
nearly allied, but the distinctions pointed out by Mr. Curtis are 
constant and all-sufficient. The stems are branched from the 
very bottom, decumbent at the base, and taking root at several 
of the lower joints ; tumid above each joint, like the foregoing. 
Leaves very narrow, and fiat, on short stalks, smooth, with 
scarcely any lateral veins, ^^ipw/crs copiously fringed. Clusters 
lax and slender, scarcely curved, on smooth slender stalks. Brac- 
tcas funnel-shaped, fringed, sheathing the partial stalks. Fl. 
small, pale, reddish externally, without glandular dots. Styles 
entirely combined, with 2 or 3 obtuse spreading stigmas. Seed 
blacky compressed, or bluntly triangular. 

** Sti/Ies 3. 

6. P. jBistorta. Great Bistort, or Snake- weed. 

Stem simple, with a single, spiked, cluster of flowers. Leaves 
ovate, wavy, running down into the footstalks. 

P.Bistorta. Linn. Sp.Pl.olG. TVilld. v. 2. 441. Fl.Br.4\7. Engl. 

Bot, v.S. t.b09. Curt. Lond.fasc. 1 . ^.22. JVoodv. Med. Bot. 

t. 34. Hook. Scot. 120. Dreves Bilderb. t. 39. Bull. Fr. i. 314. 

H.Dan. t.42\. 
P. n. 1559. Hail. Hist. v. 2. 258. 
Bistorta. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 296./. Camer. Epit. 683./. Dod. 

Pempt. 333./. 
B. major. Ger. Em. 399. f. Rail Sijn. 147. 

B. major, radice minus intorta. Bauh. Pin. 192. Mill. Ic. 44. t. 66. 
B. britannica. Lob. Ic. 292. f. 
Serpentaria mas, seu Bistorta. Fuchs. Hist. 773./. 
Colubrina. Br un/ Herb. v. 1.61,62.//. 

In fertile pastures and meadows ; most common in the North. 

Perennial. June. 

Root creeping, fleshy, or rather woody, often bent or zigzag, power- 
fully astringent. Stems solitary, simple, erect, straight, leafy, 
1-^ or 2 feet high, round, striated, smooth. Leaves smooth, 
ovJitCj wavy, bluntish } glaucoys beneath ; radical one.s some- 



OCTANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Polygonum. 237 

what heart-shaped, and nevertheless decurrent, making a nar- 
row v/ing to their /oo^s^r7/A-6\ Footstalks of the stem-leaves tu- 
bular and sheathing, each crowned with a membranous jagged 
stipula. Cluster terminal, lealless, erect, cylindrical, dense, ma- 
ny-flowered, interspersed with membranous, notched, brown 
bracteas. Partial stalks simple, very slender. Cal. rose-co- 
loured, deeply 5 -cleft, obtuse, spreading. Stam. S, longer than 
the calyx. Styles quite cUstinct, with small obtuse stigmas. Seed 
triangular, black and shining. 

7. P. viv'iparum. Alpine Bistort. 

Stem simple, with a single, spiked, cluster of flowers. Leaves 
lanceolate, revolute, with copious, prominent, marginal 
veins. 
P. viviparum. Linn. Sp. PL 516. Wilkl. v. 2. 441. Ft. Br. 42S. 
Engl. Bot. v.HO. t. 669. Uook. Loud. t.8\. Scot. 120. Fl.Dan. 
i. 13. Ehrh. Ph'jt. 34. 
P. n. 1558. Hall. Hist. V. 2. 2jS. 
P. n. 34. Gmel. Sib. v 3. 44. 1. 1 . f. 2. 

Bistorta minor. Ger. £m. 399./. Raii Sijn. 147. Clus. Pan.470.f. 
Camer. Epit. 684./. Moris, v. 2. 585.71.3 ; also alpina n. 5. sect. 5. 
t.28. last figure. 
B. alpina minima. Hall. Opusc. 234, with an ample criticism of 

synonyms. 
B. minima. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 539./ 

B. foliis lanceolutis, Liini. Fl. Lapp. n. 152. ed. 1 . 115. ed. 2. 121. 
Small Bistort. Pet. H. Brit. f.5.f. 2. 
(3. Bistorta minima al])ina, foliis imis subrotundis et minutissime 

serratis, Raii Syri. 147. 
B. pumila, foliis variis, rotundis et longis. Moris, v. 2. 5S5. u. 4. 
Welsh Bistort. Pet. H. Brit. t. 5.f.3. 
In pastures, or moist fissures of rocks, in alpine situations. 
In several parts of Westmoreland, and the north of Yorkshire. Raij, 
Hudson. In dry stony pastures, by the sides of tiie Scottish 
mountains, not unfrequent. Liglitfoot, Hooker. Near the lop 
of Ben Lomond. 
Perennial. June, Julij. 

Like the last in habit, but much smaller, and essentially distinct. 
Root fleshy, astringent. Iferb smooth. Stem from 3 to 6 inches 
high, leafy. Leaves stalked, for the most part linear-lanceolate, 
often somewhat ellij)tical, and in /3 the lower ones are short, 
round, or lieart-shaped ; all j)ale beneatli. revolute, and curiously 
marked with prominent mar-inal veins, as if crenate. Sdpulas 
tubular, very long, membranous, rougiiish, sheathing the stem 
0|)posite to each /bo/67a//t-. ( 'luster cylindrical, interspersed with 
numerous membranous bracteas. Fl. stalked, pale red, con- 
structed much like the lust j but in the place of many of the 



238 OCTANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Polygonum. 

lower ones are sessile, ovate bulbs, which falling off become 
young- plants. This is exhibited in Tournefort's t.29l. f. G — K. 
The plant therefore is not so truly viviparous as gemmiparous, 
nor do the xt2i\Jlowers above often produce any seeds. 

8. P. avicidare. Common Knot-grass. 

Flowers axillary. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, rough-edged. 
Ribs of the stipulas distant. Stem procumbent, herba- 
ceous. 

P. aviculare. Unn. Sp. PZ. 519. mild. v. 2. 449. Fl. Br. 429. 
Engl. Bot. V. 18. t. 1252. Curt. Lond.fasc. 1. t. 27. Mart. Rust. 
t.9\. Hook. Scot. \22. Fl.Dan. ^.803. 

P. n. 1560. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 259. 

P. mas vulgare. Ger. Em. 565./. Rail Sijn. 146. Lob. Ic.4\9.f. 

P. mas. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 300. /. Camer. Epit. 688. /. Dod. 
Fempt. lis. f. Fuchs. Hist. 614. f. Trag. Hist. 391. f. 

P. latifolium. Bauh. Piii. 2S\. 

P. sive Centinodia. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 374./. 375. 

Common Knot-grass. Pet. H.Brit, t. 10./. 1. 

/3. Polygonum brevi angustoque folio. Bauh. Pin. 281. Raii Syn, 
146, 

Short-leaved Knot-grass. Pet. H.Brit, t. 10./ 3. 

y. Polygonum oblongo angustoque folio. Bauh. Pin. 281. Raii 
Syn. 146. 

Narrow Knot-grass. Pet. H. Brit. t. 10./ 4. 

8. Polygonum folio rotundo. Dill, in Raii Syn. 147. 

Thick-set Knot-grass. Pet. H. Brit t. 10./ 2. 

£. Polygonum marinum. Raii Syn. 147 ; excluding all the syno- 
nyms. 

In waste as well as cultivated ground, streets, paths, and barren 
sandy places, every where. 

s. On the Cornish coast, as mentioned by Ray. F. Borons. 

Annual. Jpril — October. 

Root fibrous, long, very tough, and somewhat woody ; branched 
below ', simple at the crown. Stems several, spreading in every 
direction, generally prostrate, much branched, round, striated, 
leafy at the numerous knots or joints. Leaves alternate, stalk- 
ed, hardlv an inch long, elliptic or lanceolate, entire, obtuse, 
single-ribbed, smooth except at the margin ; tapering at the 
base ; very variable in width ; their substance rather coriaceous j 
their colour greyish, or glaucous. Stipulas membranous, acute, 
often red, with a few remote brownish ribs. Fl. axillary, 2 or 3 
together, on simple stalks, small, but often singularly beautiful 
under a magnifier, being variegated with white, crimson, and 
green. Stam. 8, rarely 10, short and broad. Germ, triangu- 
lar. Stijles 3, short, with thick, blunt stigmas. Seed acutely 
triangular, of a shining black, the food of many small birds. 



OCTANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Polygonum. 229 

The real P. maritlmum of Linnaeus, to which all the synonyms of 
our large variety e, quoted by Ray, truly belong, is a perennial 
shrubby species, distinguished 'by the very numerous and 
crowded ribs of its stipulas. This is destined to appear in FL 
GrcEc. t.^fid. Meanwhile it is well represented m Bauh.Hist. 
V. 3. p. 2. 377. /. 1,, copied in Pet. II. Brit. t. 10. /. 5, which 
evinces the mischief of compiling from exotic writers, whose 
plants are often diflerent from our own. P. maritimum is also 
figured in Barrel. Ic. t.560.f. 1 ; and in Lobel's Adversaria 179. 

*9. P. Fagopyrum. Buck-wheat, or Brank. 

Leaves lieart-arrow-shajDed. Stem nearly upright, without 
prickles. Angles of the seeds even. 

P. Fagopyrum. Linn. Sp. PL .522. Jl'illd. v. 2. 455. Fl. Br. 430. 

Engl. Bot. V. 15. t. 1044. Mart. Rust. t. 46. Hook. Scot. 122. 
P. n. 15G3. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 2G0. 

Fegopyrum. Dod. Pempt. 5 1 1 ./. 5 1 2. Raii Sijn. 144. 
Fagotriticum. Baiih. Hist. v. 2.^93./. 
Tragopyron. Ger.Em. 89. y. 
Frumentum saracenicum. Matth. T'algr. v. 1. 357. /. Camer. 

Epit. 187./. 
Erysimum, Bank. Pin. 27. 
E.'cereale. Bank. Theatr. 530./. 
Ocymum veterum. Trag. Hist. 648. /. 

In cultivated fields, often a troublesome weed, though imported 
from the East, and very impatient of frost. 

Annual. July, August. 

Root tapering. Herb rather succulent. Stem a little zigzag, 
branched, leafy, smooth, except a downy line along one side. 
Leaves between heart- and arrow-shaped, acute,, entire, deep 
green, smooth, stalked ; upper ones sessile. Stipulas short and 
beardless. Footstalks roughish at the base. Clusters manv- 
flowered, ))anicled, spreading. Cal. variegated with red, green, 
and white, bearing yellow glands between the sta)ncns, of which 
latter 5 are longer than the rest ; and the 2 round lobes of their 
anthers are separated by a short intermediate bar. Stijles 3, 
(juite distinct. Seed brown, polished, with 3 sharp, even, not 
lobed nor wavy, angles. 

The seeds are excellent food for domestic poultry, and fv)r phea- 
sants. Their copious albumen all'ords a palatable and whole- 
some meal, which makes very good cukes, called crum})its. 

10. P. Coiivolrulus. Climbing Buck-wheat. Black 
BindwcccL 

Leaves heart-arrow-shaped. JStem tuiuiiig, anguhu-. 'Seg- 
ments of the calyx bluntly keeled. 



210 OCTANDRIA— TETRAGYNIA. Paris. 

P. Convolvulus. Linn. Sp. PL 522. Willd.v.2. Abb. Fl.Br.430. 

Engl. Bot. V. 14. t. 941. Curt. Lond. fasc. 4. L 29. Hook. 

Scot. 122. FLDan.t.744. 
P. n. 1561. Hall. Hist. V. 2. 260. 
Fegopyrum scandens sylvestre. Rail Sijn. 144. 
Volubilis nigra. Ger. Em. 863./. 

Convolvulus minor, semine triangulo. Bauh. Pin. 295. 
Helxine semine triangulo. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. \b7.f. 158. 
H. caule volubili. Linn. Fl. Lapp. n. 154. ed. 1.116. ed. 2. 123. 

In corn-fields, gardens^ hedges^ and osier-grounds. 

Annual. June — Sept. 

Root small, tapering. Stem twining from left to right, round 
every thing in its way, to the height of 5 or 6 feet, branched, 
leafy, angular, often roughish. Leaves alternate, stalked, bright 
green, generally with a red mid-rib, wavy, smooth, arrow- 
shaped, a little approaching to a heart-shape. Clusters lax, 
interrupted, leafy, stalked, terminating the short lateral branches. 
Fl. drooping, greenish-white, or reddish ; their 3 outer seg- 
ments with a blunt, flat, not much dilated, keel j 3 inner ones 
smallest. Stam. 8, occasionally but 6. Styles sometimes 2 only. 
Seed triangular, dark brown, shining, concave at the sides, 
rather smaller than the preceding, food for birds, and without 
doubt wholesome for mankindj if at any time worth collecting. 



OCTANDRIA TETRAGYNIA. 

221. PARIS. Herb Paris. 

Linn. Gen. \9S. Juss. 42. Fl. Br. 43]. Lam. t. 319. Gcertn. 

t.83. 
Herba Paris. Tourn. t.\\7. 

Nat. Ord. Sarmentacece, Linn. 11. Asparagi. Juss. 12. 

Cal. inferior, of 4 lanceolate, acute, spreading, permanent 
leaves, the length of the corolla. Pet. 4, spreading, awl- 
shaped, equal,permanent, similar to the calyx, but narrower, 
and alternate with it. Filam. 8, awl-shaped, rather short 
below the anthers^ which are long, linear, of 2 cells, united 
by their backs to the middle part of the filaments, whose 
points rise above them. Qerm. superior, roundish, with 



OCTANDRIA— TETRAGYNIA. Adoxa. 241 

4 furrows. Styles 4-, spreading, shorter than die stam* 
Stigmas oblong, downy at the upper side. Berry nearly 
globose, with 4 blunt angles, somewhat depressed, of 4? 
cells. Seeds several, globose, attached, in 2 rows, to a 
central receptacle. 
Herbaceous, perennial. Stem simple, bearing 4 or more 
simple, entire, pointed leaves^ in a whorl at the top, with 
a central green yZctccr. 

1. P. quadrifoUa. Common Herb Paris. 

Leaves ovate, about four. 

P. quaclrifoliu. Linn. Sp. PL 526. mild. v. 2.4/1. Fl. Br. 43 1 . 
Engl.Bot.vA.t.7. Hook. Scot. 122. Fl. Dan. t.\39. Redout. 
Liliac.t.22G. Bull. Fr. t.\\9. 

P. n. lOOG. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 42Q. 

Hcrba Paris. Raii Sijn. 264. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 439./. Camer. 
Epit.83i>.f. Dod. Pempt. 444./. Ger. Em. 405. f. Lob. 
Ic. 267. f. Garid. Prov. 227. t. 49. TUIands Ic. 32./ 

Solaniim quadrifolium bacciferum. Banh. Pin. 167. 

Aconitum pardilianches. FucJis. Hist.S7.f. /r. 48./ 

Uva lupina, scu Aster. Trag. Hist. 307./ 308. 

In groves and shady places, but not very common. 

Perennial. Mat/, June. 

Root creeping.' Herb smooth. Slem about a foot high, round, 
naked, except at the top. Leaves broadly ovate, or elliptical, 
acute, pliant, smooth, with 3 principal ribs, and many veins, 
stalked, spreading horizontally, usually 4, rarely 3, or 5, of a 
dull green. Floater -stalk upright, angular, simple, single- 
flowered, about half the length of the leaves. Cahjx-leaves 3- 
ribbed. Petals narrow and acute. Antti. and styles yellowish. 
Germen violet. EVcry other part of the flower is green, and its 
whole appearance more singular than beautiful. Berry purplish- 
black, reported to be narcotic and dangerous. The roots, ac- 
cording to some apothecaries, quoted by Linnieus m Fl. Lapp., 
are emetic, acting like Ipecacuanha, but requiring to be given 
in twice tlie (pianiity. 

Another species has lately been discovered in Nepaul. See Rees's 
Cyelopccdia, v. 26, Paris polyphylla. 

222. ADOXA. Moschatell. 

Linn. Gen. \[)^. Juss.vm. PI. Br. 4^2. Lam. t. 320. Gtrrtn. 

t. 112. 
Moschatellina. Tourn. t. (J8. 
Nat. Ord. Succideut(V. Linn.l:). .SV/.r///7/.-rr. Juss. 8 1. See 

;/. 22f), 230. 
vol.. n. K 



242 OCTANDRIA— TETRAGYNIA. Elatine. 

Cal, half inferior, in 2 or 3 deep, flat, spreading, permanent 
segments. Cor. of 1 petal, wheel-shaped, in 4 or 5 deep, 
ovate, acute, spreading segments, longer than the calyx. 
Filam. 8 or 10, awl-shaped, the length of the calyx. 
Anth. roundish. Germ, half superior. Styles 4 or 5, 
simple, short, moderately spreading, united at their base, 
which is permanent. Stigmas simple. Berry globose, its 
lower half invested with the permanent calyx, whose seg- 
ments surround the middle part, of 1 cell, pulpy in the 
centre. Seeds 4, ranged round the central pulp, elliptical, 
compressed, each surrounded with a vertical, membranous 
border. 

The tevmmoijlower only is 4-cleft, with 8 stamens ; the rest 
5-cleft ; hence, according to a rule assumed by Linnaeus, 
this genus is placed in Octandria. 

A smooth herh^ of humble growth, with twice ternate leaves^ 
and terminal, capitate, greenjlowers. 

1. A. Moschaiellina. Tuberous Moschatell. 

A. Moschatellina. Linn. Sp. PL 527. mild. v. 2.472. H. Br. 432. 
Engl. Bot.v. 7. 1.453. Curt. Lond.fasc.2.t.26. Hook. Scot. \23. 
Fl. Dan. t. 94. Ehrh. PL Of. 434. 

Moschatellina n. 1005. Hall. Hist. v. \. 429. 

M. foliis Fumarise bulbosae, de qua Cordus. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. I. 
206./. Rail Syn. 267. 

Moschatella. Cord. Hist. 172, 2./. Tillands Ic. 53. f. 

Radix cava minima viridi flore. Ger. Em. 1091./. 

Minimus Ranunculus septentrionalium, herbido muscoso flore. 
Lob. Ic. 674./. 

In groves, thickets, and under shady hedges. 

Perennial. April, May. 

Root of several white, fleshy, imbricated, concave scales, producing 
fibres and runners from their interstices. Stem solitary, erect, 
simple, angular, 3 or 4 inches high. Leaves broadly and un- 
equally lobed and cut ; the radical ones twice ternate, often so- 
litary, on long stalks j stem-leaves ternate, opposite, smaller, 
on shorter stalks. FL pale green, with a musky scent when 
moist, forming a round head, 4 of them being lateral and 5- 
cleft J I terminal, erect, and 4-cleft. The fruii, by Gaertner's 
description, is truly a berry, becoming entirely pulpy as it 
ripens. 

223. ELATINE. Waterwort. 

Linn. Gen. \9S. Juss. 300. FL Br. 433. Lam. t. 320. Gt^rtrt. 
t. 112. 



OCTANDRIA— TETRAGYNIA. Elatine. 243 

Nat. Ord. Cari/ophyllece. Linn. 22. Jiiss. 82. 

Cal. inferior, of 4, or 3, roundish, slighdy concave, rather 
unequal, spreading, permanent leaves. Pet. as many as 
the calyx-leaves, and alternate with them, ovate, obtuse, 
sessile, spreading. Filam. twice as many as the petals, 
and about as long, awl-shaped. Aiith. roundish. Germ. 
superior, large, globular, rather depressed. Styles 4, or 
3, erect, very short. Stigmas simple. Cajis. globose, de- 
pressed, large, of 4, or 3, valves, and as many cells ; the 
partitions alternate with the valves, attached only to the 
ceiitral column. Seeds numerous, erect, oblong, furrowed, 
curved, attached to the column. 

Smooth aquatic herbs, with branched stems ; opposite or 
whorled, simple, entire leaves ; and stalked, axillary, so- 
litary, white or reddish, ^ow^r5. 

1. E. tripetala. Small Watevwort. 

Leaves opposite, rough with minute points. Flowers mostly 
three-cleft. 

E. Hydropiper. 'Engl. Bot, vAA. t.S)'^^. Camp. 63. JVilld. Sp. 
PL V. 2. 473. (S. 

E. triandra. Jlofni. Germ. \S00. 186? 

Alsinastrum serpillifolium, flore roseo tripetalo. Vaill. Par. 5. 
t.2.f.]. 

On the margins of ponds or ditches, in a sandy soil. 

About the eastern shore of Bomere pool, near (^ondovcr, Shropshire. 
Rev. E. Williams. Near Bin Held, Berks. 31 r. T. F. Forster. 

Annual. July, August. 

Roots of many long white fibres, from the base, and lowermost 
joints, of the stems, which are decumbent, alternately branched, 
leafy, angular, smooth, pale and pellucid, 2 or 3 inches, at most, 
in length. Leaves o))posite, on short stalks, elliptical, or ob- 
ovate, more or less obtuse, entire, single-ribbed, or obscurely 3- 
ribbed, scarcely ^ of an inch long ; rough, more or less, on the 
upj)er side, with minute, i)rominent, cartilaginous points. Sd- 
j)ul(is none. Flower-stalks axillary, solitary, alternate, simple, 
naked, single-flowered, erect, about the length of the leaves. 
Flowers small, generally 3-cleft, with G stamens and 3 sti/les, here 
and there d -cleft, with 8 stamens and \ sti/lcs. Ca I i/.v- leaves 
fleshy, green, somewhat unequal. /V^ roundish, slightly pointed, 
concave, inflexed, reddish, or ])ale flesli-coloured, smaller than 
the calyx. .S7^/;«. awl-shapeil, incurved, not longer than the pe- 
tals. Anth. yellow. Caps, of as many cells and valves as there are 
styles. Steils oblong, obtuse, furrowed, and transversi-ly stri- 
ated, as re])resented by (Jiertner in E. Alsinastrum ; a plant long 
believed, on the authority of Dillenius, to be a native of England ; 

R 2 



244 OCTANDRIA— TETRAGYNIA. Elatine. 

for who would have supposed so great a botanist could have 
confounded it with Centunmlus minimus, as is proved by his 
herbarium at Oxford ! 
At Mr. Forster's persuasion, I have, like Vaillant, separated this 
from the true E. Hydropiperoi Linnaeus j which is Vaillant's t. 2. 
/. 2, a larger plant, with smooth leaves, and 4-cleft, octandrous, 
w\{\i& flowers, generally, if not always, growing entirely under 
water, and not yet observed in England. Ours may possibly be 
E. triandra of Schkuhr and Hoffmann -, but I have never seen 
fev^er than 6 stamens, and therefore their name is not unexcep- 
tionable ; neither is their specific character, of the opposite 
flowers, ever observable in English specimens. Linnseus consi- 
dered both Vaillant's plants as one species j but, by his syno- 
nyms in Fl. Suec. the Swedish plant is Vaillant's/. 2. Both are 
preserved in his herbarium, but without any place of growth 
attached to either. 



Class IX. ENNEANDRIA. Stam. 9. 



Order 1. IIEXAGYNIA. PhtihC). 

22+. BUTOMIIS. Oil. 0. Pel. 6. Caps. 6, with many 
seeds. 



ENNEA^DPxIA IIEXAGYNIA, 

224. BUTOMUS. Flowcring-rush. 

Linn. Gen. 201. Juss. 46. Ft. Br. 430. Tourn. t. 143. !«/;». 
<. 324. 6'rt?r<n. i. 19. 

Nat. Ord. Tvipdaloidccc. Linn. 5. J/^;?c/. Juss. 1 3. 

CW. none. Fct. 6, ovate, concave, witherinnr; the 3 outer- 
most smallest, and most acute. Filam. avvl-blmped, shorter 
than the corolla, 6 in the outer row, 3 in the iimer. Anfh. 
()blon«r, of 2 cells, each opening lenoihwise, by 2 valves, 
the whole subseciuently contracted into a heart-shaped 
fin;in-e. Grrmcns 6, oblong, the point of each elongated 
into a vertical style, with an abrupt stigma. Caj)S. 6, ob- 
long, taper-pointed, erect, each of 1 cell, and 1 valve, 
bursting at the inner margin. " Seeds numerous, lining 
the capsules, cylindrical, obtuse, furrowed, each with a 
narrow lateral wing; cnibri/o minute, oval, undivided." 
Citcrt}i. 

An a(|uatic lu rb, with radical, linear, triangular leaves, imd 
a siu)j)le, radical, round stalh; bearing a large, bracteated 
umbel., oi" haudsojae Y(1(\ /l(i\:e)S. 

1 . 1^. iiinhcJhitus. Common Flowering-rush. 



246 ENNEANDRIA— HEXAGYNIA. Butomus. 

Engl Bot. V. 10. ^.651. Curt. Lond.fasc. 1 . t. 29. Hook. Scot. 
123. FLDan.t.604. Ehrh. Calam,''77. 

Butomus. Ccesalp. 553. Rail Syn.273. 

B. n. 1 186. Hall. Hist. v. 2. SO. 

Jiincus floridus, Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 384./. Camer. Epit. 781. f. 
Blair s Bot. Ess. 215. 

J. floridus major. Bauh.Pin. 12. Theatr. 189./. 

J. cyperoides floridus paludosus. Lob. Ic. 86./. 

Gladiolus palustris Cordi. Ger. Em. 29, 3./ 

In ditches, and the margins of rivers, on a gravelly soil. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root tuberous, horizontal. Herb smooth, cellular, half immersed 
in water. Leaves erect, narrow, acute, near a yard high. Stalk 
solitary, still taller, round and very smooth. Umbel 4 inches, 
or more, in diameter, interspersed with many lanceolate, brown- 
ish bracteas. El. very handsome, rose-coloured, erect, each 
about an inch broad, without scent. Blair, in the book above 
quoted, calls the 3 outer petals a calyx ; but the whole 6 are 
permanent, and so firmly connected, that perhaps they had 
better all be termed a coloured calyx. 



Class X. DECANDRIA. Sfam. 10. 

Order I. MO^OGYNIA. Pistil I. 

* Fi. polypetaloiis. 

225. MONOTROPA. Pet. 10, or 8 ; 5, or 4, outermost 

protuberant at the base. Anthers of 1 cell, and 2 
valves. 

228. PYROLA. Pet, 5. Antli. of 2 cells, with 2 pores. 
** PL monopetalous, equal. 

226. ANDROMEDA. Cor. ovate, or bell-shajied. Caps. 

of 5 cells. 

227. ARBUTUS. Cor. ovate, transparent at the base. 

Berry of 5 cells. 

Vacc'mium \, 2. Menziesia 1. 



Order II. DIG YNIA . Pistils 2 . 

231. SCLERANTHUS. Cor. 0. Cr//. of 1 leaf. Seeds 2. 

229. CHRYSOSPLENIUM. Cor. 0. Cr//. coloured. 

Caps, with 2 beaks. *S^^<'/6' niuiierous. 

230. SAXIFRAGA. P^/'. 5. Cat. in 5 deep segments. 

Caps, with 2 beaks. ^St^^r/^ numerous. 

232. SAPONARIA. Pet. 5. Cat. tubular, without an- 

gles, of 1 leaf, naked at the base. Caps, oblong. 

233. DIANTHUS. Pet. 5. Cat. tubular, of 1 leaf, with 

scales at the base. CajJS. oblong. 



Order ITT. TRIGY^TA. Pistils 3, 

236. ARENARIA. Caps, of 1 cell. Pet. undivided, 
spreading. 



%^ 



248 



235. STELLA RI A. Ccq)s. of J cell. Pet. deeply cloven, 
spreading. 

237. CHERLERIA. Caps, of 1 cell. Glands 5 at the 
base of the stamens. Pet. 0. 

234^. SILENE. Caps, of 3 incomplete cells. Pet. with 
claws ; limb cloven. Cal. of 1 leaf. 



Order IV. PENTAGYNIA. Pistils 5. 

238. COTYLEDON. Capsules 5, each with a scale at 

the base. Cor. of 1 petal. 

239. SEDUM. Caps. 5, each with a scale at the base. 

Cor. of 5 petals. 

240. OXALIS. Cajjsule of 5 cells, angular. Seeds 2, tu- 

nicated. Pet. connected at the base. 

242. LYCHNIS. Caps, of 5 cells, or of 1, with many 

seeds. Cal. tubular, membranous. 

241. AGROSTEMMA. Caps, of 1 cell. Cal. tubular, 

coriaceous. 

243. CERASTIUM. CajJS. of 1 cell. Cal. of 5 leaves. 

Pet. cloven. 

244. SPERGULA. Caps, of 1 cell. Cal. of 5 leaves. 

Pet. undivided. 

Stellar ia 6, 7. Adoxa, 



'2i9 



DECA^DRIA MONOGYhUA, 
225. MONOTROPA. Bird's-nest. 

Linn. Gen.2\4. Juss. 430. Fl. Br. 440. Lam. f. 362. 
Hypopitys. Dill. Gen. 134. t. 7. 

Niit. Orel, undetermined by Linn., Juss., and DeCandolle. 
Monotropccc. Nuttall Gen. v. 1. 272. But this still leaves 
its natural affinity in the dark. It cannot be identified 
with Ericce, in character or habit : the ingenious Mr. Nut- 
tall has, however, traced its affinity to Pijrola. The an- 
thers differ from Ericce as widely as those of the Epacri- 
decu of Brown, and somewhat in the same manner. 

Cal. none. Pet. 10, or 8, inferior, obovate-oblong, erect, 
parallel ; serrated in the upper part, deciduous ; the 5, or 

4, outermost largest, elongated and concave at the base, 
bearing honey internally ; 5, or 4, alternate interior ones 
smallest, tapering and flat at the base. Fllam, 10, or 8, 
erect, linear, flattish, shorter than the corolla ; 5, or 4, 
alternate ones rather the smallest. Aiith. kidne\'-shaped, 
erect, of 1 cell and 2 valves. Germ, superior, ovate, with 

5, or 4, furrows. Style cylindrical, short, erect. StigJiia 
orbicular, peltate. Caps, ovate, with 5, or 4, furrows, 
and as many cells and valves, with a partition from the 
centre of each valve ; and a spongy central colunm of as 
many angles. Seeds very numerous, minute, oval, each 
envelopetl in a membranous reticulated tu?itCy greatly elon- 
gated at both ends. 

The terminal^otc^r, which in some species is the only one, 
being decandrous, with 10 petals, determines the class, as 
in Adoxa, gen. 222. 

Parasitical lierbs, of a pale unitbrm hue, having a simple, 
scaly, rather than leafy, stem ,- allied in habit, at least, 
to Or()f)nnchc ; to some ol' the Orchis trilx.' in peculiarity 
of scent, and in seeds. 

1. M. Ht//)(tj)ili/s. Yellow Biid'b-ncst. 

Flowers in a droo})ing cluster ; laternl ones with eight sta- 
mens ; terminal one with ten. 

M. Ilvivjpitys. Linu. Sp. Pi. r):»5. li'ilUl. v. •J..");;i. /7. lir. \\0. 
Iji'^I. lioi.r. I. /. f)!). Hni>k. Loinl.f. J05. .bVo/. I-M. /xV//(. l(j I. 
I'/, Dan. I. 232. Llnh. rin/l. II. 



250 DECANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Andromeda. 

Hypopitys n. 1002. Hall. Hist. v. 1.427. 

H. lutea. Rail Syn/6\7 . 

Orobanche quae Hypopitys dici potest. Baiih. Fin. 88. Prodr. 31. 

O. Hypopitys lutea. Mentz. Pugill. t.3. Moris, v. 3. 503. sect. 12. 
^.16./. 13. 

O. flore breviore duplici, Verbasculi odore. Moris, v. 3. 504. n. 20. 

O. Verbasculi odore. " Plot Oxf. 146. t. 9./. 6." Pluk. Almag. 273. 
Phyt. t.209.f.5. 

About the roots of beeches and firs, in woods, but not common. 

Frequent in the counties of Oxford, Bedford, Buckingham and 
Berks. Huds. In Stoken-church woods. Rmj. In Sussex. Mr. 
Manningham. Near Tring, Hertfordshire. Mr. Doody. Near 
Uley, Gloucestershire. Pev. Mr. Baker. In a fir wood at Shot- 
tisham, near Stoke, Norfolk. Mr. Crowe. In Madingley planta- 
tions, Cambridgeshire. Relhan. About Box hill, Surrey. Mr. 
Graves. In some dry beech and fir woods in Scotland. Light- 
foot. 

Perennial. June. 

Root fibrous, much branched, and somewhat creeping, growing 
among dead leaves, or in half-decayed vegetable mould ; but I 
could never find it truly parasitical, any more than Mr. Graves ; 
though the uniform pallid hue of the plant indicates it to be so. 
Herb succulent, smooth, straw-coloured, turning quite black 
when dry, and exhaling, during that process, a very sweet and 
peculiar scent, approaching that of Vanilla, the flowers of Or- 
chis nigra (Safyrium nigrum Linn.), the roots of Corallorrhiza, 
or other fragrant Orchidecc. Stem mostly solitary, simple, 5 or 
6 inches high, round, beset with scattered ovate scales rather than 
leaves. Cluster terminal, bent downwards while young, at length 
erect, of several^0M;er5, accompanied by bracteas like the scales 
of tlie stem. Petals closed, a little spreading at the tips, 8 only 
in each flower, except the terminal one, which has 1 0. Stamens 
as many as the petals, and more lasting, often hairy. The 
smaller petals, which exist likewise in the American M. lanugi- 
nosa, having perhaps fallen from Professor Hooker's specimen, 
may account for his figure and description not agreeing with 
what I have seen, and what Linnseus and Dillenius accurately 
describe. The anthers in our plant have, as Dr. Hooker says, 
but 1 cell J those of the single-flowered species seem differently 
constructed. 
Haller refers to Rivinus, Tetrap. Irr., for his Hypopitys ,• but I find 
no traces of it. Willdenow merely copies him, or rather perhaps 
Reichard. 

226. ANDROMEDA. Andromeda. 

Linn. Gen. 219. Juss. 160. Fl. Br. 441. Lam. t. 365. Gartn. t. 63 

«wrfl78. 
Nat. Ord. Bicornes, Linn. 18. Ericce, Juss. 51. 



DECANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Aiidronieda. 251 

Cal. inferior, small, coloured, permanent, in 5 deep, acute 
segments. Cor. of 1 petal, ovate or bell-sliaped ; the limb 
in 5 small, reflexed segments. Filam. 10, awl-shaped, 
shorter than the corolla, and scarcely attached to its base. 
Anth. incumbent, of 2 oval cells, opening by 2 terminal 
pores, surmounted by a pair of horns. Germ, roundish, 
widi 5 furrows. Style terminal, cylindrical, longer than 
the stamens, permanent. Stigma obtuse, notched. Caps. 
roundish, with 5 angles, 5 cells, bursting at the angles, 
and 5 valves with partitions from their centre. Seeds nu- 
merous, roundish, polished. 

S/irubs, with simple, mostly evergreen, leaves, and solitary 
or aggregate, white or reddish, drooping Jloivers. 

1. K. polifoVia. Marsh Andromeda. Wild Rose- 
mary. 

Clusters terminal. Leaves alternate, lanceolate, revolute ; 
glaucous beneath. 

A. polifolia. Linn. Sp. PL d64. Fl. Lapp. cd. 2.\3\.t.l.f. 2. 

Willd.v. '2. 610. Fl.Br. 44]. Engl. Bot. v. ]0. t.7\3. Hook: 

Scot. 125. Fl. Dan. t. 54. Pall. Rosa. v. J . p. 2. 53. t.7\. 
A. n. 1017. Hall. Hi^t.v.l. 434. 
Polifolia. Buxb. Comm. Petrop. v. 2. {ann. 1/27.) 345. Cent. 5.28. 

/.55./. 1. 
Ledum palustrc nostras, arbiUi flove. Raii Syn.472. 
\'iti Iclaeae aflinis, polifolia montana. Bauh. Hist. v. I. p. 1. 525./, 
Erica palustris, florc purpurasccnte ])cndulo, petiolo longo rubro, 

rorismarini folio. Rudb. Jet. Siitc. ann. 1720. 97. 
E. humilis, rorismarini foliis, unedonis florc, capsula cisloide. Pluk. 

Almag. 136. Phyt. t. \75.f. 1. 

Dn mossv peat bogs, in the mountainous parts of England and 
Ireland, and the low-lands of Scodand. 

Shrub. June. 

A most elegant, smooth, evergreen shrub, scarcely a span high, 
with alternate, rigid, round, leafy branches. Leaves irregularly 
seattered, on short stalks, elliptic-lanceolate, acute, various in 
breadth, strongly revolute ; of a dark blueish green above j 
very glaucous, with a prominent rib, beneath. Stipulas none. 
Clusters somewhat umbellate, with white or reddish, brae teated 
stalks. /•'/. pe!ululous, nearly globular, of a delieate blush-co- 
lour. Capa. erect. 

A very interesting account of this charming plant is given in Lin 
nwus's Lapland Tour, v. 1. 188. See also Hooker, Scot. 126. 



2j2 DECANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Aibuliis. 

227. ARBUTUS. Strawberry-tree. Bear- 
berrv. 
Linn. Gen. 220. Jass. 160. FL Br.4A\. Tourn. ^368. Lam. <.3()6. 

Gcvrin. t..b9. 
Uva uvsi. Tourn. t. 370. 

Nat. Ord. see n. 226. 

Cal. inferior, of 1 leaf, small, in 5 deep obtuse segments, 
permanent. Cor. of 1 petal, ovate, rather flattened and 
transparent at the base ; the limb in 5 small, recurved, 
bhmtish segments. Filam, slightly attached to the base 
of the corolla, and about half its lengdi, awl-shaped, swell- 
ino- in the middle. Anih. incumbent, of 2 oval cells, open- 
m<r by 2 terminal pores, and bearing a pair of short horns, 
or spurs. Germ, superior, roundish, seated on an orbi- 
cular ten-dotted receptacle. Stijle terminal, cylindrical, 
erect, the length of the corolla. Stigma obtuse. Beirj/ 
globular, of 5 cells. Seeds small, angular, bony ; in Ar- 
butus of Tournefort numerous ; in his Uva itrsi solitary in 
each cell. 

Trecsj or trailing shrubs^ with alternate, evergreen, simple, 
mostly serrated, leaves. Pubescence, if any, bristly. FL 
clustered, white or reddish, drooping. Berries various, 
black or red, smooth or tuberculated, more or less mealy, 
not very wholesome. 

1, A. Uncdo. Common Strawberry-tree. 

Stem arboreous. Leaves smooth, blundy serrated. Pani- 
cle terminal. Berry with many seeds. 

A. Unedo. Lm/i. % PZ. 5G6. Suppl. 238. milcLv.2. C)\6. FL 
Br. 442. Engl. Bot. r.34. t. 2377. 

Arbutus. Rail Sijn. 464. Ger. Em. 1496./. Matth. Valgr. v. 1. 
24.5. /. Gamer. Epit. 168./. Dod. Pempt. 803./. 804. Bauh. 
Hist.v. \.p. 1.83./. 

A. folio sei-rato. Bauh. Pin. 460. Mill. Ic. 32. t. 48./. 2. 

On limestone rocks in Ireland. 

About the lake of Killarney plentifully. Mr. Crowe. 

Tree. September. 

A bushy tree, of very great size in Crete and the Levant ; the 
young shoots often red, and rough with glandular hairs. Bark 
of the main stem reddish-brown, the external layers coming off 
in thin flakes. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, unequally serrated, 
bright green, veiny, rigid, on hairy footstalks, without stipulas. 
Clusters panicled^ bent downwards, smooth, Bracteas oblong. 



DECANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Arbutus. 253 

solitary under each partial stalk, recurved. FL very elegant, of 
a greenish, semitransparent white, with a shade of red, destitute 
of scent. Berrij crimson, the size of a cherry, very like a straw- 
berry, being covered with hard tubercles, but the' seeds are in- 
ternal. This fruit is insipid, and scarcely eatable in England ; 
but in the Levant it is said to be much larger, and more'agree- 
able as well as wholesome. It is 12 months in arriving at per- 
fection. 

2. A. alpiaa. Black Bear-berry. 

Stems procumbent. Leaves rugged, serrated. Clusters 
terminal. 

A. alpina. Linn. Sp. PL 566. ^'illd. v.2. 6\S. FL Br. 442 En^d 
BoLv. 29.1.2030. Lighff. 215. t. \].f. n,]). Hook. ScoL \2G. 
FLDan. t.73. 

A. n. 1019. Hall. Hist, v. 1. 436. 

Vitis Idasa. CI us. Hist. v.\.6\.f. 

V. Idsea fructu nigro. Bank. Hist. v. ].p. 1. 519./. 

Vaccinia pannonica, sive Vitis Idaea. Ger. Em. 1410. f. 

On stony mountainous heaths. 

Not uncommon on the most dry and barren moors of Scotland, 

Shrub. Mil!/. 

Stems woody, trailing, spreading extensively, round, with a deci- 
duous bark. Leaves deciduous, alternate, stalked, obovate, ser- 
rated, reticulated with copious veins, smooth, except some mar- 
ginal hairs at the entire part near the base ; withering and pal- 
lid before they fall. FL u^hite, in short terminal clusters. Brac- 
teas solitary at the base of each flower-stalk, concave, reddish, 
fringed. Cor. hairy about the mouth, ^nth. with very short 
terminal herns. lierri/ smooth, black, of the size and flavour of 
black currants. 

Hay and Ddlenius did not well distinguish the synonyms of this 
plant from the following ; nor are C. Bauhin's references all 
correct, under his Fitis fdcea foliis ohiongis albicauHbiis, Pi)t(u- 
470, where he confounds it with f'nccinium idiginosum. 

3. A. Uva urs'i. lied Bear-berry. 

Stems procumbent. Leaves obovate, entire. Clusters ter 
minal. 

A. Uva ursi. Linn.Sp. PL :')66. FL Lapp. e<i.2. I"9. / (5 f '\ 
mild. V. 2. f) 1 8. FL Br. 44:i. En-L But. v. 1 0. /. 7 N. m\odr ' 
Med. Bot. f. 70. Light/. 2]6.t.\\.f.c,d. Hook. Scot. \26. Ft 
Dan. f. :i.3. 

A. n. 10 IS. HalL Hist. v. 1.434. 

Vaccinia rubra, folii.s myrtinis crisjjis. !)I,ri. Pin. \2:\ liaii Sijn. 
4')7 ; the synonyms confused. 



254 DECANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Pyrola. 

V. ursi, sive Uva ursi apud Clusiuni. Ger. Em. 1416./. 
Uvaursi. Clus. Hist. v. 1.63. f. Lob. Obs. 547./. /c.366./. Gi- 

rard. Obs. W.t.l. 
Vitis Idsea, foliis carnosis et veluti punctatis. Bauh. Pin. 470. 

On dry stony alpine heaths. 

Four riiiles from Heptonstall near Widdop, on a great stone by the 
river Gorlpe, Lancashire. Merrett. Shown to Ray, on the same 
spot, by T. Willisel. R. Sijn. Common throughout the High- 
lands, and \'l'estern Isles, of Scotland • also in the isle of Mull, 
at the end next Y-Columb-kill, for the space of several miles, 
(w^here it was observed by Mr. Lhwyd) ; and at the top of East- 
Common-Wood, a mile from Hexham, Northumberland. Light- 
foot. Sent from Durham, by the Rev. Mr. Harriman and Mr. 
Oliver. 

Shrub. June. 

Stems woody, round, branched, long and trailing, with a smooth 
bark. . Leaves alternate, stalked, obovate, obtuse, entire, thick 
and rigid, veiny, evergreen ; convex and wrinkled above -, con- 
cave and paler beneath j their edges very minutely downy. 
Scales of the buds lanceolate, acute, permanent. Siipidas none. 
Clusters terminal, short, drooping, with many acute, coloured 
bracteas. Flower-stalks angular. Segments of the cali/x pale, 
often fringed. Cor. rose-coloured, smooth. Berry globose, de- 
pressed, scarlet, mealy within, very austere and astringent, left 
untouched by birds. Seeds seldom more than 4 or 5 perfected, 
though there are rudiments of 8 or 10, so that the character of 
Tournefort's genus Uva Ursi, as given by Linnaeus in Gen. PL, 
does not hold good. 

228. PYROLA. Winter-green. 

Linn. Gen.22\. Juss. \Q\. Fl. Br. 443. Tourn. t. 132. Lam. 

t. 367. Gartn. t. 63. 
Nat. Ord. Bicornes. Linn. 18. Ericae. Juss. 51. Akin to 

Monotropecc. Niitt. Gen. 272. Hook. Scot. jp. 2. 231. 

Cal. inferior, of one leaf, in 5 deep, permanent segments. 
Petals 5, roundish, concave, spreading. Filam. awl- 
shaped, curved, variously directed, shorter than the co- 
rolla. Anth. large, pendulous, of 2 cells, each opening 
by a round pore at the summit. Germ, superior, round- 
ish, 5-lobed. Style cylindrical, longer than the stamens, 
variously directed, permanent. Stigma tumid, somewhat 
annular, notched. Caps, orbicular, depressed, with 5 
angles, 5 cells, 5 valves, and 5 partitions from the central 
column, opposite to the centres of the valves, and alter- 
nate with the angles where the cells burst ; receptacles 5, 
from the central column, compressed, akernate with the 



DECANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Pyrola. 255 

partitions. Seeds very numerous, covering the receptacles, 
minute, oval, each in a membranous tunic, elongated at 
both ends. 
Roots creeping, perennial. Stems herbaceous, or somewhat 
woody, short, depressed, angular, leafy; sometimes 
branched. Leaves simple, undivided, stalked, smooth, 
veiny, evergreen. FL one, or most frequently several, on 
a solitary, upright, tall, angular stalk, white or reddish, 
very elegant, and often highly fragrant. One American 
species has no leaves. See llees's Cyclop, v. 29. The 
whole genus is astringent and tonic. 

1. P. rottindifoUa. Hound-leaved Winter-green. 

Stamens ascending. Style twice as long, declining and re- 
curved. Cluster many-flowered. Calyx as long as the 
stamens. 

P. rotundifolia. Linn. Sp. PL b67. TViUd. v.2. 62\. FL Br. 444. 
EngL But. V. 3. t. 213. Hook. Lond. L 2G. Scot. 127. Lam.f. 1 . 

P. rotundifolia major. Bauh. Pin. 191. Moris, r. 3. 504. sect. 12. 
t. 10./. 1. 

P. n. 1010. HalLUist.v. 1.431. 

Pvrola. Rail Sijn. 2G3. Riv. Pentap. Irr. t. 136./. 2. Ger. Em. 
'408./ Matth. falgr. v. 2. 331 . f. Camer. Epit. 723./ Bauh. 
Hist. V. 3. p. 2. 535./ Dalech. Hist. 841./ 2. 

P. vulgatior. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 1 IG./ Moris, sect. 12. t. 10./ 1, 
excluding the fruit. 

Limonium. Fuchs. Hist. 467. f. 

L. sylvestre. Trag. Hist. 707- f. 

In bushy places, and in dry heathy woods, but rare. 

About Halifax, Yorkshire, in several places. Roy. On a common 
at Bradvvell, near Gorlestone, Suffolk. Mr. Lily ll'igg. In a 
wood atMiddleton, Suffolk ■ Mr. Davy. Hooker. In dry woods 
and sometimes upon heaths, in the Highlands of Scotland. 
Light/., though rare in the Lowlands, according to Mr. D. Don. 
Hook. Scot. This species is found on the opposite coast of Hol- 
land, in situations exactly similar to that where it once grew at 
Bradvvell, but wiiere it is no longer to be seen. 

Perennial. July, August. 

The largest of its genus, tliough variable in size. Leaves 4 or 5, 
for the most part nearly orbicular, an inch broad, or more, very 
obscurely, as well as l)luntly, notched, a little decurrent into the 
long, slightly horiWrvd footstalks ; the upper surface especially 
very smooth and sinning, finely reticulated with veins. Flower- 
stalk a span high, triangular, a little twisted, bearing a few 
scattered scaly Lractcas, and terminating in an {)l)long, erect, 
simple c/«a/<';-, of numerous, rather dro(»})ing. pure white, fragrant 



256 DECANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Pyrola. 

Jlowers, spreading in every direction, each with a lanceolate, 
concave, membranous, brown bractea, at the base of its partial 
stalk, and not quite so long. Stam. all turned upwards, and 
crowded together. Anth. oblong, yellow ; the pores somewhat 
tubular, but not much elongated. Germ en deeply 5-lobed. Shjle 
club-shaped, twice the length of the stamens, and bent down- 
ward, in a contrary direction to them, though recurved at the 
extremity. Stigma large, annular, with a central protuberance, 
having 5 notches. Caps, orbicular, 5-lobed, umbilicated and 
depressed, of the diameter of a large pea. 
I have never seen i\\Qjiov:ers otherwise than snow-white, without 
any yellowish tinge, the latter belonging rather to P/ mediae 
often mistaken for rotnmUfolla. 

2. P. media. Intermediate Winter-green. 

Stamens regularly inflexed. Style twice as long, deflexed. 
Cluster of many pendulous flow^ers. Calyx shorter than 
the stamens. 

P. media. Swartz in Stockh. Trans, for 1804. 257. t. 7.f. 1. IVinch 
Guide V. 2. 19. Ejigi. Bot. v. 28. t. 1945. Camp. 65. Hook. Lond. 
t.SO. Scot. 127. 

P. rotundlfolia. Fl. Dan. t.WQ. 

Pyrola. Best. Hort. Eijst. cestiv. ord. 5. f. 11./. 1 . 

In woods in the North, rare. 

In Scot's wood Dean, 3 miles west of Newcastle j also in East- 
common wood, near Hexham ; Northumberland ; and some 
woods 4 miles north of Wolsingham, Durham. Mr. IVinch. In 
Wyre forest, near Bewdley. Dr. Prailnton. Near Forres, in 
woods belonging to the Earl of Moray. Hooker. I suspect also 
that this may be the Pyrola of Stolen -church woods, and other 
part^ of Oxfordshire, generally taken for the minor, and planted 
by Mr. Lightfoot in the wood at Bulstrode. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Nearly as large as the preceding, and the leaves are as commonly 
orbicular, but rather more disposed to be serrated. Flowerstalk 
triangular, more spirally twisted, with pendulous, less expanded, 
and smaller j^ozt'cr^, whose corolla is milk-white, with a delicate 
pink tint at the margin. The calyx is shorter. Stam. all regu- 
larly incurved round the germen, not directed to the upper side 
of the flower. Anth. greenish ; broad and tawny about their 
pores. Stijle club-shaped, declining, but not recurved. Stigma 
large, annular j convex and notched in the centre, projecting a 
little beyond the corolla, and, when accompanying the ripe cap- 
sule, almost straight, though still deflexed. 

There can be no doubt that this species has formerly been mistaken 
in Britain, sometimes for the foregoing, sometimes for the fol- 
lowing, nor are characters wanting to excuse such errors, 



DECANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Pyrola. 257 

3. P. minor. Lesser Winter-green. 

Stamens regularly inflexed. Style the same length, straight. 
Stigma five-lobed, pointless, without a ring. Cluster of 
many drooping flowers. 

P. minor. Linn. Sp. PL 567. IVilld. v. 2. G2i. Fl. Br. 444. Engl. 
Bot. V. 3. t. 158, bud. Hook. Scot. 128. Fl. Dan. t. 55. Riv. 
Pentap. In: t. \3G.f. 1. Dill, in Raii %/?. 303. 

P. rosea. Engl. Bot. v. 30*. t. 2543. 

P. n. 1009. Hall. Hist. V. 1.431. 

P, VLilgatior, the fruit only. Moris, sect. 12. t. 10./. 1 . 

In mossy woods and thickets, in mountainous situations. 

At Studley, Yorkshire, and Corra Linn. Mr. Winch. Common in 
many parts of Durham. Mr. J. Backhouse. Woods near Brodie. 
house. Mr. Brodie. At the falls of Clyde, and many other places 
in Scotland. Professor Hooker. 

Perennial. July. 

Smaller than either of the foregoing, with more elliptical, crenate 
leaves. Stalk with 4 angles, one of which is smaller than the 
rest, seldom spiral, or but slightly so, furnislied with a few scaly 
bracleas, cliiefly at the lower part. Cluster long and slender, 
sometimes lax, or interrupted. Floivers drooping in every di- 
rection. Segments of the cabjx short, broad, and acute. Petals 
pale pink, orbicular, converging. Stam. all equally inflexed. 
^nth. nearly terminal, dilated and- yellowish upward, with 2 
large pores. Sfi/le cylindrical, short, straight. Stigma large, 
with 5 radiating lobes, but no central points, nor any annular 
projection underneath them, by which this is clearly distinguished 
from tlie two last. The valves of the capsule are connected by 
a web in all the three species. The errors and uncertainties to 
wliich /. 15S of Engl. Bot. gave rise (see t. 2543 of the same 
work), and which were augmented by a specimen of P. minor 
having been sent from Sweden for media, 1 iiave, S years since, 
corrected in Hees's Cyclopccdia ; and the remarks of my worthy 
friend Professor Hooker, in Fl. Scot., leave no doubt remaining. 
His excellent figure of P. media in Fl. Lond. and Mr. Sowerby's 
in Engl. Bot. i. 1945, are sufficient to prevent any future mis- 
understanding of that species, whose annular stigma accords 
witli P. rotundifolia, and not at all vvitii minor. Dr. Swartz's 
P. chlorantha, figured in the Stockh. Trans, for 1810. t. 5, and 
in Ric. Pentap. Irr. t. 138./". 1, may possibly be detected here- 
after in Britain. Dr. Hooker's plate of P. rotundifolia answers 
to it in the shortness of t!ie cali/r, and colour of ihcjiower. 

4. P. sccmtda. Serrated Winter-green. 

Leaves ovate, acute, .serrated. Flowers drooping, unilateral. 
Pores of the anthers dilated. Style straight. Stigma fi\e- 
lohed. 

vol.. II. :^ 



25S DECANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Pyrola. 

P. secunda. Linn. Sp. PL 567. WiUd. v. 2. 621. Fl. Br. 445. 

Engl. Bot. V. 8. ^ 517. Dicks. H. Sice. fuse. 5. 8. Hook. Scot. 

127. Fl.Dan. t. 402. 
P. n. 1008. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 430. 

P. folio mucronato serrato. Bauh. Pin. 191. Raii Syn. 363. 
P. folio mucronato. Riv. Pentap. Irr. i. 138./. 2. 
P. folio serrato. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 536./. 
P. secunda tenerior. Clus. Pann. 505. t. 506. Hist. v. 2. 117./. 

Ger. Em.40S.f. 
Ambrosia montana. Dalech. Hist. 1 148./. 

In mossy alpine woods. 

In Yorkshire. Ray. In many fir or birch woods in Scotland. 
Light/. Hooker. Near Moffat. Rev. Dr. Walker. On the hill 
of Dunnairn, in Darnway forest, near Brodie house. Mr. Brodie. 

Perennial. July. 

Stems branched and tufted, rather straggling. Leaves ovate, veiny, 
finely and sharply serrated. Stalk a finger's length, bearing 
several lanceolate bracteas, and a rather dense cluster of white, 
fragrant, drooping^oit^er^, all turned to one side. Segments of 
the calyx triangular, minutely jagged, or downy, at the edges. 
Pet. much longer, converging. Stam. all equally incurved; 
finally straight, when the pores of the anthers, at first directed 
downward, become vertical. Style straight, longer than the 
corolla. Stigma large, somewhat annular, externally convex, 
with 5 large, radiating, originally channelled, lobes. Valves of 
the capsule connected by a fine web. 

5. P. unijiora. Single-flowered Winter-green. 

Stalk single-fl(wered. Pores of the anthers contracted, 

tubular. Stigma with five pointed rays. 
P. uniflora. Li«w.5p. PL568. Willd. v. 2. 022. Fl. Br. 446. Engl. 

Bot. V. 3. t. 146. Hook. Scot. 127. Fl.Daii.t.S. Ehrh.Phy- 

toph. 54. 
P. n. 1011. Hall.Hist.v. 1.431. 
P. flore singulari. Riv. Pentap. Irr. t. 139./ 1. 
P. quarta minima. Clus. Pann. 508. t. 509. Hist. v. 2. 1 18./ Ger. 

Em. 408./ 
P. minima alpina. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 536./ 

In alpine woods, by the sides of trickling rills. 

Gathered about the year 1783, by Mr. James Hoggan, in the 
western isles of Harris and Bernera. Mr. Gotobed. In a fir 
wood near Brodie house, by Forres. Mr. Brodie, and Mr. James 
Hoy. 

Perennial. July. ^ ^ 

Root creeping, slender. Stems an inch or two long, reclmmg, 
simple, densely leafy. Leaves ovate, or roundish, acute, sharply 
serrated, stalked, veiny, quite smooth like every other part. 



DECANDRIA— DlGYNfA. Clirysosplenium. 259 

Stalk 3 inches long, erect^ usually bearing one concave bractea, 
and a solitary, large, very elegant, white, or slightly reddish, 
Jlower, near an inch broad, with the sweet and powerful scent 
of the Lily of the Valley. Cal. minutely fringed. Pet. much 
larger, ovate, veiny. Stain, much shorter than the petals, and 
lying upon them. Anth. turgid, inflexed, each with a pair of 
tubular appendages at the base, terminating in the open pores. 
Style stout, erect. Stigma large, slightly annular at the base, 
terminating in .5 large, spreading, pointed rays. The valves of 
the capsule seem to have no connecting web. 
One of the most curious and elegant of British flowers. 



BECA^DRIA DIGYNIA. 

229. CHRYSOSPLENIUM. Golden-saxi- 
frage. 

Linn. Gen. 222. Jmss.309. Fl.Br.447. Toiirn.t. 60. Lam. t. 374. 
Gcertn. t. 44. 

Nat. Ord. SiicadentcE, Linn. Saxifragce. Juss. 84. A^. 222, 
and 230 the same. 

Cal, superior, of 1 leaf, in 4 or 5 deep, unequal, spreading, 
permanent, internally coloured, segments ; the opposite 
ones narrowest. Pt'/. none. iV(?c/. a glandular ring, just 
within the insertion of the stamens. Filam. 8 or 10, awl- 
shaped, erect, very short, from the mouth of the calyx. 
Aiith. roundish, of 2 lobes. Germ, inferior, roundish ; 
prominent at the summit. Styles awl-shaped, spreading, 
the length of the stamens. Stigmas obtuse. Caps, of 1 
cell, and 2 valves, beaked with the permanent styles, and 
surrounded with the calyx turned green. Seeds roundish, 
numerous, small. 

The terminal flower, being generally 5-cleft and decandrous, 
regulates the chiss, as in Adoj-a, ?j. 222. 

Procumbent, slightly hairv, and succulent, /tnhs ,■ with 
stalked, undivicK'il, nolclied, kidney-shaped /^^rrs , and 
small, yellow, corymbose, terminal y/c-iavi. 



260 DECANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Chrysosplenium. 

1 . Ch. ahernifoVium, Alternate-leaved Golden-saxi- 

frage. 

Leaves alternate. 

Ch. alternifolium. Linn.Sp.n.b^'i. mild, v, 2. 637. Fl.Br.Ai7. 

Engl. Bot. V. 1. t. 54. Hook. Scot. 128. Fl. Dan. i. 3(j6. 
Ch. n. 1548. Hall. Hist. V. 2.254. 

Saxifraga aurea, foliis pediculis oblongis insidentibus. Raii Syn. 1 58. 
S. aurea Dodoneei. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 707. f. Dalecli. Hist. 

1113./. 
Sedum palustre luteum majus, foliis pediculis longis insidentibus. 

Moris. V. 3. 477. sect. 12. t. 8./. 8. 
Long Golden Saxifrage. Pet. H. Brit. t.G.f. 10. 

On the borders of shady rivulets, rather rare. 

On Foringland heath, Norfolk j and in many parts of the north of 
England, and Lowlands of Scotland. 

Perennial. Maij. 

Roots fibrous, creeping. Stems angular, decumbent, branched at 
the summit only. Leaves kidney-shaped, with broad abrupt 
notches, rough on both sides with scattered, tubular, jointed 
hairs ; the under side pale and polished ; radical ones on long 
stalks 3 those on the stem few and distant j the rest crowded 
about the top, under the corymbose, almost sessile, deep-yellow 
powers, of which the central, or earliest one, is mostly 5 -cleft, 
and rather the largest, though this is denied by some botanists 
on the continent to be ever the case. See Willdenow. 

2. Q\\. oppositifolmm. Opposite-leaved Golden-saxi- 

frage. 
Leaves opposite. 
Ch.oppositifolium. Lm».%PZ.569. Willd. v. 2. 63^. Fl. Br. 44^^. 

Engl. Bot.v.7. t.490. Curt. Loud. fasc. 2.t. 27. Hook. Scot. J 28. 

Fl. Dan. t. 365. Ehrh. Herb. 135. 
Ch. n. 1549. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 254. 
Saxifraga aurea. Dod. Pempt. 316./. Raii Syn. 158. Ger. Em. 

841./ Lob.Ic.6\2.f. 
S. romanorum. Dalech. Hist. \\\4.f. 
Sedum palustre luteum, foliis subrotundis sessilibus. Moris, v. 3. 

477. sect. \2.t.S.f.7. 
Golden Saxifrage. Pet. H. Brit. t. 6./ 9. 

In watery shady places. 

Perennial. May. 

Paler than the preceding ; the herb about the same size, but the 
leaves are all opposite, smaller, and less abruptly notched. Fl. also 
smaller, and lemon -coloured, all frequently 4-cleft, and octan- 
drous ; but by no means invariably, or generally, destitute of a 
5 -cleft, terminal, or central^ one. See Willdenow. 



DECANDlilA— DIGYNIA. Saxifraga. 261 
230. SAXIFRAGA. Saxifrage. 

Linn. Gen. 223. Juss. 309. FL Br. 448. Sin. in Rees's Ojcl. v.Z\. 

Tourn. t. 129. Lam. t.372. Gartn. t.o6. 
Geum. Tourn. t. 129. 

Nat. Orel, see n, 229. 

CaL inferior, half inferior, or almost perfectly superior, of 1 
leaf, in 5 deep, permanent segments. Pet. 5, attached to 
the calyx, spreading, contracted at the l)a.se, not always 
uniform, deciduous. Filam. 10, attached to the calyx, 
awl-shaped, spreading, successively incumbent, perma- 
nent. Antli. of 2 round lobes. Germ, superior, or more 
or less inferior, roundish or ovate, terminating in 2 short 
spreading styles. Stigmas obtuse, mostly downy. Cajjs. 
nearly ovate, with 2 beaks Ibrmed of the permanent styles, 
and opening between them, of 2, sometiuies incomplete, 
cells, with a central receptacle. Seeds minute, numerous, 
roundish, comjiresscd, covering the receptacle. 

Herbs^ generally perennial, various in habit, often in some 
degree hairy and glutinous, with stalked, simple, undi- 
vided or lobed, leaves. Flowers cither jianicled, rarely 
solitarv, on a long naked stal/c, or corymbose at the top 
of a round leafy stem ,- erect, white, yellow, or purple, 
frecjuently spotted, inodorous. Natives of cool or moun- 
tainous countries. 1 have profited by the arrangement 
of my friend Mr. D. Don, 2): of L. Sue. v. 13, with some 
variations. 

* Calyx rcjiexed^ inferior. Leaves undivided. Floner-stal/iS 
2)atticlcd, erect, much taller than the stems. 

1 . S. Geum. Kidnoy-leaved Saxifrage. 

Leaves roundisli-kidney-shaped, notched, souiewiiat liairy. 
I'\)otstalks linear, channelled, much longer than the leaves. 
Flower-stalk panicled. Cai).sule superior. 

S. Gcum. Linn. Sp. PI. 57 1. fl'i/kl. r. 2. (i4H. En^L Hot. v. 22. 

t. IjGI. Comp. (')'>. 1)0)1 Tr. of L. Soc. v. 13.319. Lapcijr. 

Vijren.v. 1. 4(j. t.'lA. 
S. n. 7 1 . Gmel. Sih. v. 4. I (i 1 . /. (i.'). /. 1 . 
Sanicnia montana rotnnditolia minor. Bauh. Vin. 243. 
Si'duin montauum rotundiloliiini minus album, nun gutlalum. 

iMnris. v. 3. 47H. //. 12 ; no Jii^nic. 
(icum lolio circinalo Jicutc crcnato, pistillo lloiis rubro. Illagnol. 

Ifoif. f. 13 , not i/ir (iesnipfion. 



262 DECANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Saxifraga. 

Round Pride. Pet. H. Brit. t. 6 1 ./. 2. 

/3. Don Tr. of L. Soc. v. 13. 350. Leaves smooth on both sides. 

y. Ibid. Thrice the usual size. Leaves smooth on both sides. Pa- 
nicle more spreading. Petals larger, elegantly spotted. 

Sedum montanum serratum rotundifolium album, guttato flore, 
Moris. V. 3. 477. sect. 12. t. 9./. 12 ? 

On the mountains of Ireland. 

On a mountain near Dingle, county of Kerry. Mr. J. T. Mackay. 
(3 and y from the same neighbourhood. 

Perennial. Jioie. 

The herbage consists of several leafy, evergreen tufts. Leaves nu- 
merous, spreading, rigid, almost orbicular, or rather kidney- 
shaped, being usually broader than long j heart-shaped at the 
base 3 besprinkled on both sides with rigid bristly hairs, which 
however are nearly wanting in both the varieties j the under 
surface reticulated or speckled with purple j the margin regu- 
larly and rather sharply crenate, scarcely cartilaginous, the ter- 
minal or central tooth shorter, and often broader, than the rest. 
Footstalks twice, sometimes four times, the length of the leaves, 
narrow, linear, channelled, densely hairy. Flower-stalks soli- 
tary, hairy, about a span high, panicled in the upper half, with 
numerous, alternate, corymbose, hairy, viscid branches. Brac- 
teas small, linear-spatulate, spreading, hairy, solitary under each 
branch of the panicle, permanent. Ft. small. Segments of the 
calyx ovate, obtuse, reddish, hairy, obscurely 3 -ribbed, strongly 
reflexed as soon as the flower is expanded, permanent. Petals 
narrow-obovate, obtuse, cream-coloured, purplish at the base, 
with a dull yellow stain towards the middle of the disk. Caps. 
ovate, reddish, tipped with the short, brownish, more or less 
divaricated, styles. 

I have long cultivated this species, sent by Mr. Mackay, and find 
it very little variable. The petals have only a solitary spot of 
dull yellow on their disk, and the leaves are constantly purple at 
the back, most hairy on the upper side. Magnol's elegant plate, 
indicated above, answers perfectly to our plant : but his descrip- 
tion, p. 87, agrees better with S, hirsuta, especially as he there 
describes the leaves nearly round, and the petals with bloody 
spots. Mr. Don's and my variety y has 3 or 4 crimson spots 
on each petal, besides a bright yellow stain, and the leaves are 
nearly, not quite, smooth. If they were more hairy, I should 
have no doubt of Morison's/. 12 belonging to this variety ; nor 
indeed do I know what else it can be. Lapeyrouse's t. 24 is 
perhaps most like this y. 

2. S. kirsuta. Hairy Oval-leaved Saxifrage. 

Leaves oval, with sharp cartilaginous notches; slightly hairy; 
heart-shaped at the base. Footstalks linear, much longer 



DECANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Saxifraga. 263 

than the leaves. Panicle somewhat forked. Capsule su- 
perior. 

S. hirsuta. L'mn. Sp. PL 574. milcL v. 2. 647. Engl. Bot. v. 33. 

t. 2322. Conip. 6.5. Don Tr. of L. Soc. r. 13. 351. Lopeyr. 

Pyren. v. 1. 45. ^ 23. 
Sedum bicorne serratum subrotundum spissius virens, floribus 

punctatis. Mom. r.3. 478. sect. 12. i. d.f. 16. 
Geum folio circinato, acut6 crenato, pistillo florls rubro. Magnol. 

IJort. 87 ', dcscr., not ihcjigurc. 
/3. Don as above. Leaves roundish-heart-shaped, smooth on both 

sides. 

On mountains in Ireland, 

In the County of Kerry. Mr. J. T. Mackay. 

Perennial. June. 

Larger than the preceding, leaves roundish-oval, always longer 
than they are broad, with copious, rather acute, cartilaginous 
serratures ; the terminal tooth broad and short ; both surfaces 
almost perfectly smooth in all my specimens ; the under one 
purplish. Footstalks linear throughout, slightly channelled, very 
hairy. Panicle hairy and viscid, much branched, indistinctly 
forked, the earliest powers from the forks, as rej)rcsented in 
Engl. Bot. Calyx, stylcs-iind capsule much like .S. Geum, but 
the petals ^re elliptic-oblong ; mostly purple at the base ; yellow 
just above ; the middle of the disk dotted with crimson ; which 
is distinctly to be seen in the old Linnaean specimens, as well 
as in the Irish ones. The leaves in /3 arc rather rounder, with 
sharj)cr and deeper notches. 

3. S, vmhrchsa. London-pride Saxifrage. None-so- 
pretty. 

Leaves obovate, smooth, with sharp cartilaginous notches; 
tapering at the base into dilated flat footstalks. Panicle 
rather racemose. Capsule su})eiior. 

S. umbrosa. Linn. Sp. PL 574. mild. v. 2. 647. FL Br. 450. 
Engl. Bot. V. 10. /. 663. Don Tr. of L. Soc r. 13. 352. Hook. 
Scot. 121). 

Sedum bicorne serratum, pallidiore folio rotundiore, floribus punc- 
tatis. Moris. V. 3. 478. set. 12. /. 9.f'. 17. 

(ieum folio subrotundo minori. j)islillo floris rubro. Tciirn. Inst. 25 I . 
Magnol Hort.HH. t. 14. 

(j. folio subrotundo majori. pistillo floris rubro. Tourn. ihid. MilL 
If. 94. /. 141. ./; 2. Dill, in Ban Syn. 355. 

Umbilicus Veneris, sivc Cotyledon altera. (Jer. Em. i)2H./. bad, as 
to the leafy btalk, taken from DoHouiEUS, Pcmpt. 131. 

^, punctata. J}(ui as ahovc. .352. Leaves roundish, ^^ith sh;*rp 



264 DECANDRIA—DIGYNIA. Saxifraga. 

tooth-like serratures ; the full-grown ones erect. Footstalks 
elongated. Not <S. punctata of Linnseus or Willdenow. 
y, serratifolia. Don ibid. " Leaves oblong-ovate, with deep serra- 
tures 3 the full-grown ones erect. Footstalks elongated." 

In the clefts of rocks,, and on mountains, in Yorkshire, and several 

parts of Ireland. 
Plentifully on a mountain called the Mangerton, county of Kerry, 
2 miles from Killarney ; Dr. Molyneux ; on the mountains of 
Sligo J Mr. Lhwyd. Rail Syn. On Croagh Patrick, county of 
Mayo, 2666 feet above the level of the sea. Mr. Lambert. Near 
the lake of Killarney, in the greatest abundance ; also in Cork 
and Kerry. Rev. T. Butt. In Thorp Arch woods, near Wetherby, 
Yorkshire. Sir T. Frankland, and Dr. White. Betwixt Arncliffe 
and Horton in Craven. Rev, W. Biiigleij. 
Perennial. June. 

About the size of the last, or larger. Leaves in large, rose-like, 
perennial tufts, smooth, roundish-obovate, with strong, sharp, 
cartilaginous serratures ; the base of each tapering gradually 
down into a broad, flat, nearly smooth, footstalk, at first shorter 
than the leaves, but subsequently becoming sometimes twice 
their length. Common Jiower-stalk round, red and hairy, from 
4 to 6 or 8 inches high. Panicle with several hairy, viscid, 
racemose branches, each bearing 3 or 4 alternate flowers^ not 
forked like the preceding. Cal. small, reddish, obtuse, closely 
reflexed. Pet. obovate-oblong, obtuse, pale flesh-coloured, 
stained with yellow near the base ; more or less covered with 
crimson dots on the disk. Caps, ovate, reddish, entirely supe- 
rior, tipped with the short, nearly upright, styles. 
Mr. Don's variety /3, which 1 have also from Mr. Mackay, is very 
unlike the original Linnsean specimen of S. punctata from Sibe- 
ria. The latter belongs to a different section of the genus, having 
the germen partly inferior ; the calyx broad and hemispherical at 
ihe base, with broad, triangular, spreading or erect, not reflexed, 
segments; and nem\y se^sWe stigmas. Morison's/. 17 is justly 
excluded by Mr. Don from this variety, nor does it belong to the 
true punctata ; but rather to S. umbrosa, which is so common 
in gardens, and bears, like many other mountain plants, even 
the smoke of London, as its English name expresses. The leaves 
in one of Mr. Mackay 's specimens, which may perhaps be Mr. 
Don's y, have small, sharp, intermediate teeth, between the 
cqarse serratiires. 

4. S. stellari^. Starry Saxifrage. 

Leaves elliptic-wedge-shaped, coarsely serrated; tapering 
and entire at the base. Panicle corymbose, of few 
flowers. Capsule superior. 

5, stellaris. Linn. Sp. PL 5/2. mild. v. 2. 644. PL Br. 448. 



DECANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Saxifraga. 265 

Engl. Bot. V. 3. t. 167. Don Tr. of L. Soc. v. 13. 356. Hook. 

Lond. t. 69. Scot. 128. FL Dan. t. 23. Jacq. Coll. v. 1. 202. 

t. 13. Scop. Cam. v. 1. 292. t. 13. 
S.n. 973. Hall. Hist. v.\. 418. 

Geum palustre minus, foliis oblongis crenatis. Rail S?jn. 354. 
Sedum montanum hirsutum, mucronato et dentato folio, flore albo 

guttato. Moris, v. 3. 478. sect. 12. t. O.f. 13. 
Sanicula myosotis alpina, floribus albicantibus, fere umbellatis. 

Plu/c. Almag. 33 1 . Phyt. ^ 58./. 2. t. 222. f. 4. 
Saniculse alpinae aliquatenus affinis. Bank. Hist. v.Z. p. 2. 708./. 
Hairy Pride. Pet. H. Brit. t. 61 ./. 5. 

On wet shady rocks, and by the sides of rivulets, on most of the 
mountains of Wales, Scotland, and the north of England, 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root fibrous, branched at the crown, bearing several short leafy 
stems, or rosaceous tufts, of rather fleshy deciduous leaves, be- 
sprinkled with hairs ; sharply serrated or toothed towards the 
extremity ; wedge-shaped and entire in their lower half j often 
purple beneath. Flower-stalks one or more, axillary or termi- 
nal, 3 — 5 inches high, round, naked, hairy and glutinous. 
Panicle cymose, of a few alternate Jlowers, with 1 or 2 oblong 
bracteas under each division. Cal. closely reflcxed. Pet. ovate 
with a short claw, 3 -ribbed, white, with a pair of transverse 
yellowish spots towards the base. Germen green, purple, or 
white. Styles very short. Caps, brownish, membranous, 2- 
celled, ribbed, smooth. Seeds roundish, rough with longitudinal 
rows of small tubercles. • 

** Cali/x spreading, jiartlij siqierior. Leaves undivided, 
Flcrjoer-stalks radical., paniclcd or tufted, erect. Stem none, 

5. S. nivalis. Clustered Alpine Saxifrage. 

Leaves roiindish-obovate, serrated ; tapering and entire at 

the base. Cluster dense, cajiitate, of lew flowers. Calyx 

spreading. Capsule half inferior. 

S. nivalis. Linn. Sp. PL 573. Ft. Lapp. ed.2. \44. t.2.f. 5. 

mild. V. 2. 645. Fl. Br. 449. Engl. Bot. v. 7. t. 440. Don Tr 

of L. Soc. V. 13. 387. Lighff 22 \. t. 12. Hook. Scot. 129. 

Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc. 1 . 7. Fl. Dan. t. 28. 
S, foliis oblongo-rotundis dcntatis, floribus compactis. Rati Sun 

354. f. 16.,/: I. 
Sedum serratum rotundifolium. Mcrr. Pin. 111. 
Semj)ervivuni minus incisuni. Mart. Spitzh. 43. duip. 3. /. F. /'. a. 

I la I. cd. 100. r/,aj>.:i. 

On the loftiest mountains of Wales and JScotland, in the moist fi^- 

sures of rocks. 
I^pon Snowdon. Dr. Mirrdl. On the summits of several hill.s 

aboirt Snowdon. Mr. Uwyd, Mr. (Jrijfiih. On I3cn Lawers, 



266 DEGANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Saxifraga. 

and other Highland mountains, but not common. Hooker. Near 
the top of Ben Lomond, on the west side, in the clefts of the rock. 

Perennial. July. 

This has much affinity in habit to the last species, but is altogether 
destitute of a stem . The leaves are perfectly radical, ovate or obo- 
vate, variously, but not deeply, serrated, most hairy or downy 
about the edges ; tapering at the base, which is entire, into a 
broad, flat, somewhat winged, footstalk, variable in length and 
width. Flower-stalk generally solitary, radical, stout, from 3 to 6 
inches high ; downy and viscid at the upper part, terminating in 
a very variable dense cluster, either single or divided, of a few 
alternate flowers, on short hairy stalks, with lanceolate, fringed 
bracteas. Cal. with a broad hemispherical base, embracing the 
lower half of the germen, and terminating in 5 broad, spreading, 
somewhat triangular, segments. Pet. ovate, inserted into the 
rim of the calyx between its segments, white, with two pale 
green transverse spots, and tipped with the same colour. Stam. 
from the rim of the calyx. Caps, large, ovate, with 2 recurved 
beaks j its lower half firmly united to the undivided base of the 
calyx. Styles very short. Stigmas capitate, smooth. 

5. nivalis is the only British species of Mr. Don's 4th section, 
named Micranthes; a most natural assemblage j but he has ju- 
diciously refrained from making any generic division of Saxi- 
fraga. The present section indeed, though so well distinguished 
from the last by the different position and situation of the calyx, 
is very nearly related to it, and I have therefore altered Mr. Don's 
arrangement, so far as to place these sections next each other. 
The close affinity of their respective species, while they differ 
in subordinate characters, even of their fructification, aflbrds the 
best evidence that the whole genus is natural and indivisible. 

*** Stem leafy. Calyx jpaHly or entirely inferior. Leaves 
undivided. Stigmas doisony, 

6. S. oppositifolia. Purple Saxifrage. 

Branches single-flowered, clothed with opposite, imbricated, 

fringed leaves. Petals ovate. 
S. oppositifolia. Linn. Sp. PL 575. FL Lapp. ed.2A4S. t.2.f. ]. 

fVilld. V. 2. 648. FL Br. 450. Engl Bot. v.\.t. 9. Don Tr. of 

L. Soc. r. 13. 400. Dicks. H. Sice. fasc. 2. 6. Curt. Lond. 
fasc. 6. t.27. Hook. Scot. 129. Fl. Dan. t^34. Allion. Pedem. 

v.2.70. t.2\.f3. 
S. n. 980. Hall. Hist.v. 1. 420. 
S.alpina ericoides, flore caeruleo. Raii Syn. 353. Tourn. Inst. 253. 

Scheuchz. It. 2. V. 1. 140. t.20.f2. 
Sedum alpinum ericoides purpurascens, also caeruleum. Bauh. 

Pin. 284. Prodr. 132, Moris, r. 3 (not r. 1), 480. n. 36, 37. 

sect. 12. f. 10./. 36. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 694. f. 



DECANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Saxifraga. 267 

Sedulis alpinis cognata. Gesn. Fasc. 1. 26. t. 9./. 32. 
Herniaria petraea. Ibid. f. 33. 

Herb resembling Wall-pepper. Mart. Sp'Uzb. 46. chap. 6. t. V.f. c. 
Ital. ed. 106. c/iap. 6, 

On alpine rocks and precipices. 

On the vvest side of the summit of Ingleborough hill, Yorkshire. 
Dr. Richardson. On Snowdon plentifully. Mr. Llwyd. On Ben 
Lomond and other Scottish mountains, frequent. 

Perennial. April. 

Stems numerous, prostrate, or pendulous, with many opposite, 
reddish, densely leafy, branches, forming broad dense tufts. 
Leaves small, imbricated in 4 rows, dark green, ovate, obtuse, 
slightly stalked, smooth, except a strong marginal fringe ; 
some of the uppermost abrupt at the point, and marked with 
1 or 2 perforations 3 those on the young trailing shoots more 
distant, and opposite only. Flowers terminal, solitary, nearly 
sessile, large, handsome. Cal. half inferior, with broad, deep, 
obtuse, fleshy, spreading, fringed segments. Pet. obovate, 
5 -ribbed, crimson with more or less of a blue tint. Stayn. erect, 
awl-shaped, for the most part shorter than the corolla. Styles 
short and thick, with capitate downy stigmas. Caps, surrounded 
in its lower half by the entire base of the calyx, with which it is 
closely incorporated, the u])per portion sejiarating into 2 spread- 
ing valves, tipped with the straight styles. 

The present species, with one, or perhaps two, exotic ones, di- 
stinguished by their opposite leaves, differ greatly in habit from 
the rest of the genus, and indeed from others of this section, 
so that it is difficult to arrange them according to any natural 
affinity. The same may be said of the next. 

7. S. Hirculus. Yellow Marsh Saxifrage. 

Stem erect, clothed with alternate, lanceolate, naked leaves. 
Capsule superior. Calyx reflexed, obtuse, fringed. 

S. Hirculus. J Ann. Sp. PI. '^76. mild. v. 2. 649. Fl. Br. 451. 

Engl. But. V. IT). /. 1009. Don Tr. of L. Soc. v. 13. 372. Curt. 

Lond. fasc. 6. t. 26. Fl. Dan. t. 200. 
S. n. 18. Rosen. Ohs. 25. 
S. n. 972. Hall. Hist. V. 1. 417. Ml. 
S. n. 77. (imel. Sib. v. 4. 1 65. t. 65./. 3. 
S. angustifolia autumnalis, flore luteo guttato. Breyn. Cent. 1. 

t.4H. 
Geum angustifolium autumnale, flore luteo guttato. T<>iirn. Inst. 

252. Dill, in Raii Syn.3'>^>. 
Sedum palustre lutcum bicornc, Nardi celtic;c foliis. Moris, v. 3. 

477. sfrt. 12. t. H. f. 5 ; also S. angustifolium autumnalc, floic 

luteo guttato. Ibid. f. 6. 
HircuKis Frisicus. Clus. Cur. Post. 5. f. 6. 



26S DECANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Saxifraga. 

Chamaecistus Frisicus. Ger. Em. 1284./. 

In turfy bogs, very rare. 

In a morass about the centre of Knutsford moor, Cheshire, where 
Dr. Kingstone first pointed it out to Dr. Richardson, early in 
the 18th century, and from whence Mr. Okell of Chester sent 
the wild specimen delineated in Engl. Bot. in August 1801. 
On Cotherstone fell, near the junction of the Blackbeck with 
the river Balder, Yorkshire, found by Mr. John Binks, some of 
whose specimens were given me by Mr. James Backhouse. 

Perennial. August. 

Root tufted with numerous black fibres, sending forth from the 
crown many short, simple, decumbent, leafy shoots, often 
clothed with loose, rusty hairs. Stems solitary, simple, erect, 
from 4 to 8 inches high, leafy, round, reddish, generally smooth, 
sometimes shaggy with rusty hairs. Leaves scattered, lanceolate, 
obtuse, entire, bright green, smooth, except a few occasional 
soft marginal hairs ; tapering at the base into a smooth foot- 
stalk, various in length. Flowers terminal, corymbose, usually 
2 or 3, sometimes solitary ; their stalks hairy and glutinous, 
with a linear bractea to each. Cal. spreading at the first open- 
ing of the flower, but soon becoming reflexed, being altogether 
inferior, as in the first section ; segments oblong, concave, ob- 
tuse, 5 -ribbed, minutely fringed. Fet. twice as long as the 
calyx, spreading, obovate, deep yellow copiously dotted with 
red, having many simple unequal ribs, confluent above the 
base, which ends in a short claw, and is marked with a nectari- 
ferous furrow, bordered by two prominent pointed valves. Stam. 
shorter than the petals. Caps, oblong, tipped with the short 
angular styles, and broad, rounded, convex, downy stigmas. 
Seeds numerous, ovate, ribbed, of a shining brown, 

A beautiful species, agi-eeing in its calijx and capsule with the 
first section, but hardly allied, by habit or peculiar characters, to 
any of the genus besides, except perhaps the following. 

8. S. aizoides. Yellow Mountain Saxifrage. 

Stem decumbent at the base. Leaves alternate, linear, with 
fringe-like teeth. Capsule half superior. Floral recep- 
tacle depressed. Calyx spreading. 

S. aizoides. Li7in. Sp. PL576. JVUld.v.'Z. 6^0. FL Br. 452. Engl. 
Bot. v.\. t.c^9. Don Tr. of L. Soc. v. 13. 375. Hook. Scot. 129. 
Wahlenh. Lapp. 115. 

S.autumnalis. Milld.v.2.(}50. Huds.XSO. Lightf.222. Fl. Dan. 
t. 72. Scop. Cam. v. 1. 293. t. 14. 

S. n. 971. Hall. Hist. v.\.4\7. 

S. alpina, angusto folio, flore luteo guttato. Raii Si/n.353. 

Sedum alpinum, flore pallido. Bauh. Pin. 284. Morii: v. 3. 4/7. 
sec^. 12.^G./.3. 



DECANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Saxifrasa. 269 



t) 



Sedum alpinum, floribus liiteis maculosls. Bauh. Pin. 284. 

S. alpinum piimum. Clus. Pan. 484. /. 483. Ger. Em. 515. 

/.516. 
S. minus sextum. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 59./. GO. 
S. parvum montanum luteum, Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 693. f. 

On the borders of mountain rills, in a black boggy soil. 

On Ingleborough liill, Yorkshire^, and on most of the Westmore- 
land and Scottish mountains. 

Perennial. June — September. 

Stems tufted, decumbent at the base, with many short, leafv, trail- 
ing shoots ; the flowering part ascending, 3 or 4 inches high, 
leafy, smooth or hairy, unbranched ; panicled at the summit. 
Leaves most crowded towards the root ; the upper ones most 
scattered ; all sessile, linear-oblong, obtuse, variously fringed 
with sharp, capillary teeth, which are scarcely ever entirely 
wanting. Panicle leafy, generally simjjle, of 3 or 4 Jiowers ; 
sometimes branched and many-flowered ; the stalks glutinous 
and densely hairy. Cal. of 5f broad leaves, encompassing the 
middle of the germen, and at all times widely spreading. Pet. 
a little longer than the calyx, obovate, or tongue-shaped, triple- 
ribbed, bright yellow, partly orange-coloured, besprinkled with 
scarlet dots. Floral receptacle broad, depressed, surrounding 
the bases of the awl-shaped, spreading styles. Stigmas obtuse, 
concave, downy. Caps, rather more than half superior when 
ripe, crowned with the slightly elongated styles. 

Dwarf alpine specimens, whose leaves are less evidently fringed, 
have been taken for S. autumnalis ; and are undoubtcdlv what 
many authors have described under that name, though a very 
little investigation is sufiicient to prove them the aizoides. 
What Linmeus intended by his autumnalis is quite another 
question. It ap])ears that, at onetime, he gave this name to the 
Hirculus, figured in Breynius, t. 48, which plate he has marked 
autumnalis. At other times lie hud in view the fringed state of 
aizoides, considering the more naked-leaved si)ecimens as the 
real aizoides, though his authentic ones thus named are very 
certainly fringed. His autumnalis therefore cannot be quoted 
as a synonym of either of these species, nor is the name at all 
suitable to them. The wliole history of this confusion was 
given above 30 years ago in the 1st vol. of P.ugli.Ji Botany, and 
Dr. Wahlenberg's remark confirms what is there advanced. 

**** Calyx spreading. Leaves partly lobcd. Stigvias mosllij 
dcTdcny. Fl<nv('riii<:; stems erect, more or less leafy. 

9. S. granii/ata. AVHiite Meadow Saxifrage. 

Leaves kiilnev-slinpecl, lobcd. Stem panielcd, lealy. Hoot 
granulated. Ciciiiicii liall-inli rioi-. 



270 DECANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Saxifraga. 

S.granulata. Lmn.Sp.PL576. Wmd.v.2.65\. FLBrA53. Engl. 

Bot. v,7. t. 500. Don Tr. of L. Soc. v. 13. 362. Curt. Lond. 
fasc. I. t. 30. Freeman Ic. t. I. JVoodv. suppl t. 232. Hook. 

Scot. \29. Fl. Dan. t.o 14. 
S. n. 976. Hall Hist. v.\. 419. 
S. rotundifolia alba. Rail Syn. 354. 

S. alba. Dod. Pempt. 3 1 6. Ger. Em. 84 1 . f. Trag. Hist. 525./. 
S. tertia. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 327. f. 
S. quarta. Camer. Epit.7\9.f. 
S. major, seu alba. Fuchs. Hist. 747. f. 
Saxifragia. Brunf. Herb. v. 1. 185./. 
Sedum bicorne album rotundifolium erectum, radice granulosa. 

Moris. V.3. 4/9. sect. 12. t. 9./. 23. 
White Pride. Pet. H. Brit. t. 61. f. 6. 

In meadows and pastures, on a gravelly or sandy soil. 

Perennial. Maij. 

Root granulated, whitish. Stem a foot high, hollow, viscid, loosely 
hairy ; simple, and most leafy, below -, panicled at the top. 
Leaves stalked, rather fleshy, about an inch wide, kidney-shaped, 
with broad lobes and notches, often richly tinted with brown or 
red, like the panicle and calyx ; the upper ones small and wedge- 
shaped. Fl. several, in a corymbose, hairy, glutinous panicle, 
nearly erect, large, white, accompanied by lanceolate hracteas. 
Cat. surrounding the germen, obtuse, moderately spreading. 
Petals spatulate, unspotted, triple- ribbed ; the lateral ribs 
branched. Germen half-inferior. Stigmas large, convex, con- 
spicuously downy, in which character, as well as in habit, this 
species answers generally to the numerous following ones, justly 
considered by Mr. D. Don as the genuine type of their genus. 

An elegant double-flowered variety is often cultivated. 

Haller's n. 976 proves, by Swiss specimens, to include S. bulbifera. 
Yet the granulata was found in that country by Mr. Davall, 
though very rarely. 

10. S. cernua. Drooping Bulbous Saxifrage. 

Leaves somewhat palmate, stalked. Stem with aggregate, 
axillary bulbs. Germen altogether superior. Petals 
obovate. 

S. cernua. Linn Sp.Pl.^77. Fl. Lapp. ed.2.\40. t.2.f.4. Willd. 

V. 2. 652. Fl. Br. 453. Engl. Bot. v. 10. t. 664. Don Tr. of L. 

Soc. V. 13. 364. Hook. Scot. 130. Gimn. Norveg. p. 2. 48. t. 8. 

Fl. Dan. t. 22, also t. 390. 
About alpine rills, on the loftiest mountains of Scotland. 
On the summit of Ben Lawers. Mr. Dickson. On Craigalleach. 

Professor Hooker and Mr. Borrer. 
Perennial. July. 



DECANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Saxifraga. 271 

Herb nearly smooth, smaller and more delicate than the last. 
Root scaly, like that of a Lily in miniature. Stem from 4 to 8 
inches high, slender, leafy, seldom bearing more than one flower, 
though often divided towards the upper part into several weak, 
leafy and bulbiferous branches. Leaves kidney-shaped, broadly 
lobed, almost palmate, stalked, alternate ; some of the upper 
ones sessile, oVate, and nearly entire ; most of those on the 
stem attended by purplish, aggregate, bulbs, or ])uds. Floicer 
often drooping, white, on a terminal downy stalk. Cal. entirely 
inferior, with oblong, bluntish, downy, viscid segments, Fet, 
obovate, triple-ribbed, abrupt, or slightly notched at the end. 
Stigmas capitate, downy. 

11. S. rivularis, Alpine Brook Saxifrage. 

Leaves palmate, stalked ; the uppermost spatulate. Stem 
with few flowers. Root fibrous. Germen half inferior. 

S. rivularis. Liniu Sp. PL 577. Fl. Lapp. ed. 2. 142. t.2. f. 7. 
Willd. V. 2. 652. Fl. Br. 454. Engl. Bot. v. 32. t. 2275. JDo;i 
Tr. of L. Soc. V, 13. 367. Hook. Scot, 130. Fl. Dan. t.WS. 

About alpine rivulets, and in wet fissures of rocks, on the moun- 
tains of Scotland. 

On Ben Nevis. Dr. Townson. Near the lake, in the ascent of 
Ben Nevis ; also on Ben Lawers. Mr. D. Turner and Professor 
Hooker. At Loch Runnoch ; Mr. Sommerville. Hooker. 

Annual. June, July. 

Root fibrous, somewhat creeping ; according to Mr. Don, annual. 
Herb an inch or two in height, bright green, a little succulent, 
smooth, except a few loose glutinous hairs on the upper part of 
the stem, which is leafy, seldom branched. Leaves with 3 or 5 
lobes J the upper ones often ovate, or roundish-obovate, \mdi- 
vided ; all on longish stalks. Fl. few, small, wliite, or reddish, 
on stalks of various lengths. Cal. half inferior, witli ovate, 
somewhat spreading, segments. Pet. obovate, but little longer 
than the calyx. Anthers curiously reticulated, or dotted. Styles 
short. Stigmas capitate, and 1 believe smooth. 

12. S. tridaclijiites. Rue-leaved Saxifrage. 

Leaves wedge-shaped, with three or five segments ; the uji- 
permost undivided. Stem jianicled, leafy. Stalks single- 
flowered, alternate. Germen inferior. 

S. tridactylites. Linn. Sp. PI. 578. miUl. v. 2. 654. H. Br. 4:4. 

Engl. Bot. V. 7. t.:)0\. Don Tr. of L. Soc. v. 13. 441. Curt. 

Lond. fuse. 2. <.28. Ehrh. PL of.WA. 
S. n. 986. Hall. Hist. v. 1.422. 
S. verna annua humilior. Tourn. Inst. 252. Rail Syn. 35-1, 



272 DECANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Saxifraga. 

Sedum tridactylites tectorum. Bauh. Pin. 285. Moris, v. 3. 479. 

sect. 12. t.9.f.3l. 
Paronychia altera. Dod. Pempt. 112./. 
P. rutaceo folio. Ger. Em. 624./. 
Nasturtiolum petroeum. Gesn. Fasc. 1. 26. t. \.f. 34. 
Rue Pride. Pet. H. Brit. t. 61 ./ 8. 

On walls, roofs, and dry barren ground, common. 

Annual. Jpril, May. 

Root small, tapering. Herb downy and glutinous, tinged with 
more or less of a rich brown or red hue, and very variable in 
luxuriance. Stem erect, 3 or 4 inches high, alternately branched, 
leafy. Leaves fleshy, oblong-wedge-shaped ; palmate in their 
upper half, with 3 blunt lobes, or pedate with 5, their base 
elongated and tapering ; the floral ones lanceolate, undivided. 
Fl. small, white, on alternate, simple, upright stalks. Cat. per- 
fectly superior, erect, short and obtuse, coloured, clothed with 
viscid hairs. Pet. obovate, small, white. Stigmas downy. Caps. 
ovate, membranous, of 2 cells, crowned by the permanent calyx, 
and clothed with prominent viscid hairs. Seeds small, angular. 

13. S. muscoides. Mossy Alpine Saxifrage. 

Leaves linear, obtuse, smooth, triple-ribbed, undivided, or 
with two small lateral lobes. Flowers few^, corymbose. 
Petals nearly linear. Calyx almost naked. 

S. muscoides. IVulf. in Jacq. Misc. v. 2. 123 : 7iot 125. Willd. Sp. 

PL V.2. 656. Don Tr. of L. Soc. v. 13. 437. 
S. caespitosa. Huds. 181 j excL the sijn. of Linn, and Fl. Dan. 

" Lapeijr. Pyren. 59. t. 35." 
S. moschata. With. 406. 
S. n. 988. Hall. Hist. V. 1.422. 
S. pyrenaica, foliis partim integris, partim trifidis. Hall. Opusc. 292. 

t. 1 . / 1 . Segu. Veron. v. 1 . 45 1 . ^ 9. / 4. 

On rocky mountains, very rare. 

On mountains above Ambleside, Westmoreland. Hudson; con- 
firmed by specimens sent from thence. Mr. D. Don. Cultivated 
in Kew garden, in 1781, as the true plant of Hudson. 

Perennial. May. 

Herb composed of many dense, crowded, leafy tufts. Leaves 
crowded, linear, obtuse, deep green ; strongly triple-ribbed 
above the base ; smooth on both sides ; slightly fringed occa- 
sionally ; some of them furnished with 2 lateral lobes, smaller, 
and more acute, than the middle one. Flowering branches ter- 
minal, solitary, erect, somewhat downy and viscid, bearing 2 or 
3 distant undivided leaves, and terminating in 2, 3, or 4, co- 
rymbose, downy, bracteated, single-flowered stalks. Germen 
hemisplierical, downy and viscid. Cal. superior, obtuse, nearly 



DECANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Saxifracra. 273 



& 



or quite smooth. Pet. almost linear, pale yellow, obtuse, slightly 
cloven, triple-ribbed, rather longer than the calyx. 
This species has never till now been rightly understood. I received 
it for the true cccspitosa, which latter was not known to Mr. Hud- 
son. Mr. D. Don's remarks have led me to reconsider the sub- 
ject, and to correct what is before the publick in the Fl. Brit. 
and Rees's Cyclopcedia, respecting this plant and some of its 
allies. 

fl4. ^, pj/gnicEa. Dwarf Alpine Saxifrage. 

Leaves linear, abrupt, smooth, uiKlivided. Flowers corym- 
bose. Petals obovate, scarcely longer than the very obtuse 
glandular calyx. 

S. pygmaea. " Haworth Misc. Nat. 168." Don Tr. of L. Soc. 

V. 13. 439. 
S. muscoides. Hook. Scot. 130. " Lapeyr. Pyren. 60. ^.36." 
S. moschata. Engl. Bot. v. 33. ^.2314. Comp.66. " Lapej/r. 

Pyren. 62,(3. i.38." '' Sternh. Saxifr.y. t. 11.^./. 2." 

In the Highlands of Scotland. Mr. James Donn. 

Herb more densely tufted than the last. Leaves crowded, lanceo- 
late, fleshy, deep green, smooth, shining, obtuse and abrupt. 
Stems erect, slender, slightly leafy, 2 or 3 inches high, coiym- 
bose, bearing 3 or 4 s,mii\\ Jiowers, on downy viscid stalks. Cal. 
covered in like manner with short, viscid, glandular hairs -, its 
segments broadly ovate, obtuse, 3 -ribbed. Pet. obovate, or 
nearly oval, a little longer than the calyx, greenish yellow, with 
3 reddish ribs, united for a small distance above the base. 

The description in Engl. Bot. was made with some reference to 
5. tenera of Suter, Don Tr. of L. Soc. v. 13. 410, for which I 
had mistaken this plant, and to which the synonyms I originally 
quoted belong. Almost every botanist, till very lately, has con- 
founded these species. Whether the leaves of S. pygmcea are 
ever divided, or whether S. grcenlandica may sometimes have 
been confounded with it, I am by no means certain. I cannot 
but give the plant a place iiere, on the positive authority of my 
late friend Mr. James Donn, Curator of the Cambridge garden, 
though others deny its having ever been found in Scotland. 

15. S. cccspitosa. Tufted Alpine Saxifrage. 

Radical leaves crowded, tliree- or fivc-cleft, obtuse, veiny, 
fringed; lowermost undivided. Fh)wcrs from one to five, 
or more. Germen half inferior, hairy. Calyx smoother, 
obtuse. Petals rounded, triple-ribbed. 

a. S. caespitosa. Linn. Sp. PL :)7S. IVilUl v. 2. 6r)6. Fl. Br. 4:)5. 

Comp. GO. Engl. Bot. v. 12. /. 79i. Don Tr.ofL. Soc. v. 13.428. 
S. grcenlandica. /J;;/^ N/). 1*1. J7><. Cuun. Norveg. v. 2. SO. /. 7 . f. 1 . 

vol.. ir. 1 



274 DECANDRIA»-DIGYNIA. Saxifraga. 

S. tridactylites groenlandica,cauliculis vulde foliosis. Dill. EUh.337. 

i. 253./. 329. 
/3. S. decipiens. Ehrh. Herb. 5. Beltr. v. 5. 4/ and 175. " Sternh. 

Saxifr. 55. ^ 23." 
S. cffispitosa. Fl. Dan. t.7\. Gunn. Norveg. v. 2. 135. t. I.f. 3, 4. 
S. petraa. With. 890. 
S. palmata. Fl. Br. 456. Comp. 66. Engl. Bot. v. 7. t. 455. 

On the loftiest mountains of Wales and Ireland. 

a. On the rocks of Tvvll dii, in Cwm Idwell, North Wales. 
Mr. Griffith. On the lofty summit of Brandon mountain, county 
of Kerry. Mr. J. T. Mackay. 

/3. On the rocks of Cwm Idwell, but in more accessible places. 
Mr. Griffith. On the Galty mountains, Tipperary. Mr. J. T. 
Mackay. 

Perennial. May, June. 

Herb densely tufted, very variable in luxuriance, number oijlowersy 
and degree of hairiness. Radical leaves numerous, more or less 
crowded, fringed with soft glutinous hairs, such as are generally 
likewise dispersed over both surfaces ; their lower half almost 
linear, strongly ribbed ; upper deeply divided into 3 or 5 ob- 
long, obtuse, pointless segments, made too acute in Engl. Bot. 
t. 455. Leaves of the flowering stems few, scattered, rather 
more acute, either undivided or three-cleft, diminishing into 
bracteas. A few of the very lowest leaves, on the radical tufts, 
are also undivided. Stems solitary, erect, round, rather hairy 
and viscid, slightly leafy ; in a only 2 or 3 inches high, and 
bearing 1 or 2, very rarely o, flowers ; in /3 often a span in 
height, corymbose, with 5 or 6. A root brought by Mr. Mackay 
from Brandon mountain, and rendered luxuriant by culture, bore 
9Jlowers. This is mentioned in Rees's Cyclopcedia under S. hirta, 
but it certainly belongs to ccespitosa. The calyx of this species, 
in every state, is half inferior j its segments broad, obtuse, point- 
less, slightly fringed, glandular, but scarcely hairy, on the sur- 
face. Germen much more hairy, hemispherical. Pet. orbicular, 
or obovate, rounded, obtuse, entire, white, with a central green 
rib, sending off 2 curved lateral ones about the middle, none of 
them quite reaching to the summit. Stigmas downy. 

When the larger variety of this species was published in Engl. Bot. 
I was unacquainted with Ehrhart's S. decipiens, whose name I 
therefore could not adopt. I have not quoted Professor Hooker, 
having seen no Scottish specimen of indubitable ccespitosa, and 
he has, in my opinion, confounded many things under that name. 
S. grcenlandica is, in the Cyclopcedia, only suspected to be a 
variety of ccespitosa. I now believe them to be one and the 
same. Whether Mr. Don's condensata, Tr. of L. Soc. v. 13. 448, 
be a smooth variety of this, or, as the author says, allied to 
hypnoides, I have no means of judging, but in so very great a 
doubt, I must leave it undetermined. 



DECANDRTA—DTGYNIA. Saxifraga. 275 

16. S. hirta. Hairy Alpine Saxifrage. 

Radical leaves rather crowded, five- or three-cleft, pointed, 
veiny, fringed. Flowers few, corymbose. Germen half 
inferior. Calyx acute. Petals obovate, triple-ribbed. 

S. hirta. Dojin Cant. ed.5. 107. Engl. Dot. r. 32. ^2291. Comp. 

Gd. Don Tr. of L. Soc. v. 13.421. 
S. palmata. B'lngl. N. Wales, v. 2. 395 ; from the author. 

On alpine rocks in Ireland, Scotland and Wales. 

On the Galty mountains, county of Tipperary. Mr. J. T. Mackay. 
In the west part of Scodiind. Mr. G. Don. Near Twll du, in 
Cwm Idvvell ; also on tlie walls of Dolvvyddelan castle, betwixt 
Capel Cerig and Llanrwst, Nortli Wales. Rev. IV. Blngley. 

Perennial. June, July. 

This has the habit of the larger variety of .S. ccesjAlosa, nor is it 
always more liairy ; on the contrary, my specimens are rather 
smoother than those of the foregoing. The hirta seems to be fur- 
nished with longer lateral leafy shoots, and the segments of its 
leaves are acute, sometimes bristle-pointed, as are likewise those 
of the calyx. The petals are obovate, not at all orbicular, and 
their lateral ribs are longer, usually separating from the middle 
one but a little above its base. These two species nevertheless 
cannot be thought otliervvise than very closely related, and I 
believe no botanist is, as yet, sufficiently acquainted with the 
specific dift'erences of Saxfragcp, to say whether they are distinct 
or not. 

17. S. ajjiiiis. Involute Alpine Saxifrage. 

Radical leaves five-cleft ; those of the trailing shoots mostly 
three-cleft; lobes linear, pointed. Segments of the calyx 
awl-shaped, channelled, pointed, recurved. Petals oblong, 
inflexed at the edges. 

S. affinis. Don Tr. (f L. Soc. v. 13. 418 ; according to the author. 
S. laevis. Donn Cant. ed. ij. 107. Mackay. 

On mountains in Ireland. 

On the toj) of Brandon mountain, county of Kerry. Mr. J. T. 
Mackay. 

Perennial. ^Jay, June. 

Herb briglit green, densely tufted before flowering, afterwards 
throwing out many procumbent, lax, reddisli, distantly leafy 
shoots, several inches long ; the whole besprinkled with soft, 
slender, glutinous hairs. Lravcs much elongated and tapering 
at the base, fringed, and otherwise sonuwhat hairv, divided 
about one third of their length into 3 lobes, the lateral lobes, of 
the radical loaves especially, cloven ; all of them linear, or 
slightly lanceolate, acute, pnrtiv l)ri8lle-|>oinled. Sfnnx 3 or 4 

r 2 



276 DECANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Saxifraga. 

inches high^ erect, corymbose, bearing a few undivided lanceo- 
late leaves ; and 3 or 4Jlowers, on glandular, or hairy, glutinous, 
upright stalks. Germen in like manner hairy and viscid. Cal. 
half inferior 5 its segments spreading, recurved, narrow, folded 
or channelled, acute, minutely bristle-pointed, slightly glandu- 
lar. Pet. white, oblong, twice the length of the calyx, triple- 
ribbed, inflexed in a peculiar manner at both edges. Stigmas 
obtuse, cloven, recurved, very hairy and glandular. Upper half 
of the capsule, above the calyx, ribbed^ angular, membranous, 
very smooth. 
Very distinct from every other British species, though most re- 
sembling the hirta, and somewhat akin, as Mr. Don observes, 
to the exotic ajugifolia, 

18. ^. platypetala. Broad-petalled Saxifrage. 

Radical leaves five-cleft ; those of the trailing shoots three- 
cleft ; lobes bristle-pointed. Segmentsof the calyx ovate, 
pointed, erect. Petals nearly orbicular, flat, with many 
lateral veins. 

S. platypetala. Sm. Tr. of L. Soc. v. 10. 341. Engl. Bot. v. 32. 
t. 2276. Comp. 66. Don Tr. of L. Soc. v. 13. 422. 

On the mountains of Scotland and Wales. 

Upon Snowdon. Mr. D. Turner. On the Clova mountains, An- 
gusshire. Mr. G. Don. 

Perennial. June. 

Much like the last in habit, with many procumbent, leafy, hairy 
shoots, but the leaves are less lengthened out in their lower part, 
and all their segments terminate in strong, pale, somewhat car- 
tilaginous, bristly points. Panicle rather racemose, of 4 or 5 
large flowers, on glandular, viscid, bracteated stalks. Seg- 
ments of the calyx short, ovate, erect, conspicuously pointed j 
the base most glandular. Germen broad and short. Pet. thrice 
the length of the calyx, white, with a red stain in the bud, 
broadly obovate, or almost orbicular, spreading, flat, entire, with 
3 principal ribs united at their base, the 2 outermost sending 
forth many spreading short veins. Upper half of the germen he- 
mispherical. Styles short. Stigmas spatulate, finely downy on 
the upper side. 

19. S. hicurvifolia. Curve-leaved Saxifrage. 

Radical leaves five-cleft ; those of the upright shoots three- 
cleft ; segments lanceolate, obtuse, incurved. Segments 
of the calyx ovate, acute. Petals roundish, slightly 
cloven. 

S, incurvifolia. Don Tr. of L. Soc. v. 13. 423. 



DECANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Saxifiaga. 277 

On alpine rocks in Ireland. Mr. J. T. Mackay. 

Perennial. 

" Herb green, densely tufted ; very smooth before flowering ; subse- 
quently besprinkled with long viscid hairs. Shoots upright, short. 
,S^em5 straight, 3 inches high, leafy, bearing 2 or 3 white^oaerA\ 
Radical leaves crowded, 5 -cleft, ])almate ; those on the shoots 
3 -cleft, scarcely shorter than their very broad base, or foot- 
stalk; segments lanceolate, blunt, incurved. Stein-leaves pal- 
mate ; upper ones undivided. Cal. as well as the Jiower-stalk» 
furnished with glandular hairs ; its segments broadly ovate, 
acute, without a bristly point. Pet. roundish, cloven at the end, 
simply triple-ribbed." 

Such is Mr. Don's description of this plant, of which I have seen 
no specimen. The notched petals, and long inflexed segments 
of the leaves, appear to indicate a distinct species. 

20. S. dcnudata. Smooth Grampian Saxifrage. 

Radical leaves five-cleft ; those of the upright shoots three- 
cleft ; segments linear-awl-shaped, acute, bristle-pointed, 
smooth. Segments of the calyx lanceolate, minutely 
pointed. Petals obovate, cloven. 

S. denudata. Bon Tr. of L. Soc. v. 13. 424. 

In the Highlands of Scotland. 

On the Grampian hills in Angusshire. Mr. G. Don, 

Perennial. 

*' Herb very smooth, bright green, forming small dense tufts. Shoots 
very short, crowded, erect, densely leafy. Stems erect, an inch 
and half high, purplish, slightly furnished with glandular hairs, 
and bearing a few leaves, with I or 2 flowers. Leaves fleshy and 
shining 3 the uppermost undivided. Fl. white, bell-shaped. 
Cal. witli a few glandular hairs 3 its divisions lanceolate, each 
with a small reflcxed point. Pet. obovate, with 3 simple 
straight ribs 3 nicked at the point. Stam. yellowish green. 
/Inth. bright yellow." 

I should suspect this to be a variety of the last, but not having 
seen it, I cannot controvert Mr. Don's opinion. 

21. S. hijpnoides. Mossy Saxifrage, or Ladies' 
Cushion. 

Radical leaves three- or five-delt; those of the U)ng, pro- 
cumbent shoots undivided; all bristle-pointed and Iringed. 
Segments of the calyx ovate, jH)iiited. Petals obovate. 
Stigmas nearly smooth. 

S. hypnoides. Unn. Sp. PL 57!>. fl'illd. v. 2, (J'iS. Fl. Br. 4.'i7. 
Euf^l. Hot. V. 1 . I. 1j4. Don 7V. 0/ L. Soc. v. 13. 447. Freeman 



278 DECANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Saxifraga. 

7c. t. 2. Hook. Scot. 131 ; excluding the variety. Fl. Dan. t. 348. 
Lapeijr. Pijren. t.32. 

S. n. 989. Hall. Hist. V. 1.423; syn. confused. 

S. muscosa, trifido folio. Tourn. Inst. 252. Raii Syn. 354. 

Sedum Alpinum, trifido folio. Bauh. Pin. 284. Moris, v. 3. 479. 
sect. 12. t.9.f.26. 

Sanicula aizoides tridactilites alpina minor, flore albo majore. 
Pluk, Almag. 331. Phyt. t. b7.f. 7. 

(3. Saxifraga condensata. Don Tr. of L. Soc. v. 13. 448. " Gmel. 
Baden. V. 2.226. t.3." 

On lofty rocky mountains in Wales, Scotland, and the North of 
England, as well as on limestone rocks, walls and joofs, in less 
elevated situations, abundantly, (^hecrdoy- Chffj 
Perennial. May, June. 

This species, frequently cultivated in gardens, on rock-work, &c. 
forms broad, elastic, dense tufts, of a light and pleasant green. 
From the crown of each root proceed numerous long, entangled, 
procumbent, leafy shoots, as well as an upright, generally soli- 
tary, slightly leafy stem, 4 or 5 inches high, terminating in a 
corymbose panicle of from 3 to 5 whitejlowers, whose stalks are a 
little viscid and glandular, as well as the scattered awl-shaped 
hracteas. The radical and lower stem-leaves are linear, chan- 
nelled, and fringed at the base -, terminating in 3, rarely 5, lan- 
ceolate, spreading, smooth, bristle-pointed lobes j those on the 
trailing shoots are almost universally undivided, taper-pointed, 
with a more conspicuous bristle, and are often accompanied 
by a pale, axillary, oblong bud, as described by Haller, and by 
John Bauhin, Hist. v. 3. 696. chap. 9. I have a specimen of this 
from the collection of C. Bauhin. The calyx is half-inferior, 
with broad, acute, pointed, three-ribbed segments. Pet. broadly 
obovate, flat, triple-ribbed, sometimes tinged with red before 
expansion ; the middle rib occasionally branched near the tip. 
Stigmas spatulate, scarcely at all downy. 
Mr. Griffith has favoured me with an alpine Welsh specimen, an- 
swering to Mr. Don's account of his condensata, but I cannot 
consider it as a distinct species. Whether it be Gmelin's plant, 
I have had no opportunity of ascertaining. 
Tab. 454 of Engl. Bot. was indeed drawn from a very insufficient 

specimen of S. hypnoides, and gives no just idea of the foliage. 
With regard to Haller's n. 989 there is great uncertainty. He has 
undoubtedly confounded the synonyms of various species under 
that number, and what the Swiss botanists take for S. hijpnoides, 
is either the Linnsean ajugifolia, a plant in general not well 
known, I believe, to our British botanists and cultivators, or its 
near relation the exarata, Don n. 92. I should suspect that no 
real hypnoides had ever been gathered in Switzerland, but for 
Bauhin's specimen above mentioned ) having never seen it in 
any native Swiss herbarium. 



DECANDIIIA— DIGYNIA. Saxifraga. 279 

22. S. elongella. Long-stalked Saxifrage. 

Radical leaves three- or five-cleft ; those of the upright short 
shoots undivided or three-cleft; all bristle-pointed, 
slightly fringed. Primary flower-stalks very long, simple 
and naked. Calyx pointed. Petals obovate. 

S. elongella. Sm. Tr. of L. Soc. v. 10. 340. Engl. Bot. r. 32, 
t. 2277. Comj). 66. Don Tr. of L. Soc. v. 13. 449 5 but not, it 
seems, of Donn Cant. ed. 5. 107. 

On moist rocks in the Highlands of Scotland. 

On a rock by the river near Lintrathen, in Angusrshire. Mr. G. Don. 

Perennial. Jidic. 

Smaller than the last, of which Professor Hooker, in a note to his 
Fl. Scot. 132, considers it as a variety. Mr. D. Don on the 
other hand thinks the elongella perfectly distinct. The lateral 
shoots are mostly erect, bearing 3-cleft leaves ; but when culti- 
vated they become prostrate, with chiefly undivided leaves, and 
some appearance of axillary buds. The injlorescence is peculiar, 
consisting of a terminal, solitary, simple, single-flowered^ leaf- 
less, slightly glandular and viscid stalk, 2 inches long, which, 
in cultivated plants only, is sometimes accompanied by 1 or 2 
divided bracteated stalks, from the bosoms of the upper leaves; 
but nevertheless the whole bears no resemblance to the panicle 
o{ S.hypnoides. In the calyx and petals indeed there is little 
difl^erence. The flower is rather larger, of a pure white. The 
lateral veins of the petals are not constant. 

23. S. leptophylla. Narrow-spreading-leaved Saxi- 

frage. 

Radical leaves deeply five-cleft ; those of the very long pro- 
cumbent shoots deeply three-cleft or undivided; seg- 
ments linear-lanceolate, very sharp, witlely spreading. 
Calyx oblong-ovate. Petals spatuJate, undivided. 

S. leptophvlla. '* Vers. S,jn. v. 1 . 490." Don Tr. of L. Soc. v. 13. 
450. 

On mountains in Wales ; Mr. Macnab. Don. 

Perennial. 

IJcrh very densely tufted before flowering, and very smooth j after- 
wards throwing out many loosely spreading shoots, besprinkled 
witli a few viscid hairs, and destitute of axillary buds. Stews 
several, erect, 3 or 1 inches high, wavy, polislied and nearly 
smooth, each bearing many drooping white //o/<7'r.s', whose stalks 
arc elongated, and furnished with glandulnr hairs. Segments 
of the /«Yzrr5 remarkably spreading, bristle pointed, variable in 
breadth. Segments of the r<ilin oblong-ovate, 3-ribbe(i, with 
recurved poinl:^. /V7. entire, triple-ribbed, /'//om. white, with 



2S0 DECANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Saxifraga. 

bright yellow anthers. Such is Mr. Don's description. I have 
never seen this species or the next. 

24. S. Icetevirens, Bright-green Alpine Saxifrage. 

Leaves deeply five- or three-cleft, with linear acute seg- 
ments. Shoots long and trailing. Calyx lanceolate, 
pointed. Petals spatulate, slightly cloven. 

S. laetevirens. Don Tr. of L. Soc. i;. 13. 45 1. 

On the loftiest rocks in the Highlands of Scotland. 

In very elevated situations, upon moist rocks, on the mountains 
of Angusshire and Aberdeenshire. Mr. G. Don. On hills to the 
north of Loch Lomond, Mr. D. Don. 

Perennial. 

Herb of a very bright green, densely tufted, and very smooth, be- 
fore flowering ; afterwards loosely spreading, with long trailing 
shoots, besprinkled with long hairs, without axillary buds. 
Stems few, erect, smooth, 3 inches high, bearing a few leaves, 
and about 3 /lowers, rarely one only. The radical leaves have 
5 segments, those of the shoots 3 ; all linear, acute, recurved 
at the points ; those on the lower part of the stems are 5 -cleft, 
on the upper undivided, lanceolate, and pointed. Fl. white, 
bell-shaped, drooping in the bud. Flower-stalks and calyx 
downy and viscid ; segments of the latter lanceolate, 3-ribbed, 
>vith recurved points. Pet. with straight, simple, green ribs, 
united above the base. A very distinct and elegant species ac- 
cording to Mr. Don, whose description and characters I have 
adopted. 

25. S. pedatijida. Web-foot-leaved Saxifrage. 

Radical leaves kidney-shaped, divided in a pedate manner 
into seven lobes. Panicle cymose, level-topped, many- 
flowered. Calyx superior, with linear-lanceolate seg- 
ments, as long as the capsule. 

S. pedatifida. Ehrh.Exsicc. \5. Sm.Tr.ofL. Soc.v.lO. 340. Engl. 

Bot. V. 32. t. 2278. Comp. ^7. Don Tr. of L. Soc. v. 13. 414. -, 

excluding the varietij. 
S. quinquefida. Donn Cant. eel. 5. 107. 

In the Highlands of Scotland. Mr. J. T. Mackay. 

On the mountains of Clova, Angusshire. Mr. G. Don. 

Perennial. May. 

Herb larger than most of the last-described, increasing by runners, 
each terminating in a leafy flowering tuft, from which fresh 
runners are produced. Leaves numerous on the young runners, 
but most crowded at their base, stalked, finely downy and glu- 
tinous, kidney-shaped, deeply divided into 3 principal lobes, of 



DECANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Saxifragu. 281 

which the central one is often 3 -cleft, the lateral ones more 
deeply and unequally 3-lobed, giving the whole leaf, though 
simple, a pedate figure. The lobes are variable in breadth on 
different plants. Footstalks thrice the length of the leaves, bor- 
dered, ribbed, purplish, a little hairy. Stems a span high,' soli- 
tary from the leafy crown of each annual shoot, erect, round, 
slightly leafy, alternately branched, panicled at the top ■ their 
/tares variously divided, often doubly 3 -cleft 3 the uppermost 
undivided. Panicles variously corymbose, or cymose, level- 
topped, with downy glutinous stalks, and narrow linear hracteas ; 
principal one of 10 or 12 flowers, one of which is central; the 
others of fev/er. FL white, small in proportion to the size of 
the plant, erect. Cal. almost entirely superior ; its segments 
erect, linear-lanceolate, acute, 3-ribbed, downy and viscid like 
the germen, which they much exceed in length, but the ripe 
capsule ixlmo^t equals them in that respect. Styles finally much 
longer than the cali/x, with nearly smooth stigjiias. Caps, glo- 
bose. The lobes of the young and narrower leaves are more 
acute, and often bristle-pointed. Those of Ehrhart's specimen 
are broader, and rather blunter, than in Mr, Don's. 

S. geranioides,\vQ\\ represented in Gouan's lllustrationes, t. 18./. 2, 
differs from this in the more numerous and shallow notches of 
its leaves, and especially in the long, narrow, linear segments 
of the calyx, always rising above the permanent styles. The 
petals also are larger and broader, often having .0 ribs. It can- 
not be confounded with our plant ; and S. ceratopliylla, Sims 
in Curt. Mag. t. 1651, though of the same tribe, differs widely 
in the leaves, panicle, and calyx. S. ladanifera moreover, La~ 
peyr. Fyren. t. 42, appears, on reconsideration, distinct from 
pcdatijida iiml geranioidcs, in the broad, short, recurved segments 
of its calyx, not half so long as the ripe capsule, or ])ermanent 
styles. The leaves also differ essentially. None of these are 
natives of Switzerland. 

I have thus endeavoured to furnish the British botanist with ma- 
terials, at least, towards the history of this most difficult genus, 
correcting my own mistakes, but not i)resuming to reject, or to 
decide upon, any thing I have not examined. U cannot but be 
remarked that many of the si)ecific characters are too indefinite, 
and not discriminative ; the cause of which is tliat we are not 
as yet well acquainted with wliat constitutes a si)ecies in Snxi- 
fraga, nor how to define tlieir differences. Notwithstanding the 
highly praise-worthy labours of Mr. Don, the exotic kinds, and 
especially the Swiss ones, require complete revision, bv a com- 
parison of original specimens with living ones, both wild and 
cultivated. The freaks of horticulture are eminently worth at- 
tention, as leaching us what to avoidj for distinctions that 
appear, and vanish ag;iin, before our eyes, cannot serve as indi- 
• ations nf permanent •^i)ccies. Cicnuine specific characters 



1282 DECANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Scleraiilhus. 

ought to be as evident in dried as in living specimens. Varieties 
can rar> ly stand this test. 

231. SCLERANTHUS. Knawel. 

Linn. Gen. 224. Juss. 314. Fl.Br.4D7. Lam. t. 374. Gartn. 

i. 126. 
Knawel. Dill. Gen. 94. t. 3. 

Nat. Ord. Vepreculce, 31. Linn. MSS. Porhdacece. Juss. 86. 
Akin to Chenopodeco. Br. Pr. 4 1 2. Illeccbrece of Brown. 
Hook. Scot. p. 2. 260. See Br. Pr. 413. 

Cal, inferior, of 1 leaf, tubular and ribbed at the base, con- 
tracted at the summit of the tube ; limb in 5 deep seg- 
ments ; permanent and hardened after flowering. Co7\ 
none. Tilam, from 5 to 10, awl-shaped, erect, often un- 
equal, shorter than the segments of the calyx, and pro- 
ceeding from the top of the tube. Antli. roundish, of 2 
lobes. Germ, superior, roundish. Styles spreading, thread- 
shaped, the length of the stamens. Stigm. simple, downy. 
Caps, ovate, very thin, of 1 cell, inclosed in the tube of 
the calyx. Seeds 2, convex at one side, flat on the other ; 
embryo curved round the outside of the farinaceous 
albumen. 

Dry rigid herbs^ with opposite, linear, combined leaves. Fl. 
greenish, aggregate, axillary and terminal ; the flowering 
branches downy at one side only. 

1. S. annuus. Annual Knawel. 

Calyx of the fruit with spreading, tapei', acute segments. 
Stems spreading. 

S. annuus. Linn. Sp. PL 5S0. mild. v. 2. 660. Fl.Br.45S. Engl. 

Bot. V. 5. ^351. Hook. Scot. 133. Fl. Dan. t. 504. Ehrh. 

Herb. 34. 
S. n. 1551. Hall. Hist. V. 2. 255. 
Polygonon Germanis Knawel. Trag. Hist. 393. f. 
Polygonum selinoides, sive Knawel. Ger. Em. 566./. 
Knawel. Raii Syn. 159. 
Upright Knawel. Pet. H. Brit. t. 9./. 6, bad. 

In dry sandy fields common. 

Annual, Juhj. 

Root small, tapering. Stems numerous, widely spreading, and 
partly decumbent, round, leafy, a little downy, branched and 
many-flowered at the upper part. Leaves linear, acute, pale 
green, combined at the base by a membranous fringed border. 
Fl. smallj green, nearly sessile, partly axillary^ jnirtly collected 



DECANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Saponaria. 283 

into dense, forked tufts. Tube of the calyx ovate, with 10 ribs 
and as many furrows ; limb widely spreading when in flower, 
less so when in fruit, the segments tapering, acute, the length 
of the tube. Slaniens sometimes fewer than 10, and often un- 
equal in length. Rudiments of the seeds certainly 2, though one 
of them is often abortive. 

2 ^. per €71711 s. Perennial Knawel. 

Calyx of the iViiit with converging obtuse segments, edged 
with a broad ineinbrane. Stems procumbent. 

S. perennis. Lbni. Sp. PL :,S0. UlllcJ. v. 2. 6f)\. Fl. Br. 4bS. 

- Engl. Bot. V. J. t. 352. IL^ok. Scot. 133. FL Dan. t. 5(i3. Ehrh. 
Herb. 44. 

S. n. 1.050. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 254. 

Knawel incanum, flore majore, perenne. Raii Syn. IGO. t. o./. 1. 

Alchimilhi gramineo folio, majori flore. Vaifl. Par. 4. t. 1./. 5. 

Saxifraga anglicana alsinefolia. Ger. Em. 567./. not descr. 

Spreading Knawell. Pet. H. Brit. t. 9./. 7. 

(d. Polygonum cocciferum. Camcr. Epit. 691. f. 

P. polonicum cocciferum. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 378,/. 

P. minus cocciferum. Friscli Insect, fasc. 5. 7. t. 2. 

In h'gli open sandy fields, rare. 

About P^lden, Suffolk, ])lentifully. Ray. Near Snettisham, Nor- 
folk. Mr. Crowe. Near Bury St. Edmund's. Sir John Cul- 
lum, Bart. On gravelly banks near Forfar, rare ; Mr. D. Don. 
Hooker. 

Perennial. August — October. 

Root woody, branched, with many decumbent or ])rostrate stems, 
3 or 4 inches long. Whole //er6 .of a glaucous glistening appear- 
ance, turning reddish with age, especially the stems. Eeavcs 
more tapering, crowded, and curved than in the foregoing. Seg- 
ments of the calyx more obtuse, concave, and finally converging, 
characterized especially by their broad, white, membranous edges, 
nor is there any question of the two species being clearly di- 
stinct. 

In several parts of Europe tiie roots of S. perennis are attacked by 
the insect called Coccus polonicus, Linn. Syst. v. 1. 741, which 
yields a fine crimson dye, and is said likewise to live on .S'. an- 
nuus, and some Potcntiltcp. A good account of its economy is 
given in the l/|)sal Transactions for 1742./). 51. /. 1. 1 have 
never been able to find this insect in England upon S. perennis. 
Figures of tlie plant infested with it are indicated at /3. 

2:52. SAPONARIA. Soapwort. 

I.inn. Gen. 224. Juss. 302. Fl. Br. 459. Lam. t. ?>76. 

Nat. Ord. C(irii()]'liiillfir. I^inn. 22. JubS. 82. Five lidlowiiig 



284 DECANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Saponaria. 

genera the same; also n, 241 — 244", and n, 63, 64. See 
Grammar 159. 

Cal, inferior, of 1 leaf, tubular, without angles, naked at the 
base, five-toothed at the summit, permanent. Pet. 5, 
with narrow angular claws the length of the calyx ; limb 
flat, dilated towards the extremity, obtuse. Filam. awl- 
shaped, the length of the calyx, attached alternately to 
the claws of the petals ; 5 of them later than the rest. 
Anth, oblong, ol3tuse, incumbent. Germ, somewhat 
stalked, nearly cylindrical. Styles 2, erect, parallel, as 
long as the stamens. Stigmas acute, unilaterally downy. 
Caps, ovate-oblong, concealed in the calyx, of 1 cell, 
opening with 4 teeth. Seeds numerous, roundish-kidney- 
shaped, roughish, attached horizontally to a central, un- 
connected, columnar receptacle. 

Herbaceous, smooth or hairy, often viscid. Leaves oppo- 
site, undivided. Stem or panicle forked, bracteated. Fl. 
white, reddish, or yellowish. S. Vaccaria of Linnaeus, 
G(jertn. t. 1 30, is evidently a Gypsophila^ in habit and 
generic character. 

[I believe the teeth, or valves, of the capsule are, in this 
whole order, either just as many as the styles, or more 
frequently double the number ; never bearing any relation 
in that respect to the calyx, corolla, or stamens, except 
incidentally. Linnaeus therefore has greatly erred in his 
descriptions of several of the genera, which many writers, 
and even excellent draughtsmen, have followed, instead 
of looking at the plants before them.] 

1 . S. officinalis. Common Soapwort. 
Calyx cylindrical. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate. 

S. officinalis. Linn. Sp. PI. 584. Willd. v. 2. 667. Fl. Br. 459, 

Engl. Bot. V. 15. t. 1060. Curt. Loml. fasc. 2. t. 29. Woodv. 

suppL t.25\. Hook. Scot. 134. Fl. Dan. t. 543. Bull. Fr. 

t. 257. 
S. n. 908. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 395. 

Saponaria. Ger. Em. 444. f. Dod. Pempt. 170. f. Lob. 7c. 314./. 
S. major. Dalech. Hist. 822./. 
Lychnis Saponaria dicta. Raii Sijn. 339. 
Struthium. FMc/^s.^H^^5^. 780./ veiy bad^ copied in Trag. Hist. 900 y 

and Bauh. Hist.'v. 3. p. 2. 346. 
/3. Saponaria concavaanglica. Bauh. Pin.206. Prodr. 103. Mans. 

V.2. 54S. sect. 5. t.22.f.53. 
Lychnis Saponaria dicta, folio convolute. Raii Syn. 339. 
Gentiana concava. Ger. Em. 435. f. 



DECANDRIA—DIGYNIA. Dianthus. 285 

G. folio convoluto. Baiih. Hist. v. 3. 521./. 

Hollow Sope-wort. Pet. H. Brit. t.o7.f.4. 

In meadows, by river sides, and under hedges. 

/3. First found by Gerarde, in Northamptonshire. On sandy hills 
7 miles to the north of Liverpool. Dr. Bostock. 

Perennial. August, September. 

Root branching, rather fleshy, with many long creeping scions. 
Herb smooth, or nearly so, a little succulent. Stems about 13 
inches high, erect, round, leafy ; panicled in the upper part. 
Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, acute, 3-ribbed, entire ; combined at 
the base. P(/«ic/edense, hemispherical, many-flowered, repeatedly 
forked, with short, opposite, downy stalks. Bracteas opposite, 
lanceolate, taper-pointed. Fl. erect, large, handsome, flesh-co- 
loured, or pale pink, with an oppressive sweetness. Cat. some- 
what downy, an incli long. Pet. with a slight notch at the end j 
their claws with 4 sharp angles, and crowned with a cloven 
scale. A variety with double flowers is sometimes found wild, 
and is frequent in gardens. /3 has some of the upper leaves 
combined, and sheathing, with a monopetalous corolla. It is a 
curious variety, but has no affinity to Gentiana. 

233. DIANTHUS. Pink. 

Linn. Gen. 22b. Juss. 302. Fl. Br. 460. Lam. t. 376. Gartn. 
t. 129. 

Caryophyllus. Tourn. t. 1/4. 

Tunica. " Dill. Elth. 400. t. 298. 

Nat. Orel, see n. 232. 

Cal. inferior, of 1 leaf, tubular, cylindrical, striated, perma- 
nent; with 5 teeth at the orifice; and 2, or more, pair 
of opposite, imbricated scales at the base. Pet. 5 ; claws 
as long as the calyx, narrow, angular, attached to the 
receptacle ; limb fiat, dilated outwards, obtuse, variously 
notched. Filam. awl-shaped, as long as the calyx, or 
longer; spreading at the sunnnit; otten more or less 
combined at the base. Aiit/i. oval-oblong, compressed, 
incumbent. Germ, somewhat stalked, oval. Styles awl- 
shaped, longer than the stamens. Stigm. recurved, 
pointed, downy along the upper side. Caps, covered by 
tlie calyx, cylindrical, of 1 cell, opening with t teeth. 
Seeds numerous, roundish, com])ressed, attached to a 
central, unconnected, cohimnar receptacle. 

Herbaceous, or somewhat shrubby, nu)slly glaucous and 
generally smooth. Leaves ojiposite, linear, combined, 
keeled, sometimes rouf^h-cd^ed. Fl. terminal, airixrciiate 
or solitary, erect, red or white, elegant, often fragraiU ; 
tlisk of their /t/i'/As- sometime-- liairv. 



286 DECANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Dianthus. 

* Flowo'S aggregate. 

1. D. Armeria, Deptford Pink. 

Flowers aggregate, tufted. Scales of the calyx lanceolate, 
downy, as long as the tube. Petals serrated. 

D. Armeria. Linn. Sp. PL 586. Willd.v.2.673. Fl.Br.460. Engl. 

Bof.v.5.t.3\7. Hook. Lo7ul.t. 134. Scot\34, FLDan.t. 230. 

Ehrh.Herb. 145. 
Caryophyllus latifoUus barbatus minor annuus, flora minore. Rail 

Syn. 337. 
C. pratensis. Ger. Em.594.f. 
Tunica n. 900. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 392. 
Armeria sylvestris altera, &c. Lob. Ic. 44S./. 
Viola barbata angustifolia. Dalech. Hist. 810./. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. 

p. 2. 335./. 
Deptford Pink. Pet. H. Brit. t. 56.f. 5. 

In pastures, and about hedges, on a gravelly soil. 

Annual. July, August. 

Root tapering. Herb grass-green, downy. Stem afoot high, leafy; 
forked and corymbose at the upper part, with straight, stiff 
branches. Leaves linear-lanceolate, keeled, erect ; lowermost 
obtuse and spreading. Fl. small, inodorous, speckled with pink 
and white, only one open at a time in each tuft ; their calyx- 
scales remarkably long, taper, ribbed and downy. Stigmas nearly 
sessile. 



2. D. prolifer. Proliferous Pink. 



Flowers aggregate, capitate. Scales of the calyx ovate, 
obtuse, pointless, membranous, overtopping the tube. 

D. prolifer. Linn. Sp. PI. 587. Willd.v.2.673. Fl.Br.460. Engl. 

Bat. V. 14. t. 956. Ft. Dan. t.22\. Ehrh. Phytoph. 64. 
Caryophyllus sylvestris prolifer. Bauh. Pin. 209. Dill, in Rati Syn. 

337. Seguier Veron. v. 1 . 433. t. 7.f. 1 . Best. Hort. Eyst. cestiv. 

ord.\4.t. 13./ 2. 
Tunica n. 901. Hall. Hist. v. 1.393. 

Armeria prolifera. Lob. Ic. 449./. Ger. Em. 599./ Merr. Pin. 10. 
Betonica coronaria squamosa sylvestris. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 

335. f. 
(5. Dianthus diminutus. Linn. Sp. PI. 587. Willd. v. 2. 674. 
Caryophyllo prolifero affinis, unico ex quolibet capitulo flore. Bauh. 

Pin. 209. 

In gravelly pastures, rare. 

In Selsey island, Sussex ; Rev. Mr. Manningham. Dill. Meadows 
between Hampton-court and Tuddington. Merrett. In the bor- 
ders of a field opposite to the mill, out of St. Austin's gates. 



DECANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Dlantlms. 28T 

Norwich. Mr. Humphrey. In a marl pit at Landridge hill, 
Hanley castle, Worcestershire j Mr. Ballard. H'ithering. 

Annual. July. 

Root small, tapering. Herb grass-green, smooth, except the edges 
and ribs of the short, linear, acute leaves, which are rough with 
minute sharp teeth. Stem from 3 to 18 inches high, round, 
rushy, smooth, more or less branched. Fl. scentless, in sohtary, 
terminal, stalked heads, encompassed with 4 broad, membranous, 
dry, concave, obtuse scales, as long as the ca/yx, or longer 3 be- 
sides 2 narrow ones to each Jiower. Pet. rose-coloured, inversely 

heart-shaped, small, smooth. /3 is a starved variety, bearing 

solitary, not aggregate, ^oit^ers. 

** Flowers solitari/, several on the same stem. 

3. D. Caryophyllus. Clove Pink, or Carnation. 

Flowers solitary. Scales of the calyx almost rhomboid, very 
short. Petals notched, beardless. 

D. Caryophyllus. Linn. Sp. PL :S7. mild. v. 2. 074. Sm. Tr. of 
Lbm.Soc.v. 2. 299. fl.Br.46i. Engl. Dot. v. 'd. t. 2\4. Ehrh. 
PL Of. 144. 

Caryophyllus simplex, flore minore, pallide rubente. Bauh. Pin. 
208. 'RaiiSyn.:^36. 

C. sylvestris tertius, flore pallido suav^ rubente. Lob. Ic. 443./. 

C. sylvestris simplex. Ger. Em. 59 1 ./. 

Caryophylli flores sylvcstres. Camer. Epit. 35 1 ,/. 

Tunica n. 800. Hall. Hist. 2;. 1. 391. 

Wall Pink. PeL H. BriL t. 56./. 1. 

/3. Dianthus arenarius. Huds. 185, excluding the syn. 

On old ruinous walls. 

On Rochester, Deal, Sandown, and otlier castles, plentifully. Huds. 
On walls in Norwich, and other old towns. 

Perennial. July. 

Root rather woody, branching at tlie crown. Herbage glaucous, 
destitute of pubescence. Stem branched in a paniclcd manner, 
bearing several fragant, pale red flowers, solitary at the top of 
each branch. Leaves linear, channelled ; finely toothed just 
above the base ; entire and smooth towards the point. Scales 
of the ralyvA, ribbed, pointed, not a quarter so long as the 
tube; the 2 outermost narrowest. iV/. smooth j their outer 
edge unequally and sh:u-j)ly toothed. Stam. sometimes very 

short and abortive, as represented in Engl. But. Tliis is the 

origin of our fine garden carnations. 

Mr. Hudson told mc his I), arenarius wits the common Pheasant's- 
cye Pink, of which there are so many double varieties. If I 
mistake not, tliis has always a few hairs on tht' disk of vnch petal, 
near the claw, whicli indicates a specific ditference. it is not. 



288 DECANDRIA—DIGYNIA. Dianthus. 

however^ the arenarius of Linneeus, nor has it been distinguished 
by botanists. Thejlowers are white, with a dark purple circle 
round the mouth. It may perhaps be Mr. Doody's " hairy 
species, frequent in Kent," noticed by Dillenius in R. Syn. 336, 
at the bottom ; and the subject is worth the notice of those who 
may find wild specimens. 

4. D. deltoides. Maiden Pink. 

Flowers solitary. Scales of the calyx ovate-lanceolate, acute, 
seldom more than two. Leaves bluntish, somewhat downy. 
Petals notched, smooth. 

D. deltoides. Linn. Sp. PL 588. Ullld. v. 2. 676. Fl. Br. 462. 

E?igl. Bot. v.\.t.6\. Sm. Tr. of L. Soc. v. 2. 300. Hook. Scot. 

134. Fl. Dan. t. 577. Ehrh. Herb. 1 15. 
Caryophyllus minor repens nostras. Rail Syn. 335. 

C. montanus purpureus. Ger. Em. 593./. 

/3. Dianthus glaucus. Linn. Sp. PI. 588. Lighff. 225. 
Tunica ramosior, flore candido, cum corolla purpurea. Dill. Elth. 
400. ^.298./. 384. 

In pastures, and the grassy borders of fields, on a gravelly or sandy 
soil. /3 in the King's Park, Edinburgh, according to Lightfoot. 

Perennial. July — October. 

Root rather woody, much branched and tufted at the crown. Stems 
numerous, decumbent, matted, leafy ; when in flower ascending, 
a span high, alternately branched, slightly downy, each bearing 
,3 or 4, or more, inodorous, but very pretty, Jlowers. Leaves 
linear-lanceolate, a little downy ; rough at the edges. Cal. 
striated, somewhat downy, often purplisli, with 2 narrow- ovate, 
pointed scales, lialf the length of the tube, often attended by 2 
lanceolate ones. Pet. unecjually notched, pale rose-coloured, 
with a circle of a deeper hue round the mouth of the flower, 
which is destitute of all roughness. 

/3 has very glaucous leaves, most generally 4 scales to the calyx , 
and white petals, with a violet-purple circle. 

*** Stems single-^o'wered, heihaceous. 

5. D. ccEshis. Mountain Pink. 

Stems single-flowered. Scales of the calyx short, roundish. 
Leaves rough-edged. Petals unequally notched, hairy. 

D. caesius. Fl. Br. 463. Engl. Bot. v.\.t. 62. Sm. Tr. of L. Soc. 
i;. 2. 302. mild. Sp.Pl.v,2.6S2. With.4ll. 

D. virgineus (3. Linn. Sp. PL 590. 
D. glaucus. Huds. 185. Hill Fl. Br. t.26.f\. 
Armeriae species, flore in summo caule singular!. Rail Syn. ed, 2. 
199. eJ. 3. 336. 



DECANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Dianthus. 289 

Armerius flos tertius. Dod. Pempt. l/C./. 

Caryophyllus sylvestris humilis, flore unico. Bauh. Pin. 209. 

C. virgineus. Ger. Em. 594./. 12. 

C. repens humilis minimus vulgatissimus rubellus. Lob. Ic. 445./. 

C. sylvestrisj Alsines, holosteae arvensis glabrae foliis, flore unico, 

calyce barbato. Phik. Almag. 87. Phyt. t. 8 1 ./. 3, very bad. 
Caryophylleus flos sylvestris primus. Clus. Hist. v. 1. 282./, with 

an excellent and correct description. 
Tunica rupestris, folio csesio molli, flore carneo. Dill. Elth. 401. 

^.298./ 385. 

On dry limestone rocks, very rare. 

On the abrupt precipices of Chedder rocks, Somersetshire. Brewer, 
Dillenius, Lightfoot, and others. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root woody, branched at the crown, with many leafy tufts. Herbage 
very glaucous. Stems from 4 to G inches high, erect, simple, 
leafy, smooth, quadrangular, very rarely indeed bearing more 
than one flower. Leaves linear-lanceolate, rather bluntish, 
various in breadth, rough-edged 3 the radical ones numerous, 

' crowded ; those on the stem about 3 pair. Ft. delightfully fra- 
grant, of a delicate pale rose-colour. Cat furrowed, with 4 
roundish-ovate, striated, bluntly pointed, scales. Petals doubly, 
or unequally, notched, streaked, and bearded with purplish hairs, 
on the disk, towards the claw. 

The old synonym and figure of Clusius, Lobel, Gerarde, Dodo- 
naeus, &c., hitherto left in great uncertainty, can scarcely belong 
to any species but this ; which, though little understood, proves, 
as Lobel says, a very general plant. I have wild specimens from 
Piedmont, Switzerland, Bohemia and Germany. Some call it 
glaucus, some virgineus, and others plumarius ; all erroneously, 
except that Linnaeus did indeed refer it, as a variety, to his vir- 
gineus, but without com})aring specimens, nor do they materially 
accord. Nothing can be better than the description in Clusius, 
which is of primary authority. Dillenius having rejected the 
synonyms of Dodoiiieus and Clusius for the species in question, 
I was led into the same error j see Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 2. 297 ; 
though Mr. Dryander warned me, at the time, that he had found 
Dillenius incorrect in synonyms 3 whicii his edition of Ray's 
Synopsis too often confirms. 



VOL. 11. 



290 DECANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Silene. 

DEC ANURIA TRIGYNIA, 

CUCUBALUS haccifer, which has hitherto found a place 
in every British Flora, and which, in Fl, Brit. 464^, stands 
as the only representative of its genus, must here be 
omitted. Dillenius, in his edition of Ray's Synopsis^ 267, 
speaks of this plant as having been " gathered in hedges 
in Anglesea, {Mona,) by Mr. Foulkes of Llanbeder, and 
sent by him to Dr. Richardson." Now it appears, by a 
subsequent letter from the same gentleman, preserved in 
the archives of the Richardson family, and published in 
the Correspondence of LinncEus and other naturalists, 
London 1821, t;. 2. 171, that he, Mr. Foulkes, only re- 
ceived a7i account of the Cucuhalus " from one who pre- 
tended to know^ plants very well," but that he could never 
find it, nor has this account ever been confirmed. The 
figure in E7igl. Bot. v, 22. t, 1577 was necessarily drawn 
from a garden specimen. 

234. SILENE. Catcbfly, or Campion. 

Lmn.Gen.22^. Juss.^02. FlBr.A^b. Lam.t.377. Gcertn. t.lSO. 
Cucubalus. Linn. Gen. 225 ; (except C. baccifer, which is Tourn. 

t. 176.) Juss. 302. Lam. t. Z11 .f. 2. 
Viscago. Bill. Elth. 416. t. 309—317. 

Nat. Ord. see ji. 232. , 

Cat. inferior, of 1 leaf, tubular, angular or furrowed, with 5 
marginal teeth, or oblong segments, permanent. Pet. 5 ; 
claws narrow, as long as the calyx, bordered, dilated up- 
ward, attached to the receptacle, which is cylindrical, 
sometimes much elongated and columnar ; limb flat, in- 
volute in the bud, obtuse, either undivided or cloven, 
either naked at the base, or furnished with 2, simple or 
divided, distinct or combined, upright scales, which form 
a crown at the mouth of the flower. Filain. awl-shaped, 
5 alternate ones attached to the petals, and rather later 
than the rest. Anth. oblong, or roundish. Germ, cylin- 
drical. Styles short, erect. Stigmas oblong, oblique, 
downy along the upper or inner side. Caps, covered by 
the calyx, ovate-oblong, often stalked, imperfectly 3-celled, 
opening by 6 teeth, more or less deeply separated, at the 
summit. fe6?5 numerous, kidney- shaped, stalked, rough- 
ish, attached to the central column. 

Herbaceous, occasionally somewhat shrubby, often annual, 



DECANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Silene. 291 

either hairy or smooth. Stem leafy, branched, or forked, 
round, jointed, mostly erect; rarely simple and single- 
flowered. Leaves opposite, undivided, entire, with short 
combined footstalks. Stijmlas none. Ft. terminal or 
lateral, mostly erect, red, blush-coloured, or white ; some- 
times fragrant at night. Linnaeus founded his genus 
Cuciibalus on the absence of scales at the base of the limb, 
which nevertheless are present in C. baccifer^ and which 
not only would often separate species most nearly akin, 
but are inconstant in the same species. It is very re- 
markable that this great botanist sliould have attributed 
5 teeth, or valves, to the capsule ; whereas they are always 
6, being naturally double the number of the styles. \et 
several authors have followed him. 

* Stem racemose, occasionally somewhat forked. 

1. S. angUca, English Catchfly. 

Hairy and viscid. Petals slighdy cloven. Flowers lateral, 
alternate, erect. Lower capsides spreading or reflexed. 

S, anglica. Linn. Sp. PL 594. WiUd.v.2. 601. Fl.Br.40o. Engl. 
Bot. V. 17. t. II 78. Curt. Lond.fasc. 4. t. 30. Dicks. II. Sice. 
fasc. 13. 18. 

\'iscago cerastei foliis_, vasculis pendulis, anglica. Dill. ElthAM. 
^.309./. 398. 

Lychnis sylvestris, flore albo minimo. Bad Sijn. 339. 

L. sylvestris hirsuta annua, flore minore albo. faill. Par. 121. 

L. arvensis anglica. Loh. lUustr. 97 . 

In cultivated fields, on a gravelly or sandy soil. 

About Combe in Surrey. Iluds. Curt. In Cambridgeshire. Raijy 
Rellian. Between Dundee and St. Andrews j and near Perth. 
Mr.Mackay. In Hertfordshire. Mr. 7'. F. For^/er, At Laken- 
ham and Costesy, near Norwich. 

Annual. June, July. 

Boot fibrous, rather small. Ilcrh of a darkish green, shortly and 
densely hairy, slightly glutinous, very various in luxuriance. 
Stt'm branched, spreading, or recumbent, unc(iually hairy, tumid 
above each joint. Leaves lanceolate, or obovate, single-ribbed, 
acute, entire, 1-^ or 2 inches long, sliglitly succulent. Fl. soli- 
tary, from tlie bosoms of the upper leaves, on short stalks, erect. 
Cat. cylindrical, afterwards ovate, with .'» hairy viscid green ribs, 
the intermediate spaces j)ale and membranous. Pet. small, 
white, or faintly tinged with red, cloven, but not deeply; each 
with a white cloven scale at the summit of the claw. Capsule 
tawny, smooth, rigid, invested with tlie j^crmaiicnt calyx, and 
nearly as long. Several of tlie lowermost stand on longer 
stalks, more or less sj)rending, or bent downwards. 

L 1 



292 DECANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Silene. 

2. S. qumquevulnera. Variegated Catchfly. 

Hairy. Petals roundish, entire. Flowers lateral, alternate, 
erect, as well as the capsules. Calyx somewhat shaggy. 

S. quinquevulnera. Linn, Sp. Pl.595. Willd.v.2.69l. Fl.BrAGG. 

Engl Bot. V. 2. t. 86. Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc. 18.12. 
Lychnis vulnerata. Scop. Cam. v. 1. 309. 
L. hirta minoi';, flora variegato. Dodart Mem. 99. f. ed. Amst. 601. 

t.23. 

In sandy corn-fields, rare. 

Near Wrotham, Kent. Hudson. 

Annual. June, July. 

Root small, tapering. Herb of a rather darker green than the pre- 
ceding, more densely hairy, but less viscid, and generally less 
luxuriant. Cal. with many long, loose, shaggy, white hairs, in- 
termixed with the shorter and thicker pubescence, especially 
about the upper part, and rather smaller when in fruit, as well 
as more upright, the lowermost of all only being very rarely di- 
varicated or reflexed. Limb of each petal orbicular, wavy, but 
not cloven ; the disk of a deep but rich crimson -, the margin 
white, as well as the cloven scales. 

Frequently cultivated in gardens, where its flowers, though small, 
make a brilliant appearance. 

** Stein forked; branches pa7iicled. 

3. S. inflata. Bladder Campion or Catchfly. 

Flowers copiously panicled, drooping. Petals cloven half 
w^ay down, mostly without scales. Calyx smooth, in- 
flated, reticulated. Stem erect. Leaves ovate, acute. 

S. inflata. R. Br. 467. Comp. 68. Prodr. Ft. Grcec. v. 1. 293. 

Hook. Scot. 134, a. 
Cucubalus inflatus. Salisb. Prodr. 302. 
C.Behen. Linn. Sp. PI. 591. mUd.v. 2. 6S4. Huds. 186. Engl. 

Bot. V. 3.t.\ 64. Fl. Dan. ^ 9 1 4. Dreves Bilderb. t. 50. Ehrh. 

PI. Of. 454. Bull.Fr.t.32\. 
Lychnis Behen. Scop. Cam. v. 1. 305. 
L. sylvestris quae Been album vulgo. Bauli. Pin. 205. Rail Syn. 

337. 
Viscago n. 913. Hall. Hist. ?;. 1.397. 
Been album officinarum. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. 356./. 
Behen album. Ger. Em. 678./. 
B. album, sive Polemonium. Dod. Pempt. 172. f. 
Polemonium Dodoneei. Dahch. Hist, \\86.f. 
Melandryum Plinii quorundam. Clus. Hist. v. 1, 293. f. 
/3. Lychnis Papaver spumeum latifolium vulgare hirsutum. Moris. 

Bles. 124. 



DECANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Silene. 293 

In fields, pastures, and by way sides^, common. 

(3 near Cromer, Norfolk. Mr. D. Turner. 

Perennial. Julij. 

Root whitish, greatly subdivided, and tufted, at the crown. Herb 
glaucous, and generally very smooth ; but in /3 the foliage, as 
well as the leafy part of the stem, is clothed with short dense 
hairs. Stem round, hollow, erect, branched, 2 or 3 feet high j 
naked and panicled at the top. Leaves sessile, single-ribbed, 
ovate, or ovate-lanceolate, varying much in width, about 2 inches 
long. Panicle terminal, repeatedly forked, spreading, many- 
flowered, with very smooth round branches. Bracteas small, 
membranous, lanceolate, acute, in pairs under each partial stalk. 
Flowers drooping or pendulous, stalked, inodorous. Cal. ellip- 
tical, very smooth, bladdery, pale, often purplish, with 20 green, 
not prominent, ribs, connected by a net-work of similar trans- 
verse veins. Pet. nearly twice the length of the calyx, white, 
with a spreading limb, which is divided half way down, into 2 
narrow-obovate segments, tumid, and sometimes doubly crested, 
at their base, just above the dilated summit of each claw. Precept. 
thick and angular, as long as the young, often purple, germen, 
which it elevates with the petals and stamens. Anthers often 
diseased, so as to produce a copious ])urple powder instead of 
pollen. Caps, ovate, rigid, with 6 marginal recurved teeth. 

Dr. \\'ithering says the boiled leaves taste like peas, and proved of 
great use in a famine at Minorca in 1685. 

4. S. marit'ima. Sea Campion or Catchfly. 

Flow^ers slightly panicled, or solitary, terminal. Petals 
cloven, each with a cloven acute scale. Calyx smooth, 
inflated, reticulated. Stem recumbent. Leaves lanceo- 
late. 

5. maritima. With. \\\. Fl. Br. 468. Engl. Bot. v. 14. t. 957. 
WWd. Sp. PL V. 2. 700. Hull 127. 

S. amoina. Huds. ]S8. Light/. 227. 

S. uniflora. Roth. Catal. v. 1. 52. 

S. inflata /3. Hook. Scot. 135. 

Cucubalus Ikhen /3. Linn. Sp. P/. 59 1 . Fl. Dan. t. 857. 

Lychnis maritima repens. Bauh. Pin. 205. Rail Syn.337. 

L. marina anglicana. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. /). 2. 357./. Ger. Em. 469. f. 

Lob. /(•. '6'M.f. Dalech. Hist. 136 1 ./. 
L. perennis angustifolia marina anglica procumbens. Moris, v. 2. 

535. sect. 3. ^ 20./. 2. 
On the sandy or stony sea coast, as well as in the beds of alpine 

torrents. 
Perennial. August, September. 
This reseml>les the last in its glaucous colour, and general aspect, 

but is certainly a distinct species, retaining all its churiicteru 



294 DECANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Silene, 

when propagated by seed in a garden. The root creeps exten- 
sively. The stems are about a span high ; prostrate and branched 
in the lower part , the flowering extremities ascending, or erect. 
Leaves lanceolate, not ovate, scarcely above an inch long ; al- 
ways smooth, as far as I have seen. Fl. larger and handsomer 
than the foregoing, more upright, often solitary, sometimes 2 or 
3 together, never perhaps more. Calyx strongly reticulated. 
Pet. broader, in general less deeply cloven, each with an acute 
divided scale at the base of the limb. Styles occasionally 4 or 5. 
Caps, almost globular, not half so long as the permanent calyx. 
The edges of the leaves are often finely and sharply toothed. 

**■* Stem, and branches if any, forked, leafy, 

5. S. cojiica. Striated Corn Catchfly. 

Stem forked. Petals cloven, each with a cloven acute scale. 
Leaves softly downy. Calyx when in fruit conical, with 
thirty furrows. 

S. conica. Linn. Sp. PL 598, Willd. v. 2. 698. Fl.Br.A70. Engl. 

Bot. V. 13. t. 922. Fl. GnEc. v. 5. t. 423. Jacq. Austr. t. 253. 

Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc. 18. 1 1. 
S. conoidea. Huds. 189. 
Lychnis sylvestris angustifolia, caliculis turgidis striatis. Bauh. Pin. 

205 . Dill, in Raii Syn. 34 1 . 
L. sylvestris altera incana, caliculis (not cauliculis) striatis. Loh. 

Ic. 338./; bad, all the flowers tetrapetalous. 
L. sylvestris incana Lobelii. Ger. Em. 470./. the same. 
Muscipulse majori, calyce ventricoso^ similis. Bauh. Hist. v. 3.350. 

/. with the same fault. 

In sandy fields, rare. 

A little to the north of Sandown castle plentifully. J. Sherard and 
Rand. Opposite the warren house at New Romney, Kent. 
Rev. Mr. Stacy. 

Annual. July. 

Root small, tapering. Herbage soft and downy, of a dull greyish 
green. Stem upright, from 3 inches to 2 feet high, usually re- 
peatedly forked ; in a starved state sometimes single-flowered ; 
always leafy, round, finely downy. Leaves sessile, linear-lan- 
ceolate, acute, single-ribbed, downy, combined and slightly 
membranous at the base, Fl. from the forks of the stem, stalked, 
solitary, erect, fragrant in an evening with the scent of a honey- 
suckle. Cat. cylindrical, with deep taper teeth ; abrupt at the 
base 3 and having 30 close, longitudinal, downy, green ribs, 
which as the fruit advances become separated by the pale, some- 
what downy, membranous body of the calyx, then become turgid 
and ovate, or conical. Petals small, each with a red cloven 
limb, and a deeply divided scale ; the claw also terminating up- 



DECANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Silene. 295 

wards in an angular tooth at each side. Caps, ovate^ rigid, not 
quite so long as the calyx. 

5. conoidea has broader and smoother leaves, with less divided 
petals ; but this last character is variable, and I believe there is 
no permanent distinction between the two. Old authors have 
confounded their figures. That of Lobel and Gerarde, indicated 
above, is very faulty, yet cannot be taken for any thing else than 
our S. conica. Lychnis syhestris secunda, Cliis. Hist. v. 1 . 288, 
is an excellent representation of the conoidea. The same cut 
maybe seen in Ger. Em. 4/0. n. 7 ; and it stands in Lob. Ic. 339, 
as L. sylvestris tertia of Clusius ; an evident mistake, which was 
previously committed in Dalechamp's Hist. 8 1 8. This cut gives 
a far more correct idea of S. conica than what was intended for 
that plant. Muscipula, sive Viscaria, Lob. Ic. 453. Advers. 190. 
/. 1 , referred by Linnaeus, on Bauhin's authority, to his own 

S. Muscipula , is also very like conica. 

6. S. noct'iflora. Night-flowering Catcbfly. 

Stem forked. Petals cloven, each with a cloven abrupt 
scale. Calyx with ten hairy ribs ; its teeth linear, almost 
as long as the tube. 

S. noctiflora. Linn. Sp. PL 599. IVilld. v. 2. 70\. Fl. Br. 470. 

Engl. BoL V. 5. ^. 29 1 . Hook. Scot. 135. 
Viscago n. 91 1. Hall. Hist. v. 1.396. 

Lychnis noctiflora. Bank. Pin. 205. RaiiSyn. 340. Schreb.Lips.3\. 
L. frutescens noctiflora. 31oris. v. 2. 538. sect. 5. t.20.f. 12. 
Ocimoides noctiflorum. Canier.Hort. 109. t 34. 
Ocimastrum noctiflorum, flore albo. Best. Hart. Eyst. csstiv. ord. 7. 

t. 12./. 3. 

in fields on a sandy or gravelly soil. 

In Cambridgeshire. Ray, Relfian. Oxfordshire. Sibth. Very com- 
mon about Wetherby, Yorkshire. Sir T. Frankland. Not rare 
in Suftblk, or Norfolk, especially on the west side of Norwich, 

Annual. July. 

Root small, tapering. Herbage dark green, soft and downy, rather 
viscid. Stem erect, round, repeatedly forked, spreading, from 
one to two feet high. Leaves lanceolate, acute, imperfectly 
3-ribbcd, 2 or 3 inches long ; the lower ones broader, and obo- 
vatc. El. solitary in each fork of the stem, stalked, erect, ex- 
panding about sun-set, and closing early in the morning, very 
sweet-scented during the night, ('(d. large, elliptic-oblong, pale, 
with 10 green hairy ribs, connected by small veins; the teeth 
narrow, erect, green and hairy, almost half as long as tlie tube 
when the flowir first o})ens. Prt. with a pale blush-coloured, 
deeply divided limb, involute during tlie day-time, as well as in 
the bud, and having a short, blunt, cloven scale, or crown. 
Caps, ovate, on a tliick stalk. 



296 DECANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Silene. 
*-;!f** Panicle forked^ corymbose^ leaflets. 
7. S. Armeria. Common, or Lobel's, Catchfly. 
Panicles forked, level-topped, many-flowered. Petals cloven, 
each with a double awl-shaped scale. Calyx and leaves 
smooth. Capsule not longer than its stalk. 

S Armeria. Unn.Sp.Pl.^^X. Willd. v. 2. 7 05. Ft. Br. 471. Engl. 
Bot. V. 20. t. 1398. Fl. Dan. t. 559. 

Viscagon. 916. HaZ^.Hw^.i). 1.398. 

Lychnis viscosa purpurea latifolia Isevis. Bauh. Pin. 205. Dill, in 
Rail Syn. 341. 

L. sylvestris prima. Clus. Hist. v. 1. 288./. 

Avmerius flos quartus. Dod. Pempt. 176./. 

Muscipula, sive Armoraria altera, et Armerius flos tertius Dodonsei. 
Loh. Ic. 454. f. 

M. sive Armeria altera. Dalech. Hist. 809. f. 

M.Lobelii. Ger. Em. 60\.f. 

In fields, or on banks, or old walls, a doubtful native. 

On the banks of the river, half a mile below Chester. Dr. Rich- 
ardson. 

Annual. Jiihj, August. 

Root tapering. Herb smooth, glaucous. Stem erect, round, alter- 
nately branched, leafy, with a brown, hairy and glutinous ring, 
under 2 or 3 of the upper joints, by which small flies are caught. 
Leaves sessile, ovate-oblong, of a light glaucous green, very 
smooth. Panicles terminal, erect, repeatedly forked, dense, 
corymbose, with a pair of small acute bracteas under each sub- 
division. Fl. on very short stalks, except the lowermost, erect, 
crowded, inodorous. Cal. tubular, swelling upwards, very 
smooth, often reddish, with 10 ribs, and 5 teeth, not 10 as de- 
scribed in Engl. Bot.; the base abrupt. Limb of the petals rose- 
coloured, varying to white, obovate, cloven, always spreading, 
with an upright, tapering, acute, reddish pair of scales at the 
base. Cap3. ovate, within the calyx, elevated on a columnar 
stalk, often more than its ow^n length. 

Often cultivated, as a hardy annual, in flower-gardens, from whence 
it may occasionally escape into the country. 

«*-**^. Stall panicled, imperfectli/ forJced, 

8. S. nutans, Nottingham Catchfly. 

Panicle with drooping, unilateral, pardy forked, branches. 

Petals deeply cloven, with linear segments, and an acute 

cloven scale. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, downy. 
S nutans. Linn. Sp. PI. 596. Willd.v.2. 694. FLBr.466. Engl. 

Bot. V. 7, ^.465. Hook. Scot. 135. Fl. Dan. f. 242. Ehrh. Herb, 

155. 



DECANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Silene. 297 

Viscago n. 915. Hall. Hist. v. 1 .397'. 

Lychnis sylvestris alba nona Clusii. Rail Syn. 340. ed. 2. 201. 

' Ger. Em.470.f. Decring Nott. 137. 
L. sylvestris nona. Clus. Hist. v. 1 . 291 ./. 
L. silvestris, sen montana latifolia viscosa, florum petalis supra 

albis, subtus virescentibus, interdiu se contrahentibus. Moris. 

V.2. 535. sect.D. t.20.f.4. 
Broad White Catchfly. Pet. H. Brit. t. 57. f. 7. 
/3. Silene paradoxa. Fl. Br. 467 ; excluding the synonyms of Lin- 

nceus, Jacquin and Zannoni. See Fl. Br. 1397. 
Cucubalus viscosus. Huds. 186 ; excl. the syn. ofLinnceus and Tilli. 
Lychnis major noctiflora Dubrensis perennis. Raii Syn. 340. ed. 2. 

211. Hist. V. 2. 995. 

On limestone rocks, or chalky cliffs. 

On the walls of Nottingham castle, and thereabout j T. Willisel. 
Ray. In Dovedale, Derbyshire. Mr. Woodward. Near North 
Queen's ferry, Scotland. Mr. Mackay. In Caernarvonshire. 
Mr. Pennant. On rocks about Knaresborough, Yorkshire. Rev. 
Archdeacon Peirson. 

/3. On Dover cliffs ; Mr. Newton. Ray. Gathered there by Mr. 
T. F. Forstcr. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root tapering, somewhat fleshy, bearing one or more upright 

flowering stems, and several recumbent leafy shoots. Stems 12 

or 18 inches high, bent and reclining in the lower part only, 

otherwise erect, simple, leafy, round, rough with short dense 

hoary pubescence. Leaves in like manner hoary all over, about 

2 inches long, lanceolate, acute, single-ribbed ; the lower and 

radical ones more obovate, tapering at the base into bordered 

footstalks. Panicle terminal, nearly erect, of several pairs of 

opposite, spreading, drooping, bracteatcd, downy, more or less 

forked, branches, each bearing from 3 to 5 flowers, the terminal 

branch most erect. Flowers drooping, white, most expanded, 

and very sweet-scented, in an evening. Cal. half an inch long, 

swelling upwards, membranous, with 10 downy viscid ribs, often 

purplish. Pet. twice the length of the calyx, each with a narrow 

claw, a deeply cloven, narrow, obtuse, involute limb, and a double 

acute scale. Styles either very short, or in some flowers much 

elongated and pur])lish. Stigma.'^ long, obtuse, downy, ('aj)s. 

ovate, bluntly angular, on a shortish thick stalk. Seeds rugged. 

)3, a long disputed j)lant, I have seen brought from Dover clifl's, 

and cultivated by Mr. Forstcr. It seems, as Kay thought, not 

distinct from the common N. nutans, though with somewhat 

l)roa(ler leaves, and, according to its first discoverer Mr. Newton, 

much less viscidity. In the panicle, Jfowrrs, and variou.^ lencth 

n( .sti/les, 1 can find no diflerence. Miller mistook N. paradoxa 

f(tr tiu' Dover ('atchfl\-, and sent it as such to Minueus j but I 



298 DECANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Silene. 

cannot learn that this grows at Dover, nor are Buddie's and 
Petiver's specimens, mentioned in Fl. Br. 1397, perhaps any 
thing else than S. nutans, of a larger size than usual, and ill 
dried. 

9. S. Otites. Spanish Catchfly. 

Panicle with tufted, somewhat umbellate, upright branches. 
Flowers dioecious. Petals linear, undivided, naked. 
Leaves spatulate, roughish. 

S. Otites. Fl. Br. 469. Comp. 68. Prodr. Fl. Grcec. v. 1 . 300. 
Cucubalus Otites. Linn. Sp. PL 594. JVUld. V.2.68S. Huds. 186. 

Engl. Bot. V. 2. t. 83. Fl. Dan. t.b\S. Ehrh. Beitr. v. 7. 142. 

PL Off. 214. 
Viscago n. 920. HalL HisL v. 1. 399. 
Lychnis Otites. Scop. Cam. v. 1. 305. 
L. viscosa, flore muscoso, Bauh. Pin. 206. Raii Syn. 340. 
L. sylvestris sesamoides minor, flore muscoso, luteo-lierbaceo. 

Mentz.PugilLt.2.f.2. 
Sesamoides magnum salmanticum. Clus. Hist. v. I. 295./. Ger. 

Em. 493./. 
Muscipula, sive Armoraria altera. Lob.Ic.453.f. 
M. altera, flore muscoso. Dalech. Hist. 684./. 
Spanish Catchfly. Pet. H. Brit. t.bJ.f.W. 

In dry sandy, or gravelly, open grassy fields, chiefly in Norfolk, 
Suffolk, or Cambridgeshire. 

Between Svvaft'ham and Narford, Norfolk, on the grassy ridges of 
the road. Also about Thetford, Barton mills, and Bury. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root strong, yellowish, cylindrical, running deep into the ground ; 
tufted at the crown. Stem erect, from 1 to 2 feet high, round, 
leafy, downy, very clammy about the middle of the upper joint, 
below the panicle. Leaves small, spatulate, acute, roughish and 
viscid, each tapering at the base into a long footstalk ,- radical 
ones numerous^ tufted, and rather the largest, 2 or 3 inches long 
including the stalk. Panicle oblong, erect, of many opposite, 
unequal, somewhat umbellate, simple or compound, erect 
branches. Bracteas crowded, membranous, acute. FL nume- 
rous, but small and inconspicuous, upright, greenish, dioecious, 
as even Caspar Bauhin remarked ; yet abortive stamens often 
occur in the fertile ones, as well as abortive pistils in the others. 
Petals small, sometimes wanting, narrow, pale yellow, quite 
simple and entire, without scales. Styles variable from 2 to 5, 
but usually 3. Caps, elliptical, filling the calyx, and projecting 
a little out of it, opening by 6 teeth. 1 know not whether that 
number varies with the styles, but it is probable. 



DECANDRIA—TRIGYNIA. Stellaria. 2C9 
****** Stems single-Jlir^ered. 
10. S. acaulis. Moss Campion. 

Stems tufted, much branched. Leaves Unear, acute, fringed 
at the base. Stalks terminal, solitary, single-flowered. 
Calyx smooth. 

S. acaulis. Linn. Sp. PL 603. FL Lapp. 7i. \84. ed.\ .145. ed.2. \d2. 

Willd. V. 2. 709. FL Br. 472. Engl. Bot. v. IG. ^. 1081. Hook. 

Scot. 135. Light/. 227. t. 12./. 1. Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc. 1. 8. 

Fl. Dan. t. 21. AUion. Pedem. v. 2. 83. t. 79./. 1. 
Cucubalus acaulis. Linn. Sp. PL.ed. 1. 415. Huds. 187. 
Viscago n. 919. Hall. Hist. v. 1.399. 
Lychnis alpina minima. Rati Syn.34\. 

L. alpina pumila, folio gramineo. Bauh. Pin.206. Dill. Elth. 206. f. 
L. ocymoides muscosa. Barret. Ic. t. 379,380. 
Caiyophyllus pumilio alpinus. Ger. Em. 593./. 
Ocymoide moscoso alpino. Pon. Bald. 199./ 1. 
Muscus alpinus, flora insigni, dilute rubente. Bauh. Hint. v. 3. 

760./ 

On the summits of the loftiest mountains. 

Upon the steep and higher rocks of Snovvdon, almost every where j 
Mr. Llvvyd. Ray. Found in Devonshire, by Mr. Gidley. Dill. 
On all the elevated mountains of Scotland. Hooker. Near the 
summit of Ben Lomond plentifully. 

Perennial. June, July. 

The very long and branching roots penetrate deeply into the clefts 
of rocks, and are crowned by short, branched, densely tufted, 
leafy, moss-like stems ; for the plant is not really acaulis, though 
destitute of the elevated stem ])roper to most of its genus. Leaves 
opposite, crowded, linear, bright green, smooth, except a slight 
fringe at the base, as well as on the broad \ridc foot stalks, which 
sometimes extends to the acute point of each leaf Fl. terminal, 
solitary, on smooth simple stalks, variable in length. Cal. smooth, 
tinged' with violet, the teeth blunt, minutely fringed. Pet. of an 
elegant rose-colour, occasionally white, slightly, and not always, 
cloven at the extremity, and bearing a minute cloven scale at 
the base of the limb. Caps, ovate, becoming cylindrical as it 
ripens, and finally twice as long as the calyx, opening by 6 valves 
at the summit, '["he fouers have no scent, but they constitute 
one of the most charming ornaments of the green-headed Scot- 
tish Alj)s, which, seen from the still loftier Ben Lomond, resemble 
the waves of a boundless ocean. 

235. STELLARLV. Stitclnvort. 

Linn. Gen. 226. J//.s.v. 301 . N. 7^.472. Lam. /. 378. <;<n //;./. 130. 
Alsine. Tourn. t. 120. f\ A,B,D,i:. 



300 DECANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Stellaria. 

Nat. Ord. see n. 232. 

Cal, inferior, of 5 ovate-lanceolate, concave, acute, spread- 
ing, permanent leaves. Pet. 5, deeply cloven, spreading, 
flat, oblong, withering, without claws or scales. Nect. 5 
notched glands, at the base of the stamens. Filam. thread- 
shaped, shorter than the petals, 5 alternate ones shortest. 
A7ith. roundish. Germ, nearly globular, superior. Styles 
3, capillary, spreading. Stigmas obtuse, downy. Caj)s. 
ovate, cylindrical, or globular, covered by the calyx and 
withered corolla, of one cell and 6 valves. Seeds nume- 
rous, roundish, compressed. 

Some foreign species have the lobes of the petals subdi- 
vided. 

Herbaceous, smooth or downy, with weak, straggling, forked, 
leafy stems. Leaves opposite, undivided. Flowers white, 
inodorous, on solitary, or forked and panicled, stalks. 

1. S. iiemoruin. Wood Stitchwort. 

Lower leaves heart-shaped, stalked; upper ovate, sessile. 
Panicle repeatedly forked. 

S. nemorum. Linn. Sp. Fl. 603. IViUd. v. 2. 710. Fl. Br. 473. 

Engl. Bot. V. 2. t. 92. Hook. Scot. 135. Fl. Dan. t.27\. 
Myosotis n. 886. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 388. 
Alsine montana, folio smilacis instar, flore laciniato. Moris, v. 2. 

550. sect. 5. t. 23. f. 2. Dill, in Rail Sijn. 347. 
A. altissima nemorum. Bauh. Pin. 250. 
A. montana hederacea maxima. Column. Ecphr. 289. t. 290. f. 2. 

In moist woods, and the neighbourhood of shady springs^ in the 
north of England^ and low-lands of Scotland. 

By Casterton mill, near Kirkby Lonsdale, Westmoreland, and in 
other parts of that county. Also at Meavis bank, near Edin- 
burgh, as mentioned by Dr. Parsons. Mr. Robson found it in 
Cliff-wood, near Darlington. 

Perennial. Maij, June. 

Root slender, creeping. Stems lax and spreading, round, hollow, 
leafy, with a few soft scattered hairs, pointing every way, chiefly 
about the upper part 3 forked and panicled at the summit. 
Leaves pale green, tender and rather succulent, most hairy when 
young ; lower ones heart-shaped, on long stalks ; upper ovate, 
pointed, larger, and sessile. Fl. numerous, pure vvhite, on downy 
stalks. Styles never more than 3. Capsules deflexed as they 

ripen. Haller supposed the *S. dicliotona of Linnaeus to be 

this plant in a more advanced state, having lost its lower leaves. 
But the real dichotoma from Siberia, published in Sm. Plant. Ic. 
t. \A, is evidently very different. 



DECANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Stellaria. SOI 

2. S. media. Common Chickweed, or Stitchwort. 

Leaves ovate. Stems procumbent, with a hairy alternate 
hne on one side. Stamens from five to ten. 

S.media. WithA\S. FLBr.473. Engl Bot.v.S.t. 537. Comp.6\>. 
Hook. Scot. 135. Wahlenb. Lapp. 125. 

Alsine media. Linn.Sp. PL3S9. mild. v. 1. 151]. Huds. 131. 
Relh. 128. Sibth. 105. Abbot 70. Curt. Loud. fuse. 1. t.20. 

* Ehrh. PL Of. 374. Fl. Dan. t. 438 ajid t. 525. Bauh. Pin. 250. 
Moris. V. 2. 550. sect. 5. t. 23. f. 4. 

A. n. 880. Hcdl Hist. v. 1.387. 

Alsine. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 458./. Camer. Epit. 850. f. Dalech. 
Hist. 1232. f. 

A. vulgaris, seu Morsus gallinae. Raii Syn. 347. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. 
p. 2. 363./. 

A. minor. L>od. Pempt. 29. f. 

A. minor, sive media, Ger. Em. 611./. 

A. minor recensiorum. Lob. Ic. 460./. 

A. major. Fuchs. Hist. 21./. 

A. primum genus. Fuchs. Ic. 10./ 

Morsus gallinse. Trag. Hist. 385. f. 

Common every where in waste and cultivated ground. 

An n ual . Ma rch — Nov em her. 

Root tapering, small. Herb very variable in luxuriance, but in every 
part much smaller than the preceding. Stem copiously branched 
from the bottom, loosely spreading, leafy, brittle, smooth, except 
a dense hairy, lateral line, which is interrupted and turned aside, 
at every joint. Leaves stalked, ovate, acute, single-ribbed. Fl. 
small, white, solitary, on simple, axillary stalks, which are like- 
wise hairy at one side, and deflexed after flovvcring. Cal. hairy. 
Sta)n. 3, 5, or 10, each with a gland at the base, on the outside. 
Caps, oblong, pellucid, splitting into 6 valves. 

Small birds and poultry eat the seeds, and whole herb. The latter 
may be boiled for the table, like Spinach. 

This plant is, in every character, notwithstanding the variable 
number of the stamens, so truly a Stellaria, that we cannot but 
wonder at its having been referred to Alsine ; and still more, 
that Linnieus should, in his Fl. Lapp. n. 186, have confounded 
it and the preceding with Cerastium aquaticum. 

3. S. holostca. Greater Stitchwort. 

Leaves lanceolate, finely serrated. Petals inversely heart- 
shaped. Calyx without ribs. 

S.holostea. Linn.Sp. PI. ^3. h'illd.v.2.7\\ . Fl. Hr \7i. Engl. 
Bot. V. 8. /. 511. Curt. Land. fasc. 2. t. 30. Houk. Scut. 136. 
77. Dan. t. 698, bad. 

Alsine n. 8Sl. Hall. Hist. v. 1.388. 



302 DECANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Stellaria. 

Caryophyllus arvensis glaber, flore majore. Bauh. Pin. 210. 
C. holosteus arvensis glaber^ flore majore. Rail Syn. 346. 
Gramen. Fuchs. Hist. 136. f. 
G. leucanthemum. Ger. Em. 47. f. Dod. Fempt. 563./. Dalech. 

Hist. 422. f. 
G. alterum. Camer. Epit. 743. f. 
Holosteum Ruellii. Lob. Ic. 46./. 
Euphrasia gramen. Trag. Hist. 329. f. 
Great Stitchwort. Fet. H. Brit. t. 58./. 1 . 

In groves, thickets, and dry hedge bottoms, common. 

Perennial. May. 

Root creeping. Stems 2 feet high, square, leafy j panicled at the 
top ; weak and recumbent at the bottom ; angles rough in the 
upper part. Leaves 2 or 3 inches long, spreading almost hori- 
zontally, glaucous, single-ribbed, rough- edged, taper-pointed. 
Ft. large and handsome, of a brilliant white, on long downy 
panicled stalks, with a pair of small taper-pointed bracteas at 
the base of each stalk. Cal. concave, minutely veiny, smooth, 
neither keeled nor ribbed. Fet. broad, cloven only half way 
down. Slam, always 10, and st7jles 3. Caps, globular. 

The stems have a strong, woody, elastic, internal structure, like 
those of the last-described, and many others of this tribe ; but 
are otherwise remarkably brittle. The herb sticks, by their 
rough angles, and the edges of the leaves^ to any thing that 
comes in its way. 

4. S. graminea. Lesser Stitchwort. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, entire. Panicle terminal, spread- 
ing. Calyx three-ribbed, nearly as long as the petals. 

S.graminea. Linn. Sp. Fl. 604. Willd.v.2.7\\. Fl.Br.47o. Engl. 
Bat. V. 12. t. 803. Hook. Scot. 136. R. Dan. t. 414. Wahlenh. 
Lapp. 123. Hoffm. Germ, for 1800. 203. 

5. arvensis. HoffTm. Germ, for 1791. 152. Ehrh. Herb. 126. 
Alsine n. 882. ^Hall Hist. v. 1. 387. 

Caryophyllus arvensis glaber, flore minore. Bauh. Fin. 210. 
C. holosteus arvensis glaber, flore minore. Raii Syn. 346. 
Gramini Fuchsii leucanthemo affinis et similis herba. Bauh. Hist. 

v.3.p. 2.361./ 
Holostii Ruellii diversitas. Lob. Ic. 46. f 
Lesser Stitchwort. Fet. H. Brit. t.58.f.3. 

In heathy pastures, or bushy places, on a gravelly or sandy soil. 

Perennial. May. 

Smaller than the last, and of a grass green, not glaucous. The 
weak and brittle, smooth, leafy stems support themselves on the 
surrounding bushes, and the delicate wide-spreading panicles, 
with their little white starry blossoms, seem suspended in the 
air. The leaves are not much more than an inch long, smooth 



DECANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Stellaria. 303 

in every part, as are the slender, angular, numerous, finally hori- 
zontnl, Jloiver-stalks. Calyx-leaves with 3 strong ribs. Pel. with 
deep narrow lobes, rather longer than the calyx. Jnth. reddish, 
or flesh-coloured. Caps, oblong. 

5. S. glauca. Glaucous Marsh Stitch wort. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, entire, glaucous. Flower-stalks 
partly scattered, erect. Calyx three-ribbed, half as long 
as the petals. 

S. glauca. With. 420. Fl.Br.A7b. Engl. Bot. v. \2. t.S2j. Hook. 
Scot. 136. Don H.Brit. 11. 

S. palustris. Retz. Prodr. 106. Willd. Sp. Pl.v.2.7\2. Ehrh. 
Herb. 35. 

S. media. Sibth.l4]. Abbot 96. 

S. graminea /3. Linn. Sp. PL 604. Fl. Suec. ed. 2. 150. Huds. 190. 

Caryophyllus holosteus arvensis medius. Raii Sijn. 347. 

Alsine folio gramineo angustiore palustris. Dill. Giss. J 73. 
app. 69. 

A.n.44. Gmel.Sib.v.4. 145. t. 6l.f.2. 

Middle Stitchwort. Pet. H. Brit. t. 58./. 2. 

In moist meadows, bogs, and the margins of ditches and ponds, 
where the soil is gravelly. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Of a middle size between the two last species ; distinguished from 
S. holosfea by its perfect smoothness, shorter leaves, and 3- 
ribbed calyx ^ from S. graminea by its glaucous hue, and larger 
petals ; from both by its erect, more dispersed, often axillary 
and solitary, much less panicled, Jlouuer- stalks. The petals are 
almost twice as long as the calyx j more deeply cloven, and 
narrower, than in S. holostea ; though larger and rather broader, 
than in the graminea. Anth. of a pale reddish hue. 

Gmelin's synonym, rightly applied in Fl. Brit, on the authority of 
a specimen from the author in the Linncean herbarium, is erro- 
neously transferred by Dr. Wahlenberg to S. graminea. 

6. S. uligijiosa. Bog Stitchwort. 

Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, entire, with a callous tij). 
Flowers irregularly panicled, lateral or terminal. Petals 
shorter than the calyx. 

S. uliginosa. Murr. Gott. 55. Fl. Br. 476. Engl. Bot. v. IJ. t. 1074. 
Curt.Lond.fasc.6.t.2H. mth.\20. Hull. 97. Sihth.\4\. Ab- 
bot 96. Hook. Scot. 136. li'ahlcnb. Lapp. 124. Ehrh. Herb. 6. 
Roth. Germ. v.\. 191. r. 2. p. 1. 489. Scholl. Barb. 105. 

S. graminea y. Linn. Fl. Suec. ed. 2. 150. Huds. 1 90. Rtlh. 1 70. 

S. iivpericifolia. IViggcrx Hobat. 34. Allum. Pedtni. i\ J. 1 15. 

S. Dillcniiina. Lrcrs 107. 

S. aquatica. Pollich c. 1.429. 

" S. lateriflora. Kruik. Sites, v.2. 52. /. 4." 



304. DECANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Stellaria. 

S. fontana. Jacq. Coll. v, 1. 327. 

S. Alsine. Hoffrn. Germ, for 1791. 153. t. 5. Willd. Sp. PL v. 2. 
713. 

Alsine n. 881. Hall Hist. v. I. 3S7. 

A. aquatica folio Gratiolse, stellato flore. Dill. Giss. 58. app.39. 

A. longifolia uliginosis proveniens locis. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 
365./ Rail Sijn. 347. 

A. aquatica media. Bauh. Pin. 251. Moris, v. 2. 550. sect. 5. 
t.23.f.8. 

A. fontana. Ger. Em. 613. f,- good. 

A. Hypericifolio. Faill. Par. 9. ,• descr. of the petals erroneous. 

Bog Stitchwort. Pet. H. Brit, t. 58./. 4. 

In rivulets, ditches, springs and watery spots. 

Annual. June. 

Root fibrous, small. Herb smooth, pale and somewhat glaucous. 
Stems weak, generally much and alternately branched, square, 
leafy. Leaves not an' inch long, lanceolate, or somewhat ellip- 
tical, acute, with a brownish callous tip, a single mid-rib, and 
numerous lateral branching veins. Flower-stalks axillary as well 
as terminal, usually 2 or 3 together, some simple, some divided, 
slender, angular, smooth, swelling under the flowers. Bracteas 
opposite, small, membranous, awl-shaped. Fl. small, white. 
Calyx-leaves taper-pointed, 3 -ribbed ; the outer ones sometimes 
downy at the edges. Pet. deeply divided, narrow, much shorter 
than the calyx. Styles, according to Dr. Stokes, varying occa- 
sionally to 4 or 5. 

The synonyms of this species evince what the nomenclature of bo- 
tany would be, if every writer were to run wild after his own 
fancy. I have retained the original specific name, given by 
Murray. Willdenow has perpetuated one of the worst 3 for 
every Stellaria has, at one time or other, been called Alsine. 

7. S. scapigera. Many-stalked Stitchwort. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, rough-edged. Stem shorter than 
the flower-stalks. Calyx three-ribbed, as long as the 
petals. 

S. scapigera. Willd. Sp. PI. v. 2. 716. Engl BoL v. 18. t. 1269. 
Fl Br. 1397. Comp. 69. Hook. Scot. 137. Don H. Brit. 10. 

By the sides of rivulets on the Scottish mountains. 

In Perthshire, and about Loch Nevis, Invernesshire. Mr. G. Don. 

Perennial. June. 

Stems erect, very short, tufted, simple or subdivided, densely 
leafy, angular. Leaves crowded, an inch or inch and half long, 
lanceolate, or almost linear, single-ribbed, rough at the edges, 
fringed at the base, of a grass green, turning reddish as they 
fade. Flower-stalks very numerous, rising much above the stem 
and foliage, axillary, solitary or aggregate, simple, slender, an- 
gular, smooth, naked, single-flowered. Fl small, white. Cal 



DECANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Stellaria. 305 

acute, partly fringed, strongly 3-ribbed, full as long as the nar- 
row, deeply divided petals. ^Anth. red. The capsule seems to 
be globular. 
The leaves, though sometimes narrower, are often as broad as re- 
presented in Engl. Bot. The crowded leaves, short stems, and 
very numerous \ox\^ flower -stalks, at once distinguish this spe- 
cies, which appears not to have been observed out of Britain, 

8. S. cerastoides. Alpine Stitch wort. 

Leaves elliptic-oblong, bluntish, smooth. Stems with a 
hairy lateral line, about two-flowered. Flower-stalks 
downy all over. Calyx with a single downy rib. 

S. cerastoides. Linn. Sp. PL 604. Fl. Suec.ed.2. 151. mild. 

v.2.714. Fl.Br.477. Engl. Bot.v. \3. t.9\\. Pl.Ic. ex Herb. 

Linn. t. 15. Dicks. Tr. of L. Soc. v. 2. 290. H. Sicc.fasc. 2. 11. 

mth. 421. riook. Scot. ]36. Fl. Dan. t. 92. Jacq. Coll.v. \. 

254. t. 19? Retz. Obs.fasc. \. 18. Gunn. Norveg. v. 2. 119. 

t. 6.f. 2. M'ahlenb. Lapp. 126. 
Myosolis n. 890. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 390. Davall. 

In the Highlands of Scotland. 

On Ben Nevis. Mr. Dickson. Upon mountains to the north 
of Invercauld. Mr. J. Mackay. Mountains above Killin. 
Mr. Borrcr. 

Perennial. June. 

Root creeping. Stems diffuse, 3 or 4 inches long, leafy, branched 
at the bottom, marked with a hairy lateral line, which was first 
noticed by the excellent delineator of the figures in Engl. Bot. 
Each stem terminates in 1 or 2, rarely 3, upright \\h\iG flowers, 
whose simple slender stalks are glutinous, and uniformlv downv 
in every direction, one or both of them bearing a pair of small 
bracteas. Leaves about | an inch long, entire, single-ribbed, 
recurved, uniformly smooth in the original Linnaean specimens, as 
well as in every British, Lapland, or Swiss one that I have seen ; 
so that 1 think there mu.st be some mistake in the Flora Scotica. 
Calyx-leaves with a hairy keel, the outermost sometimes fur- 
nished w.th 2 small lateral ribs. Pet. nearly twice the lengtli 
of the calyx, cloven scarcely half way down. Styles almost in- 
variably 3 5 I have once only seen 4, and M'ulfen mentions 5, 
Caps, tw ce as long as the calyx, cylindrical, with 6 teeth, 
though that number is doubtless increased to 8 or 10, when the 
styles are more than their proper number. Seeds rough, 
veral botanists have confounded this plant with the smooth va- 
riety of Cerasfium alpinum, wliich is essentially distinct, though 
Linna?us himself seems, by his herbarium, to have sometimes 
fallen into the same error. I suspect W'ulfen has done so ; for 
though hi.s specimens, sent by Jacquin, are really Stellaria ce- 
rastoide.f, his figure is more like Cerastinm alpinum, particularly 

VOL. 11. X 



306 DECANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Arenaria. 

in the form of the leaves and petals ; and what he relates of the 
hairiness or smoothness of the stem, agrees with that plants not 
with our Stellaria. 

236. ARENARIA. Sandwort. 

Linn. Gen. 226. Juss.301. Fl.Br.477. Lam.t.37S. Gcertn. 
1. 130. 

Nat. Ord. see w. 232. 

CaL inferior, of 5 oblong, pointed, spreading, mostly ribbed, 
permanent leaves. Pet. 5, ovate or lanceolate, undivided. 
NecU 5 or 10 glands at the base of the stamens. Filam. 
awl-shaped, 5 of them rather the shortest, or latest. Anth. 
roundish. Germ, ovate, superior. Styles 3, short, spread- 
ing. Stigmas downy. Cajjs. ovate, covered by the per- 
manent calyx and withered corolla, of one cell, and 3, 
rarely 6, valves. Seeds numerous, kidney-shaped, rough- 
ish, attached to a short central column. 

Herbs of humble growth, with numerous, or much divided, 
slender stetiis ; opposite, mostly narrow, entire, undivided 
leaves ; and small, white or reddish, inodorous Jlowers, 
with coloured anthers. In A. tenuifolia, especially, the 
number of stamens varies from 3 to 10. The valves of 
the capsule are either 3 or 6, never, except by some 
strange accident, 5, though they have been so described. 
The pubescence of the herbage is sometimes variable. 
The best specific characters are found in the various 
forms and ribs of the calyx, 

* Stipulas none. 

1 . A. peploides. Sea Chickweed, or Sandwort. 
Leaves ovate, acute, fleshy. Calyx obtuse, without ribs. 

A. peploides. Linn. Sp. PI. 605. Willd. v. 2. 7\6. Ft. Br. 477. 

Engl. Bot. V. 3. t. 189. Hook. Scot. 137. Ft. Dan. t. 624. 
Honkenya peploides. Ehrh. Beitr. v. 2. 181. 
Alsine marina, foliis Portulacse. Loes.Pruss.\2.t.2. RaiiSyn.35l. 
A. littoralis, foliis Portulacae. Bauli. Pin. 2.5 1 . 
Anthyllis lentifolia, sive Alsine cruciata marina. Ger. Em. 622./. 
A. prior lentifolia, peplios effigie maritima. Lob. Advers. 195./. 

Ic. 468./. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 374./. very bad, copied /rom 

Lobel. 
On the sandy sea coast frequent. 
Perennial. June, July. 



DECANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Arenaria. 307 

Root creeping very extensively. Herb smooth and succulent, 
bright green, recumbent. Stem much branched, angular, pale, 
leafy. Leaves sessile, ovate, acute, thick, entire, single-ribbed, 
about half an inch long. Stipulas none. Fl. from the forks of 
the stem, few, solitary, on short stalks, small and inconspicuous. 
Cal. smooth, purplish, obtuse, without ribs or veins. Pet. white, 
obovate, spreading in the sun-shine only. Glands 10, alternate 
with the stamens, which are ranged in one uniform row. Styles 
very short. Caps, roundish. Seeds fe>v, large, obovate, black, 
dotted. 

The peculiar habit might countenance Ehrhart's separation of this 
plant from Arenaria; but the nectariferous glands, on which he 
chiefly depends for a generic character, are too little known, 
and perhaps too various, in tlie rest of the species, to be de- 
pended on. The other broad-leaved kinds appear to connect 
this with the narrow-leaved ones. 

2. A. trinervis. Plantain-leaved Chickweed, or Sand- 

wort. 

Leaves ovate, acute, stalked, ribbed. Calyx obscurely 
three-ribbed, with a rough keel. 

A. trinervis, Linn. Sp. PL 605. Willd. v. 2.718. Fl. Br. 478. 
Engl. Bot. 15. 21. t. 1483. Curt. Lond. fasc. 4. t.3\. Hook. 
Scot. 137. Fl. Dan. t. 429. AUion. Pedem. u. 2. 1 1 1 . 
Alsine n. 878. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 386. 
A. plantaginis folio, Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 363. /. 364. Raii 

Syn. 349. 
In shady bushy places, where the soil is rather moist- 
Annual. May, June. 

Root small, tapering- Stems weak, branching, a foot high, leafv, 
round, downy all over. Leaves pale, ovate, acute, fringed, with 
3, rarely 5, ribs -, the lower ones smallest, and on longest stalks ; 
largest measuring about an inch ; all destitute of stipulas. 
Flower-stalks simple, slender, finely downy, solitary, from the 
forks^f the stem, and summits of the branches, twice the length 
of the leaves. Bracteas none. Fl. small, white, drooping as the 
seeds ripen. Calyx-leaves longer than the petals, lanceolate, 
acute, with membranous edges, and 3 not very conspicuous 
ribs J the middle one most downy. Caps, ovate, thin, opening 
with 6 revolute teeth. Seeds kidney-shaped, black and smooth. 

3. A. serpyllifolia. Thyme-leaved Sandwort. 

Leaves ovate, nearly sessile, rough. Calyx hairy ; thice 

outermost of its leaves five-ribbed. 
A. serpvllifolia. Linn. Sp. PI. 606. mild. v. 2. 720. Fl.Br.470, 

Engl. Bot. V. 13. t. 923. Curt. Lond. fasc. 4. t. 32. Hook, 

Scot. 13S. 11. Dun. t.977. 

X 2 



308 DECANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Arenaria. 

Alsine n. 875. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 386. 

A. minor multicaulis. Bauh. Pin. 250. Raii Syn. 349. 

A. minor. Fuchs. Hist. 23./. Dalech. Hist. 1233./. 

A. tertium genus. Fuchs. Ic. 12. f. 

A. minima. Dod. Pempt.SO.f. Ger. Em. 612. f. 

A. petraea. Ger. Em. 6 J 2./. 

On walls and dry sandy ground, common. 

Annual. Jubj. 

The stem is copiously divided from the very bottom, forked in the 
upper part, leafy, round, rigid, rough with very short deflexed 
hairs, forming a little bushy herb, 3 or 4 inches high. Leaves 
small, ovate, acute, ribbed, dotted, minutely fringed, greyish 
green, without stipulas. Fl. small, white, solitary, from the 
forks of the stem^ on downy, round, upright stalks. Cahjx- 
leaves ovate, acute, hairy, with a membranous border j the 2 in- 
nermost with 3 ribs only. Pet. rather shorter than the calyx. 
Caps, ovate, with 6 teeth. Seeds tawny, roughish. 

4. A. tenuifoiia. Fine-leaved Sandwort. 

Leaves awl-shaped, pointed. Stem panic! ed. Capsules 
erect, of three valves. Petals lanceolate, shorter than the 
calyx. 

A. tenuifoiia. Linn. Sp. PI 607. Willd.v.2.72b. Fl.Br. 48\. Engl. 
Bot. v.A.t.2\9. Hook. Scot. 138. Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc. 10. 11. 
Ehrh. Phyt. 25. Fl. Dan. t. 389. 

Alsine n. 865 and 866. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 383. 

A. tenuifoiia. Bauh.Hist.v.S.p.2.2>6A.f. RaiiSyn.350. Vaill. 
Par. 7. t.3.f. 1. Segu. Veron.v. 1. 418. t. 6.f. 2. 

A. viscosa. Schreb. Lips. 30. 

In dry barren sandy fields, and on walls, but not very frequent. 

In several parts of Cambridgeshire. Ray. At Oxburgh, Norfolk. 
Mr. Pitchford. Worcestershire. Mr. Ballard. Oxfordshire, 
Sihth. 

Annual. June. 

Stem like the last, but the hairs, if any, are long and spreading. 
Leaves awl-shaped, 3-ribbed at the back, combined at the base. 
Flower-stalks capillary, erect, longer than the leaves. Fl. very 
small, white, with red anthers. Calyx- leaves lanceolate, 3-ribbed, 
taper-poipted, with membranous edges. Stam. certainly 10 in 
general, but they are found in Sv^^itzerland of every number 
from 3 to 10, and may vary no less in England. Styles 3. Caps. 
very delicate and pellucid, of 3 narrow valves, recurved at the 
point, longer than the calyx. The whole herb is occasionally 
hairy or smooth, sometimes viscid ; which, with the variableness 
of the stamens, caused Haller to describe it twice over ; and 
Linnaeus sometimes confounded it with his own Alsine segetalisj 
a very distinct plant. 



DECANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Arenaria. 309 

5. A. verna. Vernal Sandwort. 

Leaves awl-shaped, bluntish. Stem panicled. Calyx- 
leaves with three remote equal ribs ; longer than the 
petals. 

A. verna. Linn. Mant. 72. Willd. Sp. PL v. 2. 724. Fl. Br. 482. 
Engl. Bot. v.^.t.b\2. Dicks. Dr. PL 6. Hort. Sicc.fasc. 13.17. 
Hook. Scot. 138. Light/. 231. Jacq. Austr. t. 404. 

A. saxatilis. Huds. ed. 1. 168. Penn. Tour in JVales, t. 2./. 1. 

A. juniperina. IVit/i. 424. 

A. laricifolia. Ibid. 424. Light/. 232. 

A. csespitosa. Ehrh. Herb. 55. 

Alsine n. 807. HalL Hist. v. 1.383. 

A. pusilla, pulchro flore, folio tenuissimo nostras. Raii Syn. 350. 

A. caryophylloides tenuifolia, flore albo punctato. Pink. Al- 
mag. 22. Phyt. t. 7./ 3. 

A. alpina glabra, tenuissimis foliis, floribus albis. Herm. Parad. 
12./. 

A. saxatilis et multiflora, capillaceo folio. FailL Par. 7. t. 2./ 3. 

Mount Chick weed. Pet. H Brit. t.f)d./4. 

In mountainous pastures in the north, among fragments of quartz 
and spar. 

About lead mines in Derbyshire ; as well as in Yorkshire, West- 
moreland, and Wales. On Arthur's Seat, and many other hills 
near Edinburgh. 

Perennial. May — August. 

Root long, cylindrical, strong and rather woody, branching under 
ground. Stems very numerous, ascending, 3 or 4 inches high, 
round or somewhat angular, leafy, slightly downy and viscid ; 
panicled at the summit, rarely single-flowered ; forming dense 
tufts, crowned with innumerable white aUxxsJiowers, whose red 
anthers Plukenet mistook for spots. The leaves are smooth, 
3-ribbcd beneath, with blunt points ; the upper ones shortest 
and broadest. Bracteas small and short, with 3 ribs. Flower- 
stalks often downy. Calyx-leaves ovate, acute, hairy, mem- 
branous at the edges ; furnished at the back with 3 equal, di- 
stant, not crowded, ribs. Pet. ohovate. Caps, cylindrical, of 3 
valves, longer than the calyx. Seeds compressed, rougli. 

Some rather larger or smaller specimens, not to be called varieties, 
have been occasionally mistaken for A. saxatilis, junipirina, or 
laricifolia of Linnaeus ; all very ditVerent from this and from 
each' other, and hitherto not found wild in Britain. 

6. A.fastigiata. Level-topped Sandwort. 

Leaves awl-shaped. Stem erect, strai<rht, densely corym- 
bose. I'etals very short. Lateral ribs ot the calyx di- 
lated. 



310 DECANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Arenaria. 

A. fastigiata. Engl. Bot.v. 25. fA744. Comp.70. Hook. Scot. \3S. 

A. fasciculata. Jacg. Austr. v. 2. 49. 1. 1 82. Don H. Brit. 136. 

Alsine n. 870. Hall. Hist. v. 1.384. t. \7.f. 2. 

Stellaria rubra. Scop. Cam. v. 1. 316. i. 17. 

On the Highland mountains of Scotland. 

On rocks on the mountains of Angusshire and Fifeshire. Mr. G. Don. 

Annual. June. 

Root small, tapering and zigzag. Stems either solitary or nume- 
rous, 4 or 5 inches high, alternately branched, leafy, round, 
nearly smooth, often purplish. Leaves very slender, smooth, 
erect, permanent ; dilated, combined, and 3 -ribbed at the base. 
Fl. in forked, level-topped, crowded panicles. Calyx-leaves all 
nearly equal, smooth, taper-pointed, remarkable for the great 
breadth of their ivory-like lateral ribs. Pet. much shorter than 
the calyx, white, obtuse. Stam.\0, rather longer than the 
petals. Caps, oblong, of 3 valves. Seeds compressed, beautifully 
toothed like a w^heel, each on a long slender stalk. 
The true A. fasciculata is very different in several respects, espe- 
cially in the long unequal leaves of the calyx, whose lateral ribs 
are not dilated. 

7. A. ciliata. Fringed Sandwort. 

Leaves spatulate, roughish; fringed at the base. Stems 
numerous, branched, procumbent, downy. Flowers ter- 
minal, solitary. Calyx-leaves with five or seven ribs. 
- A. ciliata. Linn. Sp. PL 608. WiUd. v. 2. 718. E?igl. Bot.v. 25. 
t. 1745. Comp. 70. Wulf. in Jacq. Coll. v. 1. 245. t. 16. /. 2. 
Fl. Dan. t. 346. 

Alsine n. 876. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 386. ^. 17./.3. 

A. serpilli folio, multicaulis et multiflora. Segu. Veron. v. 1. 420. 
t.o.f.2. 

On mountains in Ireland. 

Upon the limestone clifts of a high mountain adjoining to Ben 
Bulben, in the county of Sligo. Mr. J. T. Mackay. 

Perennial. August, September. 

Root copiously branched at the crown, with very numerous re- 
cumbent, leafy, round, downy stems, about a finger's length at 
most, composing dense, bright green tufts. Leaves in pairs 
crossing each other, recurved^ spatulate, obtuse, single-ribbed, 
somewhat fleshy, roughish ; tapering, and most evidently 
fringed, at the base. Fl. terminal, large and conspicuous, on 
long, mostly solitary, stalks, clothed with short recurved hoary 
pubescence. Calyx-leaves ovate, acute, concave, hairy, green, 
with a strong keel, and 2 or 3 close ribs at each side ; the mar- 
gin membranous. Pet. of a brilliant white, spreading, longer 
than the calyx. Caps, short, ovate, of 6 valves. 

A. multicaulis of Linnaeus appears to me the same plant in a less 



DECANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Arenaria. 311 

luxuriant state. By culture the s^cms become forked, bearing 3, 
4 or 5 flowers. 

** Stlpidas membranous, 

8. A. rubra. Purple Sandwort. 

Leaves linear, bristle-pointed. Stipulas membranous, sheath- 
ing. Seeds compressed, angular, roughish. 

A. rubra. Linn. Sp. PL 606. Willcl v. 2. 721, a. FL Br. 4/9. 

Engl. Bot. V. 12. t. 852. Hook. Scot. 138. 
A. campestris. Allion. Pedem.v. 2. 1 14. 
Alsine n. 872. Hall Hist. v. 1. 385. 
A. spergulee facie minor. Bank. Pin. 251. 

Spergula purpurea. Raii Syn. 35\. Bank. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 719.2./. 
Polygonum foliis gramineis. spergulaecapitibus. Loes. Pruss. 203. 

t. 63. 
Purple Spurry. Pet. H. Brit. t.oO.f.S. 

In sandy fields abundantly. 

Annual. July, August. 

Root tapering. Stems numerous, prostrate in a circular form, flac- 
cid, branched, round, leafy, smooth, except towards the ex- 
tremity, where they are generally clothed with prominent glan- 
dular hairs, such as coyer the Jlower-stalks and calyx. Leaves 
mostly opposite, often in pairs, narrow, flat, glaucous or hoary, 
rather succulent, acute, with a small terminal bristle ; each with 
a pair of shining, combined, membranous stipulas at the base. 
FL on simple stalks, finally reflexed, from the forks of the stem, 
or the ends of the branches, where they form leafy clusters. 
CaL densely hairy and clammy, without ribs, rather longer than 
the shining, light purple, petals. Caps, as long as the calyx, 
ovate, of 3 valves. Seeds numerous, compressed, somewhat 
wedge-shaped, rough at the outer edge with small sharp points. 

The brilliant V\ti\e Jlowers open in bright weather only. 

9. A. marina. Sea Spurrey Sandwort. 

Leaves semicylindrical, fleshy, pointless. Stipulas mem- 
branous, sheathing. Seeds compressed, bordered, smooth. 

A. marina. FLDan.t.740. FL Br. 4S0. Engl. BoLv. \4. t.D.iS. 
Hull. ed.2.v. 1. 129. Hook. Scot. 139. Roth. Germ. v. 1. 189. 
V. 2. p. 1.482. 

A. rubra (3. Linn. Sp. PL 606. H'illd. v. 2. 722. Huds. 193. 
Light/. 230. 

A. media. With. 422. 

Spergula maritima, flore parvo caeruleo, semine vario. Dill, in Raii 
Syn. 35 1 . Giss. a pp. 30. 

/3. Arenaria media. Linn. Sp. PL 606, cxcl. the syn. Jfilld, 
v.2.722. 



312 DECANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Cherleria. 

A. marina. fVilh. 422. Allio7i. Pedem. v. 2. 114. 

A. rubra y. Huds. 193. 

Alsine spergulse facie media. Baiih. Pin. 25 1 . Baii Syn. 35 1 . 

A. Spergula major maritima &c. Moris, v. 2. 55 1 .sect. 5. t. 23. f. 15. 

SpergLila marina. Dalech. Hist. 1385./. Baiih. Hist. v.3. p. 2. 
719. 2./. 720. Ger. Em.]l2D.n 4. 

Sea Spurry. Pet. H. Brit. t. 59./. 7. 

On the sandy sea coast, and in pastures adjacent. 

Annual. June, July. 

Root spindle-shaped. Herb like the preceding, but stouter and more 
succulent. Leaves convex beneath, smooth, destitute of a ter- 
minal bristle. Ft. and capsule much larger, especially the latter, 
which is twice the length of the calyx. Seeds round, flat, smooth, 
encircled with a membranous border, variable in breadth and 
colour, even in seeds of the same capsule, as Dr. Stokes first ob- 
served. In |S this border is more uniformly dilated, white and 
striated. But the species of Spergula hereafter to be described 
invalidate even this, as a specific distinction, and justify Pro- 
fessor Hooker's doubt, whether both these plants ought not to 
be considered as varieties of A. rubra. I tiiink nevertheless the 
leaves, and the different size of the capsules, indicate a spe- 
cific distinction ; and the seeds, though various in their border, 
never have the shape and roughness of A. rubra. 

237. CHERLERIA. Cyphel. 

Linn. Gen. 227. Juss. 301. Fl. Br. 483. Hall. It Helv. t. 1. 
Lam. t.379. 

Nat. Ord. see 7i. 232. 

Cat. inferior, of 5 lanceolate, concave, equal, permanent 
leaves. Pet. none. NecL 5 minute cloven glands, at the 
inside of 5 of the stamens, opposite to the calyx. Filam. 
awl-shaped, the 5 alternate ones attached to the backs of 
the nectaries. Anth. roundish. Germ, oval, superior. 
Sti/les 3, short. Stigmas obtuse. Caj}s. ovate, of 1 cell, 
and 3 valves. Seeds several, angular. 

A smooth, dwarf, tufted, perennial herb, closely allied to 
Arenaria, but distinguished by the situation of its necta- 
ries, and the want of petals. Seguier however describes 
5 undivided greenish jjetals, alternate with the cali/x, 
which nobody else has seen. 

1. C. sedoides. Mossy Cyphel. Dwarf Cherleria. 

C. sedoides. Linn. Sp. PI. 608. Willd. v. 2. 730. H. Br. 483. 
Engl. Bot. V. 17. t. 1212. Hook. Scot. 139. Dicks. H. Sice, 
fasc. 1. 9. Jacq. Austr. t. 284. 



DECANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Cotyledon. 313 

C. n. 859. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 381. f. 21. 

Cherleria. Hall. Opusc. 299— 301. ^. 1. Tt. Helvet. sect. 79. t. 1. 

Segu. Feron. suppl. 180. t. 4./. 3. 
Lychnis alpina, muscosis foliis densius stipatis, floribus parvis, 

calyce duriore. Pluk. Almag. 233. Phyt. t. 42 /. 8. 
Sedum montanum perpusillum, luteolis floribus. Park. Theatr. 

ni.f. 

S. montanum perpusillum luteum. Moris. v.Z. 471. sect. 12. t 6. 

/•i-i- 

On the loftiest mountains of Scotland, in moist spots near their 
summits, not unfrequent. Lightf. Hooker. 

Perennial. July. 

Roots densely crowded, strong and somewhat woody, bearing 
close moss-like tufts of leafy stems, partly short and erect, partly 
long and trailing. Leaves light green, smooth on both sides, 
rather fleshv, oblong, bluntish, strongly keeled, minutely 
fringed, or toothed, at the edges, combined at the base. iS7i- 
pulas none. Fl. yellowish green, solitary, erect, stalked, ter- 
minating the short upright stems, enchjloicer-stalk having, about 
the middle, a pair of small blunt bracteas. Five of the anthers 
are said to be sometimes imperfect. — The generic name, given by 
Haller, commemorates J. H. Cherler, the coadjutor of John 
Bauhin in his general History of Plants. 



DECANDRIA PESTAGYNIA. 
238. COTYLEDON. Navehvort. 

Linn. Gen. 229. Juss. 307. Fl. Br. AS4. rourn.t.lO. Lam. 

^389. 
Nat. Ord. Succulcnttc. Linn. 13. Sempervnvc. Juss. 83. 

N. 239 the same. 

Ca/. inferior, of 1 leaf, small, in 5 acute segments. Cor. of 
1 jietal, bell-shaped, 5-cleft. Xect. a concave scale, at 
the base of eacii germen, on the outer side. Filam. awl- 
shaped, strai<jjlit, borne by tlie corolla, scarcely so long as 
the limb, yhith. roundislj, 2-lobed. Gom. 5, oblong, 
rather tumid, each terminating in an awl-shaped stjfli\ 
shorter than the corolla. Stigmas sim[)le. Caps. 3, oblong, 



3U DECANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Cotyledon. 

tumid, pointed, each of 1 valve, bursting along the inner 
margin. Seeds numerous, small. 
Succulent herbs or shrubs, with very thick, juicy, alternate, 
simple, entire or jagged leaves. Fl. spiked or panicled, 
3'ellow, whitish, or red. 

1. C. Umbilicus. Common Navelwort. 

Leaves peltate, notched. Flowers clustered, drooping. 
Bracteas entire. Root tuberous. 

C. Umbilicus. Huds. 194. Willd. Sp. PL v. 2. 757. Fl. Br. 484. 
Engl. Bot.v. 5. 1.325. Hook. Scot. \39. 

C. Umbilicus (3. Linn. Sp. PL 615. 

C. Umbilicus Veneris. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 63./. 

C. vera, radice tuberosa. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 683./. 684. Rail 
Syn.27\. 

C. major. Bauh. Pin. 285. 

C. minus montanum, sedi folio. Lob. Ic. 386./. 

Umbilicus Veneris. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 466./. Camer. Epit. 858./. 
Ger. Em. 528./. Dalech. Hist. 1608./ 

On moist dripping rocks, and old walls, in mountainous countries. 

Perennial, June, July. 

i?ooi a roundish knob, with several woolly fibres. Her6 smooth. Stem 
a span high, purplish, simple or branched ; leafy in the lower part. 
Leaves scattered, on longish stalks, orbicular, peltate, concave, 
unequally notched or lobed, smooth, very succulent and brittle; 
the upper ones less peltate, and more deeply cut. Clusters of 
several pale yellow, cylindrical, crowded, drooping, inodorous 
Jlowers, with small solitary bracteas. Nect. red. Stam. sliort, 
in 2 rows, in the mouth of the flower. 

The leaves, applied externally, may, like Houseleek, have a cooling 
quality, as old herbalists record. Gerarde justly observes that 
the hot acrid Hydrocotyle was very unluckily used by some in- 
stead of the Cotyledon. 

2. C. hitea. Greater Yellow Navelwort. 

Leaves deeply toothed; the lowermost slightly peltate. 
Flowers erect. Root creeping. 

C.lutea. Huds. 194. Willd. Sp. PL v. 2. 7 57. FL Br. 484. EngL 

Bot.v. 22.^. 1522. 
C. Umbilicus a. Linn. Sp. PL 615. 
C. flore luteo, radice tuberosa repente. Dodart. Mem. 73. / Amst. 

ed.575.t.\0. 
C. radice tuberosa longa repente. Raii Hist. 1878. 
Sedum luteum umbilicatum spicatum^ radice repente majus. Moris. 

v.3.471. 



DECANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Sedum. 315 

On moist rocks and old walls, very rare. 

In the West Riding of Yorkshire. Mr. Tojield. Seen by Mr. Hud- 
son, in the garden of a Mr. Clement, who received it from 
Somersetshire. Roots, given by Mr. Hudson to the Chelsea 
garden, have long flourished there, and from thence the figure 
in Engl. Bot. was drawn. 

Perennial. July. 

Root fleshy and creeping. Herb smooth, taller than the foregoing, 
a foot or more in height. Lower leaves only very slightly pel- 
tate ; the rest kidney-shaped, obovate, or ovate, strongly cre- 
nate or toothed ; the uppermost gradually diminishing to ovate, 
toothed bracteas, on short stalks, solitary under each flower. 
Fl. numerous, twice the size of the last, erect, of a full yellow, 
in a leafy, simple or branched, spike, rather than cluster, the 
partial stalks being very short, or scarcely any. Cor. divided half 
way down, its segments bearing the 5 smaller stamens. Cal. 
separated almost to the base. 

Linnreus confused himself among the synonyms of old writers, and 
was led to make this the type of his C. Umbilicus. It appears 
however to be specifically distinct, and not to have been figured 
by any botanist before Dodart. 

239. SEDUM. Orpine and Stonecrop. 

Linn. Gen. 230. Juss. 307. Ft. Br. 485. Tourn. 1. 140. A, B, G, 
H,K,M. Lam. t. 390. Gcrrtn. t. 65. 

Nat. Ord. see w. 238. 

Cal. inferior, of 1 leaf, in 5 deep, acute, upright, permanent 
segments. Pet. 5, lanceolate, pointed, flat, spreading. 
Nect. a minute notched scale, at the base of each germen, 
on the outer side. Filam. awl-shaped, spreading, not longer 
than the petals. Anth. roundish. Germ. 5, oblong, each 
tapering into a short spreading style. Stigmas bluntish. 
Caps. 5, compressed, pointed, spreading, notched towards 
the base, bursting along the inner margin. Seeds nume- 
rous, minute, arranged along the inner margin, at each 
side. 

Herbs widi alternate, very succulent, either flat, cylindrical, 
or tumid, leaves. Hoot mostly i)crennial. Fl. yellow, 
white or reddish, usually cymose, rarely axillary. 

* Leaves Jlat. 

1. S. Tclephwm. Orpine, or Live-long. 

Leaves flattish, serrated. Corymb leafy. Stem erect. 

S. Tclcphium. LiiiK Sp. PI. t)l<J. mild. v. 2. 700. Fl. Br. 485. 



316 DECANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Sedum. 

Engl. Bot. V. \^.t. 1319. Curt. Land. fasc. 3. t.25. Hook. 

Scot. 139. Fl. Dan. t. 686. Bull. Fr. t. 249. 
S. Ti. 954. Hall. Hist. v.\. AW. 
Anacampseros, vulgo Faba crassa. Bauh. Hist, v. 3. p. 2. 681. f. 

Rail Syn. 269. 
Telephium vulgare. Bauh. Pin. 287. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 66. f. 
T. album. Fuchs. Hist. 800. f. ; a/zcZ purpurascens. Ibid.80\.f. 
Telephium. Camer. Epit. 412./, 
Fabaria. Matth. Valgr. v. 1. 583/. 
Crassula sive Faba inversa. Ger. Em. 518./. 
Scrophularia media. Brunf. Herb. 215./ 214. 

In the borders of fields, hedges, and bushy places, on a gravelly 

or chalky soil. 
Perennial. August. 
Root of several oblong, tapering, white knobs. Herb smooth. 

Stejns 2 feet high, erect, simple, leafy, round, spotted with red. 

Leaves scattered, sessile, ovate, spreading, fleshy, more or less 

bluntly toothed or serrated, with a stout mid-rib. Fl. crimson, 

rarely white, in dense, corymbose, terminal or partly axillaiy, 

tufts, interspersed with fleshy toothed bracteas. 
Haller's n. 955 was thought by Mr. Davall to be the same species 

with this 3 and the Telephium hispanicum of Clusius, quoted for 

it, is esteemed, by most authors, a variety of our common kind. 

We have however nothing in Britain exactly answering to the 

figure of Clusius, Hisp. 331 ; repeated in his Historia, v. 2. 66. 

/ 1 ; and in Ger. Em. 518./ 1 ; copied in Bauhin's Hist. v. 3. 

p. 2. 682, Anacampseros maxima. The Jiowers are said to be 

pale yellow. 

** Leaves tumid, or somewhat cylindrical. 

2. S. dasyphylluvi. Thick-leaved White Stonecrop. 

Leaves ovate, obtuse, fleshy, sessile ; the lower ones oppo- 
site. Stems flaccid. Panicles glutinous. 

S. dasyphyllum. Linn. Sp. PI. 618. Willd. v. 2. 763. FL Br. 486. 

Engl. Bot. V. 10. t. 656. Curt. Loud. fasc. 3. t. 26. Hook. Scot. 

140. Jacq. H. Find. v. 2. t. 153. Bull. Fr. t.\l. 
S. n. 961. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 413. 
S. minus, folio circinato. Bauh. Pin. 283. Dill, in Rail Syn. 2/1. 

Moris.v.3.A73.sect. 12. t.7.f.35. 
S. parvum, folio circinato, flore albo. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 691 ./. 
S. minimum frigidum Clus. Hisp. 122. 
Aizoon dasyphyllum. Dalech. Hist. 1 133./ 

On walls and rocks. 

Plentiful about London, at Hammersmith, Kew, Chelsea, &c. On 
walls at Malton, Yorkshire. Rev. Archdeacon Pierson. At Clif- 
ton, near Bristol. Mr. Dyer. JBec\'m.cVt/^»^ 



DECANDRIA— PEXTAGYNIA. Sedum. 317 

Perennial. June. 

Root fibrous, small. Herb glaucous, smooth. Stems weak and re- 
cumbent, 3 or 4 inches high, throwing out radicles from the 
lower part. Leaves very thick and juicy, the size of a grain of 
wheat, tinged frequently with red, sessile, not sparred at the 
base ; lower ones crowded and opposite ; upper scattered. Pa- 
7iicles simple, terminal, with downy viscid stalks, no hracteas. 
Cal. small, downy and viscid. Pet. white, with a red central 
line. Nect. minute, greenish, as well as the ger metis. Anth. 
red. The germens and capsules, in a garden at least, are often 
more than .5 ; the^owers at the same time having 6 petals and 
12 stamens. The plant has not much of an acrid flavour. It is 
impatient of wet, and of manure, but increases plentifully by 
seed, among stones and rock-work. 

3. S. anglicum. Wliite English Stonecrop. 
Leaves ovate, thick, mostly alternate ; spurred at the base. 

Cyme of two smooth branches. 

S. anglicum. HudsA^^. M'ith. 428. JVHld. Sp. PL v. 2. 768. 
Ft. Br.A8Q>. Engl. Bat. v.3.t.\7\. Hook. Scot. 140. 

S. annuum. Iluds. ed. 1 . 1/2. 

S. rubens. Light/. 235. 

S. minimum non acre, flore albo. Rail Sijn. 2/0. t. 12. f. 2. FL 
Dan. t. 82. 

Mild White Stonecrop. Pet. H. Brit. t. 42. f. 10. 

On the sandy or rocky sea coast, as well as on mountains. 

Upon barren ground in Suffolk, between Yarmouth and Dunwich, 
plentifully ; as well as on the rocks of Lancashire and West- 
moreland. Ray. On roofs and walls, in the mountainous parts 
of Whales especially. Dr. Richardson. On the sea shore near 
Brakelsham abundantly. Dillenius. In Devonshire and Corn- 
wall, as well as in Scotland, frequent. 

Annual. July. 

Root fil)rous. .S7em6- forming small tufts, 2 or 3 inches high, de- 
cumbent at the base, round, smooth, leafv, reddish. Leaves 
crowded, generally alternate, fleshy, smooth, ovate, bluntish, 
less glaucous, and somewhat less tumid, than in the last, but 
more essentially distinguished by being elongated at the base, 
below their attachment to the stem, into a short spur. Fl. white, 
speckled with red, with a red rib to each jxfal ; at first crowded ; 
but afterwards racemose, each cynn- having two branches, with 
an intermediate flower. Stalks and calyx smooth, ('apsules 
membranous. This s])ecies, thougli long unsettled, is found in 
most parts of Europe, from Sweden to Portugal. 

4. S. acre. Biting Stonecrop. \\'all Pepper. 
Leaves alternate, nearly ovate, thick, tinnid; sj)urrc(l at the 

base. Cvme of three smootii blanches, leafv. 



318 DECANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Sedum. 

S. acre. Linn. Sp. Fl.6\9. Willd.v.2. 767. Fl.Br.487. Engl. 
Bot. V. \2.t. 839. Curt. Lond.fasc. I . t. 32. Woodv. suppl. t.23\. 
Hook. Scot. 140. Bull. Fr. t. 31. Ehrh. PL Of. 86. 

S. n. 966. Hall. Hist. V. 1.415. 

S. parvum acre, flore luteo. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 694,/. Rail Syn. 
270. Moris. V. 3. 471. sect. 12. t. 6./. 12. 

S. minus octavum causticum. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 61./. 

Sedi tertium genus. Fuchs. Hist. 36. f. 

Sempervivum minus vermiculatum. Bauh. Pin. 283. 

S. minimum. Camer. Epit. 856./ good. 

Vermicularis, sive lUecebra minor acris. Ger. Em. 517. f. 

On walls, roofs, and dry sandy ground, common. 

Perennial. June. 

Root fibrous, subdivided. Herb smooth, succulent andt ender, of 
a ^rass green, very hot and pungent to the taste, comoosingl ax 
wi^de-spreading tufts. Stems intricate, branched ) the branches 
leafy, erect, round, 2 or 3 inches high. Leaves imbricated on 
the barren branches ; scattered on the flowering ones ; obtuse, 
convex at the back, flattened above, spurred at the base as in the 
last. Fl. of a golden yellow, more or less numerous, in three- 
branched leafy, or bracteated, cymes. Caps, membranous. 

Reported to be useful in scorbutic and scrofulous disorders. See 
Woodville. 

5. S. sexangidare . Insipid Yellow Stonecrop. 
Leaves in six or seven rows, nearly cylindrical, obtuse, 

fleshy, spreading ; spurred at the base. Cyme of three 

smooth branches, leafy. 
S. sexangulare. Linn. Sp. PL 620. Willd.v.2.767. Fl. Br. 488. 

Engl. Bot. V. 28. t. 1946. Curt Lond. fasc. 4. t. 33. Ehrh. 

Herb. 16. 
S. acre /3. Huds. 196. 
S. n. 965. HaU. HisL v.\. 415. 

Sempervivum minus vermiculatum insipidum. Bauh. Pin. 284. 
S. minimum. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 463. f. Lob. Ic. 379./ ? 
S. minimum luteum non acre. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 695. 
Aizoon minimum. Cord. Hist. 98. 
A. minimum repens, tertium Dioscoridis. Dalech. Hist. 1 130./. 

On dry sandy ground, and old walls, not common. 

Near Northfleet, Sheerness, and in the Isle of Shepey. Huds. On 

Greenwich park wall, on the south side, near the western corner. 

Curtis. Cambridgeshire. Relhan. On the famous rotten walls 

of Old Sarum. Mr. D. Turner. 
Perennial. July. 
Rather larger than the last, with which it nearly agrees in flowers 

and inflorescence ; but difl'ers evidently and most essentially in 

foliage. The leaves are indeed of the same grass-green hue j 



DECANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Sedum. 319 

but they are slender and cylindrical, disposed 3 or 4 together in 
alternate whorls, spreading, so as to form 6 or 7 rows, or angles, 
on each branch. They are a little acid or astringent, but have 
no acrimony. The old authors confounded these two species, 
and even Mr. Hudson, in his second edition, made this a va- 
riety of the acre. Matthiolus and Dalechamp give excellent 
figures, which have hitherto escaped observation. The cut of 
Camerarius, quoted above under S. acre, admirably expresses 
that plant, though Linn^iTs t-ool^it for the se^angidare. 

6. S. villosiun. Hairy Stonecrop. 

Leaves alternate, linear, flattened, slightly hairy as well as 
the flower-stalks. Stem erect. 

S. villosum. Linn. Sp. PI. 620. Willd.v.2.768. Fl.BrASS. Engl. 

Bot. V. 6. t. 394. Hook. Scot. 140. Fl. Dan. t. 24. 
S. n. 962. Hall. Hist. V. 1.414. 
S. palustre subhirsutum purpureum. Bauh. Pin. 285. 
S. palustre, flore incarnato. Best. Hort. Eijst. cestiv. ord. 13. t. 5. 

/•2. 
S. purpureum pratense. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 692./. RaiiSyn.270. 
S. minus tertium, sive palustre. Clus. Hist. v. 2. o9.f. 
S. minus palustre. Ger. Em. 516. f. 
Purple Marsh Sengreen. Pet. H. Brit. t. 42./. 7. 

In wet mountainous pastures, and the clefts of moist rocks, in the 
North. 

In Westmoreland, Durham, and the north-west part of Yorkshire 
not unfrequent. More abundant in Scotland. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root small, fibrous. Stem erect, round, leafy, spotted with red, 
3 to 6 inches high, with a few leafy branches from the bottom. 
Leaves scattered, flat on the upper side, about half an inch long, 
often reddish ; the upper ones chiefly downy. Fl. rose-coloured, 
or white with a red mid-rib to each petal, corymbose, terminal, 
on downy viscid stalks. Cal. downy. Caps, rough, purplish, 
pointed, 

7. S. album. White Stonecrop. 

Leaves oblong, cylindrical, obtuse, spreading, smooth. Pa- 
nicle much branched. 

S. album. Lmn.Sp. P/.G19. mild.v. 2. 766. Fl. Br. 489. Engl. 

Bot. V. 22, t. 1578. Curt. Lond.fasc. 1 . ^ 31 . Hook. Scot. 140. 

Fl. Dan. t. 66. 
S, n. 959. Hall. Hist. v. 1.413. 

S, minus tcretifolium album. Bauh. Pin. 283. Raii Syn. 271. 
S. minus, folio longiusculo tereti, flore candido. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. 

p. 2. 690./. 



320 DECANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Sedum. 

S. minus primum, et secundum. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 59./^/. 
S. minus officinarum. Ger. Ew. 512./.; also 513./. 7. 
S. minus foeminti. Fuchs. Hist. 35. f. 
Sempervivum minus. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 462./ 

On rocks, walls and roofs, not common. 

At Kentish-town and Bromley, Middlesex. Curtis. On rocks above 

Great Malvern, Worcestershire ; Mr. Nash. mth. Upon walls 

at Peterborough. Mr. Woodicard. Rare in Scotland. Hooker. 
Perennial. July. Jlrc^ chn%f ^^Afltfi. 
Root fibrous, creeping. Stems erect, 4 or 5 inches high, round, 

purplish, leafy. Leaves scattered, light green, often reddish, 

very succulent, barely an inch long, sessile, but slightly attached. 

FL numerous, in a smooth compound panicle, white, with a 

reddish calyx and anthers. 
An elegant plant for rock-work, but it soon passes away unless 

there be some depth of soil, and a supply of moisture. 

8. S. refleocum. Crooked Yellow Stonecrop. 

Leaves awl-shaped, scattered, spurred at the base; the 
lo\vermost recurved. Flowers cymose. Segments of the 
calyx ovate. 

S. reflexum. Li««.-Sp.PL618. Willd.v.2.764. Fl.Br.490. Evgl. 
Bot.vAO. t.69D. Hook. Scot. ]4\. 

S. n. 967. Hall. Hist. V. 1.415. 

S. minus luteum ramulis reflexis. Bauh. Pin. 283. Rati Syn. 270. 

S. minus mas. Fuchs. Hist. 33./ 

S. minus quartum. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 60./ 

Aizoon scorpioides. Lob. Ic. 377. f. Ger. Em. 5 13./ 

Crooked Yellow Sengreen. Pet. H. Brit. t. 42. f. 6. 

On walls and thatched roofs abundantly. 

Perennial. July. 

Roots fibrous, thrown out here and there from the recumbent, en- 
tangled, lower part of the stems, which are a foot high, round, 
leafy, with several short, densely leafy, barren shoots from the 
bottom. Leaves thick, of a dull green, often brownish, scarcely 
glaucous, tapering to a bristly tip 5 their base having a short 
spur below their point of attachment, as in some of the preced- 
ing j but that character does not serve for a natural division of 
the genus. Fl. bright yellow, numerous, in a dense, terminal, 
more or less level-topped cyme, whose branches and stalks are 
smooth ; the outermost frequently recurved. Segments of the 
calyx ovate, bluntly pointed, scarcely half so long as the lanceo- 
late rather obtuse petals. The lower leaves are often recurved, 
in consequence of the pendulous posture of the stems or branches, 
but the specific name seems to have originated from the gene- 
rally reflexed position of the Jlower-stalks, expressed by the term 
scorpioides. The number of the several parts of the Jlower often 



DECANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Seduni. 321 

exceeds what is proper to this genus, but hardly approaches its 
naturally ally Sempervivum. 

9. S. glaucum. Glaucous Yellow Stonecrop. 

Leaves glaucous, awl-shaped, scattered ; spurred at the 
base ; those of the branches thread-shaped. Flowers 
cymose. Segments of the calyx lanceolate. 

S. glaucum. Bonn Cant. ecL 5. 1 12. Engl. Bot. v. 35. t. 2477. 

Comp. 71. 
S. reflexum. F/. Dan. t.\\3. 
S. reflexum (5. FL Br. 490. 
S. minus luteum, folio acuto. Bauh. Pin. 283. 
S. minus hoematoides. Ger. Em.:)\2.f. Rail Syn. 269. ed. 2. 152. 
Aizoon haematoides. Lob. Ic. 378./. 
A. minus. Dalech. Hist. 1 129./. 
Common Yellow Sengreen. Pet. H. Brit. t. 42./. 5. 

On barren sandy ground, or on walls j very common according 
to Ray. 

On the sides of some rough hills, near Mildenhall, Suffolk. Mr. F» 
K. Eagle. 

Perennial. Juhj, August. 

Differs from the last in being of a more glaucous hue, with much 
more slender leaves, especially on the radical shoots. The 
branches of the cyme are more uniformly spreading, and the 
segments of the calyx narrower and more pointed. 

It is extremely difficult to adjust the synonyms of old authors, 
between this anil the reflexum, because the latter varies in the 
position of \ii>, flower -stalks, and it appears that writers who di- 
stinguished them as species have not always known what their 
predecessors intended. The excellent cut of Fuchsius, referred 
to this by C. Bauhin, surely represents the former. The figures 
of Clusius, adopted by Lobel and Gerarde, are sufficiently ex- 
pressive. 

10. S. vifpcstrc. St. Vincent's Rock Stonecrop. 

Leaves glaucous, spurred at the base ; those of the branches 
awl-shaped, erect, in five close rows. Flowers imper- 
fectly cymose. Segments of the calyx elliptical, obtuse. 

S. rupestre. Linn. Sp. PI. 6 1 8. miU. v. 2. 7G4. Fl. Br. 490. Engl, 

Bot.v.'S. t. 170. 
S. rupestre repens, foliis compressis. Dill. Elth. 343. t. 25G./. 333. 
S. minus, a ru])e S. \'inccntii. Rail Syn. 270. ciL 2. 152. 

On rocks, but rare. 

On St.\'inccnt's rocks, Bristol. Mr. Goodyrr. On Cliedder rocks, 

Somersetshire. D'dlcnins. I'ponwrills about Darlini'.ton. Mr, 

E. Rohson. 

VOL. II. Y 



322 DECANDFJA— PENTAGYNIA. Oxalis. 

Perennial. Julij, 

Rather smaller than the last. Leafy branches very numerous, erect, 
crowded, obtuse, thickly clothed with upright, awl-shaped, 
shortish, acute, very glaucous leaves, imbricated in o rows ; 
spurred and unconnected at the base : those on the flowering 
stems scattered, broader and more tumid, often red. The stem 
also is mostly red, especially its lower recumbent part. Fl. ra- 
ther corymbose than cymose. Cal. very glaucous, with a tinge 
of red ; its segments short, rounded, obtuse. Petals bright yel- 
low, as well as the stamens and pistils. All the parts oi'ihejiower 
are liable to an increase of number, even in wild specimens. 

U.S. Forsterianiim, Welsh Rock Stonecrop. 

Leaves spurred at the base, those of the branches semicy- 
lindrical, bluntish, pointed, spreading, in many rows. 
Flowers cymose. Segments of the calyx elliptical, ob- 
tuse. 

S. Forsterianum. JEr/g/. J5oM^ 2G. /. 1802. Cowp. /I. 

On rocks in Wales. 

At the fall of the Rhydoll, near the Devil's bridge, Cardiganshire. 
Mr. E. Forsler. C3n the rocks of Ilisvae, overhanging the little 
valley of Nant-phrancon. Dr. Richardson and Mr. Llivyd. 

Perennial. Jidij. 

Very distinct from <S'. riipestre, with which it has been confounded, 
in the bright-green colour of its foliage, v/hich is even less glau- 
cous than represented in Engl. Bot. ; but the short rosaceous 
tufts of spreading leaves, which are blunt, with a small bristly 
point, more essentially distinguish it. The Jlowers grow in a true 
ci/me, all the primary stalks springing from one point. The calyx 
in this and the last has more shallow, short, elliptical and obtuse 
segments, than in either of the tv/o preceding. Each leaf of 
S^ Forsterianum has a dark spot, or pore, at the back, just below 
the point, as in the uncoloured separate figure of Engl. Bot. But 
of this there are also traces, even in dried specimens of ^S'. rw- 
peslre. Mr. Griffith and Mr. Forster are of opinion that the 
present is the only one_, of these two species^ ever found in 
Wales. 

240. OXALIS. Wood-sorrel. 

Linn.Gen.23\. Juss.270. Fl. Br. 49\. Lam. t. 39]. Gartn.t.]\3. 
Oxys. Tourn. t.l9. ■ 

Nat. Ord. Gndnales. Linn. 14. Akin to Go'cinia. Juss. 73. 
Rather to the true Rutacece. Juss. 81. sect. 2. 

Cal. inferior, in 5 deep, acute, permanent segments. Pet. 5, 
much longer than the calyx, erect, obtuse, rather oblicjue, 



DECANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Oxalis, 323 

connected laterally by their claws; spiral in the bud. 
Filam. capillary, sometimes combined, erect, the 5 outer- 
most shortest, and often protuberant at the back or sum- 
mit. Anth. roundish, furrowed, incumbent. Germ, su- 
perior, oblong or roundish, with 5 angles. Styles 5, thread - 
shaped, either longer or shorter than the longest stamens. 
Sligmas obtuse, down}-. Caps, with 5 angles, and 5 cells, 
membranous, bursting lengthwise at the angles. Seeds 
roundish, polished, each seated on an elastic htnic, in 
fjome species solitary, in others several in each cell. 
Herbaceous, acid. Moot scaly, or bidbous. Leaves com- 
{)ound, mosdy tcrnate. Fl. purplish, white, or yellow, 
inodorous. 

1. O. Acctosella. Common Wood-sorrel. 

Stalks radical, singb-flowered. Leaves ternate, inversely 
heart-shaped, hairy. Root of many seal}' joints. Stamens 
all simple. 

O. Acetosdki. Linn. Sp. PL 620. frilld. v. 2. 780. Fl.Br.40\. 

Kngl. Bot. V. 11. t. 762. Curt. Lond.fasc. 2. ^ 31. Woodo. Med. 

But. t. 20. //oo/t. Scot. 141. FL Dan. t. 980. Jacq. Oxal. \\4. 

t.SO.f.l. E/uh.FLOf.\54. 
Oxvs n. 928. HalL Hist. v. 1 . 402. 

0.\i\bji. RaiiSyn. -^281. Ger. Em. \20\.f. Merr. Pin.90. 
'IVifolium acetosum. Dod. Fnunent.2\A.f. Fempt. i^78.f. Mattli. 

J'algr.v.]. 191./. CinKr.Epit.58A.f.2. Dalecli. Hist. \'3j5.f. 
T. acetosum vulgare. Bank. Fin. 330. 
/S. T. acetosum vulgare, tlore purpureo. DHL in Raii Syn. *2S\. 

In p^rovcs and sluicly places abundantly. 

Perennial. Aj)ril, I\Iay. 

Root of several parcels of flosliy reddish scales, connected by a 
thread. Stem none. Lcajlcts of a delicate bright green, often 
))urplish at the back, drooping at night, on long, hairy, radical, 
))urpl!sh fuot-stallcs. Ftoacr-iUdlcs taller than tlic footstalks, like 
tlicm hairv, purplisli, more or less curved or wavy. Bnuiens 2, 
o|)posite, considerably below the toj) of each stalk. FL solitary, 
dnjoping, bell-shaped, either white or purplish, always streaked 
with Hue branching j)urple veins ; the ptluls adhering together 
by a little glandular swelling, at each side of their short yellow 
tiaws. St(n)i. all capillary, as are the styles likewise. When ripe, 
the blackisli shining seeds are projected to a distance, on the 
slightest touch or motion, by their elastic lunies, which remain, 
cuntracli'd and wrinkled, in the capsule. 

This herb is powerfully and most agreeably acid, making a refresh- 
ing and wholesome conserve with line sugar ; its flavour resem- 
bling green lea. Few of our wild ilowers are more elegant. In 

V 2 



324 DECANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Agrostemma. 

the south of Italy, the Wood-sorrel is said to be called JuUola, 
barbarously corrupted, as Bauhin observes, in to .4ZZeZi(/'a; whence 
also came its medical name Lujula. 

2. O, cornicidata. Yellow Procumbent Wood-sorrel. 

Stem branched, procumbent. Flower-stalks in small um- 
bels. Stipulas united to the base of the footstalks. 

O. corniculata. Linn. Sp. PL 623. Wllld. v. 2. 800. Berkenh. Outl. 

v.2.127. Sijn.v. 2. 14). FL Br. 492. Engl. Bot. v. 24. t.\72Q. 

Hook. Scot. 141. Hopk. Glott. 60. Jacq. Oxal. 30. t. 5. Ehrh. 

Herb. 136. 
O. pusilla. Salisb. Tr. of L. Soc. v. 2. 243. t. 23. /. 5. 
Oxys n. 929. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 402. 
O. lutea. Ger. Em. 1202./. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 388./. 
O. lutea corniculata. Dalech. Hist. 1355./ 
O. flavo flore. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 249. f. 
Trifolium acetosum. Camer. Epit. C)S4.f. I. 
T. acetosum corniculatum. Bauh. Pin. 330. 

In shady, rather moist, waste ground. 

About Exeter ; Mr. J. Turner. Berkenhout. Abundant in several 
parts of Devonshire. Engl. Bot. Near Cuckfield, Sussex ; Mr. 
Fearon. Mrs. Charlotte Smith. Not far from Stirling. Dr. Ha- 
milton, late Buchanan. On a wall between the Avon and Barn- 
cluith. Mr. Hopkirk. 

Annual. May — October. 

Root fibrous. Sterns several, spreading widely on the ground, and 
often taking root, round, reddish, downy, leafy. Leaves alter- 
Viate, or occasionally opposite, on long spreading footstalks; 
leaflets inversely heart-shaped, downy, acid like the former. >S/i- 
;w /as lanceolate, attached in pairs to the base o^ e^ich footstalk ; 
by the want of which in O. stricta Mr. Salisbury has well distin- 
guished the latter, now become almost a weed in gardens, though 
reported to be of American origin. Tho: flowers of O. corniculata, 
which owes its name to the oblong capsule, contrasted with O. 
Acetosella, grow scarcely more than 2 together, on axillary stalks. 
The petals are yellow, strongly combined. Stam. in like manner 
monadelplious. Seeds numerous in each cell. 

241. AGROSTEMMA. Cockle. 

Linn. Gen. 231. Juss. 302. Fl. Br. 492. Gcvrtn. t. 130. 

Nat. Ord. C«rj/o/^%ZZ^^. Linn. 22. Juss. 82. See??. 232 — 
237, and 7i. 24-2—244. 

Cal, inferior, of 1 leaf, tubular, coriaceous, strongly ribbed, 
5-toothed, pennanent. Pet. 5 ; their claws as long as the 
tube of the calyx ; border spreading, obtuse. Filam. awl- 



DECANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Agrostemma. 325 

shaped ; 5 shorter than the rest, attached to the claws of 
the petals. Antk. oblong, notched at each end. Genu. 
superior, ovate. Styles thread-shaped, erect, the length 
of the stamens, aS//^^;/2<25 slender, downy. Ccq)s. oblong- 
ovate, of 1 cell, and 5 rigid valves, more or less combined 
below, inclosed in the hardened calyx. Seeds numerous, 
kidney-shaped, granulated, stalked, attached to the un- 
connected central column. 
Herbs with an upright stem ; simple, entire, narrow, oppo- 
site, mostly downy, leaves ; and several upright, stalked, 
solitary, purple or rose-coloured, handsome ^otc'^;-5, in 
most species, but not in ours, crowned with rigid sharp 
teeth at the mouth. 

1. A. Githago. Corn Cockle. 

Hairy. Calyx-teeth rising above the corolla. Petals un- 
divided, without teeth. 

A. Githago. Linn. Sp. PI. 624. M'illd.v.2.S0D. Fl. Br. 493. Engl. 

Bot. V. 1 1 , ^. 741. Curt. Lond.fasc. 3. t. 27. Mart. Rust. t. 105. 

Hook. Scot. 141. Fl. Dan. t. 576. Dreves Bildcrb. t. 22. 
Lychnis n. 926. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 401. 
L. segetiim'inajor. Bauh. Pin. 204. Rail Stjn. 238. 
Pseudomelanthium. Matth. Valgr.v.2.\54.f. Camer.Epit.DD4.f. 

Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2.*>H ./. Dalech. Hist. 438./. Ger. Em. 

1087./. 
Nigella. ^rwn/.//er6. 242./ 241. . 

Nigellastrum. Dod. Coronar. 49./ Pevipt. 173. f. ' 

Githago, seu Lolium. Trag. Hist. 127. f. 
Lolium. Fuchs. Hist. \27 ./. 

In corn-fields, a troublesome weed. 

Annual. June, July. 

Root tapering. Herb clotlicd with upright hoary hairs. Stem 
round, branched, leafy, about a yard high. Leaves sessile, 
joined at the base, linear-lanceolate. Ft. on upright stalks, 
purple, witli blueish streaks, large and very handsome, however 
odious in the sight of the farmer among his ripening corn. Cal. 
very hairy, with long, narrow, smoother teeth, ui)right before 
and after flowering. This genus has been, by many botanists, 
united \\\\\\ Einlmis ; from which it is distinguislied chiefly by 
tlie very hard and tougli calyx, and unthvided petals, whose 
teeth moreover, when present, are ])eculiarly horny and sharp, 
unbke those of any other phuits of tliis natural order ; but they 
are wanting in our only liritish species. 

This weed sliouUl be eradicated hv hand before flowering. 



326 DECANDRIA—PENTAGYNIA. Lychnis. 
242. LYCHNIS. Lychnis, or Campion. 

Lbm. Gen. 231 . Juss. 302. FL Br. 493. Tourn. t. 175./. C—E, 
J—M. Lam.t.S9\. Garin. t. 130. 

Nat. Orel, see ?z. 24 L 

Cal. inferior, of 1 leaf, oblong, membranous, ribbed, 5- 
toothed, permanent. Pet 5 ; their claws flat, thin-edged, 
as long as the tube of the calyx, mostly crowned ; border 
flat, spreading, mostly divided. Fila?)!. longer than the 
calyx ; 5 alternate ones later than the rest, attached to 
the chuvs of the petals. Afit/i. oblong, incumbent. Germ. 
superior, nearly ovate. Styles 5, occasionally 3 or 4, awl- 
shaped, longer than the stamens. Stigmas refiexed, downy. 
Caps, more or less perfectly ovate, of 1, 3, or 5 cells, open- 
ing 5 or 10 recurved teeth. Seeds numerous, roundish, 
roughish, attached to the unconnected central column. 

Herbs, various in habit, mostly perennial ; either smooth, 
viscid, or downy. Stem erect. Leaves opposite, simple, 
undivided, entire. Fl. solitary or aggregate, terminal, 
erect, red or w^iite. Pet. in L. Viscaria scarcely divided; 
in the Lapland L. apctala abortive. Slam, and pist. se- 
parated for the most part in L. clioica, 

1. L. Flos Cuculi. Meadow Lychnis. Ragged Robin. 

Petals in four linear segments. Capsule roundish, of one 
cell. Stem rough with deflexed bristles. 

L. Flos Cuculi. Linn. Sp. PL 625. MWd.v.2.807. R. Br. 493. 

Engl. Bot. V. S. t. 573. Curt. Lond.fasc. 1, t. 33. Hook. Scot. 

141. Fl. Dan. t. 590. 
L. n. 921. Hall. Hist.v.l. 399. 

L. plumaria svlvestris simplex. Park. Parad. 253. Rail St/n. 338. 
Cuculi flos. Trag. Hist. 403. f. 
Armoraria pratensis mas. Ger. Em. GOO./, 
A. pratensis sylvestris. Flos cuculi. Lob. Ic. 451./. 
Armerius sylvestris. Dod. Pempt. \77.f. 

Armeria secunda, sive sylvestris, Dodonaei. DalecJi. Hist. 809./. 
Odontitis Plinii, simplici flore. Clus. Hist. v. 1. 292./. 

In moist meadows frequent. 

Perennial. June. 

Root tapering. Stetn erect, from 1 to 2 feet high, quadrangular, 
leafy, rough with small, bristly, closely deflexed, hairs ; often 

- sending forth leafy branches from the bottom ; the upper part 
viscid and brownish. Leaves lanceolate, nearly smooth, vari- 
ous in width, combined, the lower ones tapering mto footstalks. 
Panicle terminal, forked, erect, viscid, with a pair of broad. 



DECANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Lychnis. 327 

membranous, pointed bracteas at each subdivision. FL inodo- 
rous, rose-coloured, rarely white. Petals flaccid, quivering in 
the slightest breeze, deeply four-cleft, with a lateral pair of 
sharp, red, ui)rigb,t, lobes, or teeth, at the upper part of the 
claw. Caps, roundish-ovate, of 1 cell, with 5 marginal teeth. 
A double variety, of more humble stature, is sometimes seen in 
gardens ; but seldom lasts long, for want of its natural supply 
of moisture. 

2. L. f-lscaria. Red German Catchfly. RockLychnis. 

Viscid. Petals slightly cloven. Capsule stalked, of five cells. 
Leaves fringed at tlie base. 

L. Viscaria. Limi. Sp. PL 625. JVilld. v. 2. 808. FL Br. 494. 

EnoL Bot. v.W.t. 788. Hook. Scot. 142. FL Dan. L 1032. 
L. n. 927. IlalLHist.v. 1.401. 
L. sylvestris viscosa rubra angustifolia. Baiih. Pin. 205. Rail Syn. 

340. 
L. sylvestris prima. Chis. Pann. 328./. 329. 
L. sylvestris quarta. Clus. Hist. v. 1. 289./. 
Muscipula angustifolia. Ger. Em. 601 ./ 
Odontidi, sive Flori Cuculi, affinis Lychnis sylvestris. Bauh. Hist. 

r. 3. p. 2. 348./ good. 

In dry fissures of rocks, but rare. 

On rocks in ?]dinburgh park 5 T. Willisell ; and on the sides of 
Craig^\'reidhin (rather Breiddin), Montgomeryshire j Mr. Lhvyd. 
Ray. On rocks by the Hermitage, a mile south of EfHnbuigh, 
in tolerable plenty J 1782. This is the ])lace called Blackford 
hill by Professor Hooker, who mentions several other situations 
in Scotland", where the species in question grows wild. 

Perennial. May, June. 

Roots tufted, rather woody. Stems a foot high, bluntly quadran- 
gular, leafy, smooth, cxcej)t a great degree of brown visciility 
about the upper ])art, under each jiair of leaves, and on tlie' 
Jioiver-staJks. Leaves linear-lanceolate, dark green, smooth, 
with a slight woolly fringe at the base. Panicle spiked ; corym- 
bose at the toj) ; lower branches forked. /'/. crowded, scentless. 
Cat. nearly suKJoth, membranous, purplish. Pet. rose-coloured, 
veiny, very slightly cloven, or inversely heart-shaped, with a di- 
vided acute scale at the top of the ciaw. Caps, owitc, short, 
elevated within the calyx on a stout angular stalk, half its own 
length, and opening with 5 revolute, cloven teetli, or valves, 
with membranous central partitions. Senls kidney- shaped, 
black, rough. 

A white-flowered variety has been souielimcs found ; a double one 
is common in ru^stic gardens. 



328 DECANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Lychnis. 

3. L. alphia. Red Alpine Campion. 

Smooth. Petals cloven. Flowers densely corymbose. Cap- 
sule stalked, of five cells. Leaves linear-lanceolate, naked 
at the base. 

L. alpina. Linn. Sp. PL 626. Lapland Tour, v. 2. 1 9. fVlUd. v. 2. 

809. Sm. Tr. of L. Soc. v. 10. 342. Engl. Bot. -y. 32. t. 2254. 

Comp,7\. Hook. Scot. \A2. Curt. Mao. t. 394. Fl. Dan. t.Go. 
L. n. 922. Hall. Hist. v.\. 400. t.\7. 
Silene n. 185. Linn. Fl.Lapp. ed. 1. 146. ed. 2. 152. 

On rocks in the Highlands of Scotland. 

Near the summits of the Clova mountains, Angusshire. Mr. G. 
Don. 1795. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Half the size of the last ; the herbage of a paler hue, and quite 
destitute of viscidity. Leaves not fringed at the base. Fl. crowded 
into a dense roundish tuft, bright rose-coloured. Border of each 
petal cloven half way down, with 2 small protuberances, as Haller 
says, rather than teeth, at the base. The capsule is stalked, and 
I have certainly found 5 cells, with membranous partitions, as 
in L. Viscaria; though in the Fl. Scot, it is otherwise described. 
The styles are naturally 5, as recorded by Linnaeus in his Lap- 
land Tour; though I find one flower on his own specimen with 
3, agreeing with Fl. Lapp. There may, doubtless, sometimes 
be 4, as mentioned in Willdenow, after -Sz/s/. Veg.ed. 13 and 14. 

4. L. dioica. Red or White Campion. 

Flowers dioecious. Petals cloven, crowned with four teeth. 
Capsule of one cell. 

L. dioica. Linn. Sp. PI, 626. Willd.v. 2. 8\0. FLBr.495. Hook. 

Scot. 142. 
L. n. 923. Hall. Hist. V. 1.400, 
L. sylvestris. Dod. Penipt. 171 ./. Coronar. 47. f. 
Ocimastrum, sive Ocvmoides. Matth. Valgr.v. 2.346./. Camer, 

Epit. 739. f. 
a. Flowers red. 
Lychnis dioica. E?igl. Bot. v. 22. 1,1579. Curt. Lond.fasc. 2. t. 32. 

Hull 100. 
L. diurna. Slhth.\45. Sym. Syn. ]\2. 
L. sylvestris rubello flore. Ger. Em. 469./. Raii Syn. 339. Lob. 

Ic. 335./. 
L. sylvestris, sive aquatica, purpurea simplex. Bank. Pin. 204, 
/3. Flowers white. 

L. dioica. Engl. Bot. v. 22. t. 1580. FL Dan. t. 792. 
L. vespertina. Sibth. 146. Sym. Sj/n. \\2. Hull \00. 
L. sylvestris albo flore. Ger. Em. 468. Rail Syn. 339, 
L= sylvestris alba simplex. Bauh. Pin, 204. 



DECANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Cera^tium. Si^9 

Ocymoides album multis. Baiih. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 342./. 

y. Flowers flesh-coloured, often with stam. and pist. together. 

a. In moist shady places, and under hedges, frequent. 

^. In hedges and cultivated fields, no less common. 

y. In hedges and fields; but rarely. 

Perennial, a. May, June. /3, y, June — Sept. 

Root tapering, rather fleshy. Herb green, clothed with projecting 
soft hairs, a little viscid. Stem upright, weak, round, leafy, 18 
to 24 inches high ■ in j3 and y 2i or 3 feet. Leaves ovate, 
acute, soft, rather wavy 3 the lower ones stalked j upper nar- 
rower and often lanceolate. Panicle terminal, leafy, many- 
flowered, partly forked. Cat. tuljular, dark red, or purplish, with 
10 ribs, and frequently, in the fertile plants, intermediate veins. 
Pet. each with a broad claw, dilated upwards, crowned with 2 
acute marginal teeth, and 2, more blunt, combined, central ones. 
Stam. capillary. Germ, sessile, ovate, in the flowers of a sepa- 
rate jjhint. St/jles 5, u'ith long, twisted, downy stigmas. Caps. 
ovate, of I cell. 

Tlic corolla in a is of a fine rose-colour • in (3 white, sweet-scented 
in an evening ; in y blush-coloured, but turns white on the same 
))iant Avhen transplanted. The statu, and pist. are not always 
united in this blush-coloured variety, nor separated in the white 
one. No solid permanent sign of specific distinction has oc- 
curred to me, between a, and /3, though I have much wished to 
find one. The red variety especially is often cultivated in a 
double state, and called Bachelor's Buttons. Its flowers are 
rarely found united. 



243. CERASTIUM. Mouse-ear Chicku-eed. 

Linn. Gen. 232. Ju.ss,30\. Fl.Br.]96. Lam. t. 392. Gcirtn. t. \30. 
Myosotis. Tourn. t. 1 26. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 388. 

Nat. Orel, see ?/. 211. 

Cal. inferior, of 5 ovate-lanceolate, acute, spreading, perma- 
nent leaves, membranous at the edges. Pc/. 5, divided, 
obtuse, spreading, about the length of the calyx, with 
broad, very short, claws. Filain. thread-shaped, 10, 5, 
or i, shorter than the corolla; alternate ones sliorlest. 
A}ith. roundish, 2-lobed. Chrm. ovate, superior, sessile. 
Styles 5, rarely but 1, short. S//<^ni. bluntish, downy. 
('aj)s. membranous, cylindrical or ovate, of 1 cell, open- 
ing with twice as many upright teeth as there are sljjlis. 
Seals numerous, roundish, rough. 

n('rl)s, aiuuial or perennial; liairy, smooth, or cottony. 
Leaves o\'i\\.(i or clli[>lical, rarely lanceolate, always enliic, 



320 DECANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Cerastium. 

combined at the base, sessile. Fl. white. Most akin to 
Stellaria and Arenaria, 

1. C. vulgatiim. Broad-leaved Mouse-ear Chick- 

weed. 

Hairy, viscid, tufted. Leaves ovate. Petals as long as the 
calyx. Flowers longer tlian their stalks. 

C. vulgatum. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. \0.v. 2. 1039, A. Herb. Linn. A. 

Fl. Slice, ed. 2. 158. Sp. PL 627. FL Br. 496. EngL Bot. v.W. 

t.789. Light/. 240. Hook. Scot. 142. 
C. viscosum. Huds.200. With. 433. HidllOl. Relh. 17S. Sibth. 

147. Abbot \0\. Curt.Lond.fasc.2.t.3D. 
Myosotis n. 895. HalL Hist. v. \. 391. 
M. arvensis hirsuta_, parvo flore. Toiirn. Inst. 245. VailL Par. 142. 

^.30./. 3. 
Alsine hirsuta major, foliis subrotundis dilute vircntibus. Moris. 

V. 2. 551. sect. 5. t. 23. f. 10. In Morison's herbarium at Oxford. 
A. hirsuta, Myosotis latifolia prsecocior. Raii Si/n. 348. 
Auricula muris quorundam, flore parvo^ vasculo tenui longo. Bauh. 

HisLv.3.p.2.359.f. 

In fields, waste ground^ as well as on walls and dry banks, common. 

Annual. April, Maij. 

Root fibrous, small. Herb light green, hairy, of a pale tawny yel- 
lowish hue when verging towards decay, very hairy, and some- 
what viscid, all over. Stems several, rather upright, a span high, 
round, leafy, panicled, forked, many-flowered, the exterior ones, 
more spreading at first, but finally erect. Leaves of a broad 
ovate, or elliptical, figure, bluntish, slightly recurved and con- 
vex, TJOt an inch long. FL from the forks of the stem, erect, on 
stalks shorter than the calyx, slightly glutinous, the upper ones 
crowded. Calyx-leaves lanceolate, acute j the inner ones most 
membranous at the edges. Pet. white, hardly longer than the 
calyx, cloven nearly half way down. Stam. 10, all fertile, glan- 
dular at the base. Caps, twice the length of the calyx, cylin- 
drical, slightly curved upwards. Seeds furrowed, tuberculated, 
tawny. 

2. C. viscosum. Narrow-leaved Mouse-ear Cliick- 

weed. 

Hairy, viscid, recumbent. Leaves lanceolate-oblong. 

C. viscosum. Linn. Sp. PL ed. 1.437. ed. 2. 627. Herb. Linn. n. 2. 

FLSaec.ed.2.\bS. FLBr.497. EngL BoLv. W. t. 790. Light/. 

240. Hook. Scot. 142. 
C. vulgatum. Hiids. 200. PFith. 433. Relh. 178^ S>blh.l46. Curt. 

Lond. /asc. 2. t. 34. Wade Dubl. 1 25. 
Myosotis n. 893. HalL Hist, v. 1.390. 



DECANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Cerastium. C3l 
M, hirsuta altera viscosa. Tourn. Inst. 245. Faill. Par. 142. f.30. 

/■'• 

Alsine hirsuta altera viscosa, foliis longis saturatius vireiitibus. 

Moris. V. 2. 551. sect. 5. t. 23./. 11. In MorisoiVs herbarium. 
A. hirsuta myosotis. Rail Sijn. 349. 

In meadows, pastures, waste ground, and on walls, very common. 

Perennial. May — September. 

Root fibrous, and apparently, as Dillenius observes, perennial. 
Stems widely spreading or procumbent; among other plants 
upright. Whole herb of a darker green than the ))receding, with 
longer, narrower, rather less obtuse leaves. All the parts of 
the Jlower arc larger ; petals longer and more conspicuous. 
F/oM;er-5trt/As generally longer. Seeds rugged. Slam. 10, all 
perfect. 

Great misconception has prevailed among botr.nl.sts concerning 
tiiese tu-o species, owing to Linnaeus having misquoted V'aillant, 
I have been at some pains to ascertain tiieir respective syno- 
nyms, from original authorities at Parlr; and Oxforn ; but it is 
impossible to guess what WilUlenow intended, as he did not dis- 
cover the error of Linnc^us. Oar British ])otanists, except Mr. 
Lightfoot, have been regulated merely by the misaj)plied syno- 
nyms of V'aillant, and were therefore led astray. The plants 
are common enough ; but Linnteus originally de^icribed the vis- 
cosiim only, which is really viscid, though his vulgaiiim hap- 
pens to be generally' more so. 

3. C. scinidecaiidrum. Little Mouse-ear Chickweed. 
Hairy and viscid. Stamens five. Petals slightly cloven. 

C. semidecandrum. Linn. Sp. PL G27. irdld. v. 2. 8 1 2. FL Pr. 
497. Enql. Bat. v. 23. t. 1 (i30. Curt. Lojid fasc. 2. t. 33. Dicks. 
II. Sice. fasc. 8. 11 . Hook. Scot. 1 43. Khrh. Herb. 95. 

C. hirsutum minus, flore parvo. Dill. Giss. 80. Raii Sf/n. 348. 
t. \:).f. 1. 

Myosotis n. 894. Hall. Hist. v. 1.391- 

M. hirsuta minor. Tourn. Inst. 245. VaUl. Par. 142. t. 30./. 2. 

Alsine hirsuta minor. liauJi. Pin. 251. 

/3. Cerastium pumilum. Curt. Loud. fasc. 6. t. 30. With. 435. 
Abbot 102. 

In waste or sandy ground ; also on walls in the outskirts of towns 
or villages, very frequent. 

/3. On dry banks near Croydon, Surrey. Mr. Dickson. 

Annual. March, April. 

Root small, fibrous. Colour and hnbit of the whole plant most 
like the last, but every |)art is nuich smaller, and the herbage 
often turns reddish. Stem solitary, simple or bramhe;!, sj)read- 
ing at the base only, otherwise «'re(f, usually about 3 inchc.^ 
high, sometimes twice as much, viscid in the nppei puit. Leaves 



332 DECANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Cerastium. 

ovate -oblong 3 the lower ones smoothest. Panicle spreading, 
viscid. Flower-stalks longer than the calyx, bent down as the 
flowers fade, but finally erect. Calyx-leaves rough and gluti- 
nous, obtuse, with a broad white shining margin. Pet. pure 
white, conspicuous, though shorter than the calyx, slightly 
cloven at the tip, sometimes cut at the side, but irregularly and 
accidentally. >S7rtm. 5, very rarely more. Styles d. Ca/)5. slightly 
curved, twice as long as the calyx. Seeds rough, compressed. 

/3 differs slightly in the size of its petals, which are cloven about a 
third of their length. 

Haller attributes 3 styles only to his n. 894. 1 have never seen or 
heard of fewer than 5 in the Cerastium semidecandrum, which is 
indubitably a most distinct species, displaying itself on every 
wall in the early spring, and withering away before the viscosum 
begins to put forth its far less conspicuous blossoms. 

4. C. tetrandrwti. Four-cleft Mouse-ear Chickweed. 

Hairy and somewhat viscid. Flowers four-cleft, with four 
stamens. Petals inversely heart-shaped, shorter than 
the taj:)er-pointed calyx, which is nearly as long as the 
capsule. 

C. tetrandrum. Curt. Land. fasc. 6. ^. 3 1 . Fl. Br. 498. Comp. 72. 

Hook. Scot. 143. Hoffm. Germ, for J800. 212. 
Sagina cerastoides. Sni. Tr. of L. Soc. v. 2. 343. Engl. Bof. v. 3. 

t. \66. Dicks. H. Sice. fasc. 10.4. Dryandr. Bibl. Banks. 

V.3.2AA. 

On the sandy sea coast, walls, and waste ground. 

Upon walls about Edinburgh, as well as on the Calton hill, and 
Arthur's Seat, 1782. Since found by Mr. Dickson, on Inch 
Keith and Inch Combe, in the Frith of Forth, and on the beach 
below Preston-pans. Professor Hooker in a note, Fl. Scot. 143, 
says it grows near Yarmouth, Norfolk ; but 1 have not seen 
specimens. 

Annual. May, June. 

Root small and slender. Herb of a bright light green, clothed 
with short dense hairs, and somewhat viscid. Stems several, 
spreading, or partly procumbent, branched, forked, leafy, from 
2 to 6 inches high in a wild state. Leaves elliptic-oblong ; the 
upper ones short and ovate. Flower-stalks nearly thrice the 
length of the calyx, erect 3 bent downward as the fruit ripens. 
Cat. of 4 hairy, viscid, pointed leaves, the 2 innermost narrowest, 
with a broader membranous margin. Pet. 4, white, cloven half 
way down, and somewhat rounded, so as to be inversely heart- 
shaped. Stam. 4, rarely 5. Styles 4, short. Caps, a little 
longer than the calyx, straight, with 8 long linear teeth. Seeds 
roughish at the outer edge. 

The figure in Erigi Bot., drawn^ like Mr. Curti^1's, from a garden 



DECANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Cerastium. 333 

specimen^ is very correct and characteristic. Of the distinctions 
between this species and the last there is no question ; norcan 
any good botanist who has really compared them together, all 
theory apart, have a doubt remaining. There is more uncer- 
tainty about our tetrandrum and the Spanish pentandrum, which 
it most resembles in size, habit, colour, and calyx 5 but C, pentan- 
drum has .') -cleft flowers with small, acute, scarcely c\ow en, petals, 
and a remarkably bread membranous margin to the cahjx. The 
Jlower-stidks moreover, even when in fruit, do not exceed the 
" caJyx in length. It is true that the flowers of C. tetrandrum by 
culture now and then become o -cleft and pentandrous ; but its 
taper-pointed calyx is alone sufficient to keep it distinct from 
the semidecandrum. 

5. C. arvcnse. Field Chick-weed. 
Leaves linear-lanceolate, bluntish; fringed at the base. 
Petals twice the lenolh of the calyx ; capsule shorter. 

C. arvense. Unn. Sp. PL 628. mild. v. 2. 813. Fl. Br. 499. 
Engl. Bot. V.2. t.93. Curl.Lond.fasc. 6. t.29. Hook. Scot. 143. 
Fl. Dan. t. 626. 

Myosotis n. 889. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 389. 

M. arvensis, polygoni folio. Tourn. Inst. 24.>. Vaill. Par. 141. 
^.30./. 5. 

M. arvensis subhirsuta, ttore majore. Tourn. Inst. 245. Vaill. 
Par.\4\.t.30.f.4. 

Caryophyllus arvensis hirsutus, flore majore. Bauh. Pin. 2\0. 
Rail Syn. 348. 

C. Holostius. Ger.Em.^Oly.f. Lob.Ic.AAG.f. 

Auricula maris pulchro flore albo. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 360./. 

In fields, and on banks and hillocks, on a gravelly or chalky soil. 

Perennial. May — August. 

Root creeping. Stems numerous, slightly branched, leafy, round, 
covered with fine deflexed haii-s ; recumbent and matted at the 
base ; then ascending 5 from 4 inches to a foot in length. 
Leaves lanceolate, about an inch long, various in breadth, 
bluntlv pointed, for the most i)art densely hairy j sometimes 
smooth, but always fringed about the lower part. Patiicles ter- 
minal, of a few large brilliant-wliite y/ou'c;\v, whose pc/rt/i- are 
inversely heart-shaped, and veiny, twice lus long as the hairy 
membranous-bordered rrt///.r. Germen globose. Caps, cylindri- 
cal, slender, shorter than the calyx, with 10 oblong teeth, some- 
times splitting down into ."> or 10 narrow valves. 

G. C. (dpimim. Alpine Mouse-car Chickwced. 
Leaves elliptical, naked, t)r clothed with long hairs. Pa- 

nicle forked, bractcated, of few flowers. Capsule oblong, 

recurved. 



334: DECANDUIA— PENTAGYNIA. Cerastlum. 

C. alpinum. Lum. Sp. PL C28. mild. v. 2. 814. FL Br. 500. 
Ens;L Dot. v. 7. f. 472. Hook. Scot. 144. FL Dan. t. 6. 

C. latifolium. Llghif.242. t. 10. 

Mvosotis n. 888. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 389. 

Al'sines myosotis facie. Lychnis alpina, flore amplo niveo repens. 
Rail Syn. 349. t. 15./. 2. 

On the mountains of Scotland and Wales, by the sides of alpine 
rllls, plentifully. 

By rivulets on the declivities of Snowdon. Mr. Llwyd. No where 

'more plentiful than about springs on the lofty mountain of 

rrifZ«a//, towards the north. Dr.Bichardson. On Ben Lomond, 

near the top, 1782. Not rare on the Highland mountains. 

Hooker. 

Perennial. June, Juhj. 

Root creeping, crowned with tufts cf round leafy stems, some of 
ihern o or 4 inches high, bearing sometimes a solitary floicer, 
sometimes 2 or 3, in a forked, partially bracteated panicle. 
Leaves elliptical, ■§ an inch or more in length, varying in 
breadth and acuteness, sessile, light green. No ])Lint varies 
more as to pubescence. Mr. Llwyd originally remarked that 
some Individuals were green, others hoary. Ttie Linnaan speci- 
men is perfectly smooth ; others from Wales, Scotland, and 
Switzerland, quite hoary, even shaggy with long woolly, or 
silky, jointed hairs, as in Lightfoots figure. The hairs are too 
short in the plate, executed by Dillenius, in Ray's Synopsis. 
The calyx-leaves are elliptical, scarcely pointed ; either hairy or 
smooth ; the inner ones more especially bordered with a white 
membrane. Pet. inversely heart-shaped, much longer than the 
calyx, white and handsome. Stam. 10, all perfect. Styles 5. 
Caps, cylindrical, curved, twice as long as the permanent calyx, 
opening with 10 lanceolate blunt teeth. 
The hairy variety has often been taken for the following species. 

7. C. laiifulium. Broad-leaved Mouse-ear Chick- 
weed. 

Leaves elliptical, rough with short bristly hairs. Flower- 
stalks terminal, simple, mostly solitary. Capsule ovate 
at the base. 

C. latifolium. Linn. Sp. PL 629. Willd. v. 2. 817. FL Br. 501. 
EngL Bot. V. 7. L 473. Huds. 202. Hook. Scot. 144. Jacq. 
ColLv. 1.256. t.20. 

C. tomentosum. Huds. ed. I. 176. 

Myosotis n. 887. HalL Hist. v. 1 . 389. 

Alsine myosotis lanuginosa alpina grandiflora. Raii Syn. 349. 

Mouse-ear plant. Mart. Spitzberg. 47. chap. 8. t. G. f. d. ItaL 
ed.\OS.chap.S. 

On the Welsh and Scottish mountains. 



DECANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Cerastium. 355 

On Clogwyn y Garnedd, a very high mountain near Llanberris, 
Caei-narvonsliire. Dr. Richardson, and Mr. Griffith. On the 
Highhmd mountains. Mr. Mackay. Professor Hooker suspects 
it to be rare in Scothind. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Rather more dwarf and tufted than the foregoinc:, of a yello'wnsh 
hue, from the rough clothing of short, tawny, rigid hairs, always 
present, as far as I have observed. Leaves broader and more 
obtuse. Floucr-sfal/is long, hairy, and viscid, almost always 
solitary, and without bracteas. Fl. like the last. Caps, straight, 
sometimes not much longer than the calyx, as in the Linnsean 
specimen ; but it is often considerably longer, and rather cylin- 
drical than ovate, though hardly curved, i have ripe capsules, 
differing in length, on the same specimen, and am doubtful 
whether the character of the " ovate capsule" ought to be 
trusted, unless that term be restricted to the base of the fruit ; 
but then it applies almost equally well to C. ulpinum. 

8. C aquaticinn. Water Mouse-ear Chlckweed. 

Leaves heart-shaped, sessile. Flower-stalks lateral, soli- 
tary. Capsules drooping, ovate, with five cloven teeth. 
Petals deeply divided. 

C. aquaticum, Linn. Sp. PL G29. Willd. v. 2. 8 1 G, Fl. Br. 50 1 . 

Engl Dot. v.S.i.^i^S. Curt. Lond.fasc. 1. 1. 34. Hook. Scot. 14-1. 
Alsine n. 885. Hall Hist. v. 1. 388. 
A. major repens perennis. Raii Syn. 347. 
A. major. Bauh. Pin. 250. Ger. Em. Gil./. Dod. Pempt. 29. f. 

Dalech. Hist. 1232./. Camer. Epit. 851./. 
A. maxima. Lob. /c. 4G0./. 
A. maxima solanifolia. Mentz. Pugill t. 2./ 3. 

In watery places, and the margins of rivers and ditches. 

Perennial, July. 

Root creeping. Stems weak and straggling, 2 feet long, more or 
less, branched, forked, leafy, round, covered with prominent 
viscid hairs. Leaves heart-shai)ed, acute, wavy, hairy, of a 
briglit pleiLsant green, all sessile, excej)t a few of t!ie lowermost 
occasionally. Flower-stalks lateral between tlje leaves, single- 
tlowered, hairy and viscid all over ; bent downwards after flower- 
ing. Calyx-leaves ovate, acute, hairy, slightly bordered. Pet. 
about the same length, wliite, in 2 deep, narrow, bUintish, 
spreading lobes. Stani. always 10 ; and styles 5. Caps, ovate, 
about the length of the calyx, or longer, opening with 5 teeth, 
each of which I have lately found to be cloven, though not so 
expressed in Curtis, or in Engl. Hot. 

The general appearance of this plant much resembles Stdlaria 
nemonun, p. 300, and it is remarkable th;it Linn;eus once con- 
founded them, including S. media ; which only sliows that at 



336 DECANDRIA-— PENTAGYNIA. Spergula. 

the moment he paid little attention to the subject, for surely they 
are all equally distinct and well marked. 

244. SPERGULA. Spurrey. 

Linn. Gen. 232. Juss. 301. FL Br. 502. Dill. Gen. 131. t.7. 
Lam. t. 392. Gccrtn.t.VSO. 

Nat. Orel, see «. 241. 

Cal. inferior, of 5 ovate, obtuse, spreading, permanent 
leaves, more or less membranous at the edges. Pet, 5, 
ovate, v/ith very short claws, concave, spreading, larger 
than the calyx, undivided. Filam. 10, sometimes but 5, 
awl-shaped, shorter than the corolla. AntJi. roundish, 
2-lobed. (jerm. superior, ovate. Styles 5, short, slender, 
spreading. Stigmas downy. Ca2)s. ovate, membranous, 
of 1 cell and 5 coiniected valves, covered with the perma- 
nent calyx. Seeds roundish or kidney-shaped, com- 
pressed, rough or smooth, sometimes with a membranous 
border. 

Herbaceous, with slender linear leaves^ and -white Jlou^ers, 
Distinguished from Cerastium^ as Linnaeus remarks, by 
having undivided petals. But the 5 valves, or deeply 
separated teeth, of the capsule are full as important, and 
the natural habit of the whole genus is more allied to 
Arenarla^ from which Spergula differs solely in having 5 
styles, and a corresponding number of valves to \\\e fruit. 

1. S. arvensis. Corn Spurrey. 

Leaves whorled. Stalks when in fruit reflexed. 

S. arvensis. Linn. Sp. PI. 630. Willd. v. 2. 818. Fl. Br. 502. 

Engl. Bot. ?;. 22. ^.1535. Curt. Lond.fasc.b. t.3\. Hook. 

Scot. 144. Fl. Da7i. t. 1033. Ehrh. Herb. 6G. Gunn. Norveg. 

p. 1. 16. Hofm. Germ. for 1800. 213. 
Spergula. Dod. Pempt. 537. f. Frument.\o9.f. Dalech. Hist. 

1331. f. Bank. Hist. v. 3. 7 19, 2./. 
Alsine n. 873. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 385. 
A. Spergula dicta major. Bauh. Pin. 251, Raii Sijn. 351. Dii- 

ham. Cult.v.G. 149. ^.1. 
Saginas Spergula. Ger. Em. 1 125./. 

/3. Spergula pentandra. Engl. Bot. v. 22. t.]536. Comp. 72. Ab- 
bot 102 ? 
Alsine Spergula dicta^ semine membran. fusco. Moris. Rail Syn. 

ed.2. 210? 
y. S. pentandra. Linn. Sp. Fl. 630. ed. 1 . 440. WiUd. v. 2. 818. 

Fl.Br.503. Loefi. It. Hisp. 143. Roth Germ.v.].\96.v.2.505. 



DECANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Spergula. 337 

Hofm. Germ, for 1 800. 2 1 3. Khrh . Herb. 7(3. IVahlenh. La} p. 

K58, under n. 249. 
S. annua, semine foliaceo nigro, circulo membranaceo albo cincto. 

Ddl. in Run S//n. 35 1 . Giss. 4G. Ephcni. Nat. Cur. cent. 5 and 

6. 27 D. t.4.f. i. 
Aisine marginata. Schreb. Lips. 3 I . 
A. spergulse facie minima. Magn. Monsp. 14. 
A. spergulije facie minima, seminibus marginatis. Tourn. List. 244. 

Linnaeus by mi-take always quotes it eniarginalis. 
A. Spergula annua, semine foliaceo nigro, circulo membranaceo 

albo cincto. Moris, v. 2. 551. sect. 5. t. 23. /. last but one, 

marked 2. IJort. Bles. 228. 
Arenaria teretifolia verna, flore albo, semine limbo foliaceo cincto. 

Rnpp.Jen. 101. ed. Hall. 113. 
In sandy corn-fields. 

/6. About the botanic garden, Liverpool. Mr. J. Shepherd. 
y. In sandy ground in Ireland. Shcrard. 

Annual. June, July. 

Root small, tapering. Stons spreading, lax, from G inches to 2 
feet in length, moderately branched, jointed, leafy ; round in 
the lower part ; angular upwards ; hairy and viscid, especially 
in the upper part ; each branch terminating in a forked, divari- 
cated, downy, viscid panicle. Leaves numerous at every joint, 
irregularly and imperfectly whorled, linear, narrow, fleshy, 
downy, sometimes nearly smooth, bluntish ; flat above ; rounded 
beneath. Siipulas in pairs under each whorl, membranous, very 
short. Flower-stalks an inch or more in length, round, slender, 
downy, spreading ; strongly reflexed as the fruit ripens. Calyx- 
leaves obtuse, downy, with membranous edges. Pet. white, a 
little longer than the calyx. Stam. generally 10, often 5, or some 
intermediate number. Stt/les constantly 5. Caps, longer than 
tlie calyx, sjjlitting more than half way down into 5 undivided 
teetli or valves. Seeds numerous, roundish, commonly black, 
tumid and angular, with an obsolete border, and covered with 
small tubercles or bristles ; but in (3 they are comj)ressed, 
smooth, with a narrow whitish membranous border ; and in y 
they are quite flat, pale with a dark vl\}i;€, and a wliite, mem- 
branous, striated bordrr, or wing, equal to the seed itself in 
breadt!). 

I concur with Professor Hooker in considering p as but a slight 
variety, there being not the smallest difl'ercnce in the size or struc- 
ture of any part of the plant, except the weds, in whiiii indeed 
the diflerence is remarkable, liut intermediate appearances 
may be traced between the round rough angular seeds of the 
common Spurrey, and the smooth, lenticular, bordered ones of 
this variety. There is the same diflerence in Jrenarin marina, 
compared with rubra ; but there are presumed to be other spe- 
cific marks between these two [)lnnts. On the other hand, Spcr- 

VOI.. II. / 



338 DECANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Spergula. 

gula pentandra, of which I have Loefling's original specimens 
described by Linnaeus, as well as Ehrhart's ; and others gathered 
by Mr. Schleicher in Switzerland ; differs from /3 as Arenaria me- 
dia does from marina, in having a broad, white, striated, orbicular 
wing to each seed. This Dr. Wm. Sherard must be presumed 
to have gathered in Ireland ; but I have seen no native speci- 
mens. All the foreign ones now before me are much smaller 
than either of the preceding varieties, being from 2 to 6 inches 
high ; and the annular swelling under each joint, mentioned 
by Dr. Wahlenberg, may be perceived j but I find nothing 
like a decisive character, in the stem, leaves, or other parts. The 
stamens are said to be 5 ; Loefling once saw 7 ; they are also 
usually 5 in our (3 ; but their number is certainly variable in all 
the three varieties. I think Arenaria media and marina, above 
alluded to, sanction the union of these three SpergulcE ; if the 
latter do not persuade us to refer those two ArenarifP to the 
rubra. 

2. S. Jiodosa, Knotted Spurrey. 

Leaves opposite, awl-shaped, smooth ; upper ones clustered. 

Calyx without ribs. 
S. nodosa. Linn.Sp. PI.Q30. Willd.v. 2. 8\9. Fl. Br. 503. Engl. 

Bot. V. 10. t. 694. Curt. Lond. fasc. 4. t. 34. Hook. Scot. I4S. 

Fl. Dan. t. 96. 
Alsine n. 87 1 . Hall. Hist, v, 1 . 384. 
A. palustris, foliis tenuissimis, seu Saxifraga palustris anglica. Rail 

Syn. 350. 
A. nodosa germanica. Bauh. Pin. 251. Prodr. 1 18. 
A. palustris ericsefoHa polygonoides, articulis crebrioribus, flore 

albo pulchello. Pluk. Almag. 23. Phyt. t.7.f. 4, 
Arenaria. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 720./. 
Polygonum foliis gramineis alterum. Loes. Pruss. 204. t. 64. 
Sand Chickweed. Pet. H. Brit. t. 59. f. 5. 
In moist sandy or turfy ground. 
Perennial. July, August. 
Root fibrous. Herb quite smooth, of a dark shining green. Stems 

spreading, or prostrate, numerous, slender, round, from 3 to 5 

or 6 inches long, beset with numerous pairs of short awl-shaped 

leaves, accompanied by dense axillary tufts of smaller ones. 

The radical leaves are much longer, measuring an inch or more. 

R. of a brilliant white, large, few together, on simple stalks, 

towards the top of each stem. Cal. blunt, without keel or ribs. 

Pet. obovate. An Arenaria in habit, and every thing else, but 

the 5 styles, and 5 valves of the capsule, which last is seldom 

perfected. 

3. S. saginoides. Smooth Awl-shaped Spurrey. 
Leaves opposite, awl-shaped, almost pointless, naked. 



DECANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Spergula. 339 

Flower-stalks solitary, smooth, much longer than the 
leaves. 

S. saginoides. Linn. Sp. PL 631 . mild. v. 2. 820. FL Br. 504. 
E?igl. Bot. r. 30. t. 2105. Hook. Scot. 145. Swartz Stockh. 
Trans, for 1/89. 44. /. 1./. 2. Wahlenh. Lapp. 138. 

Alsine foliis gramineis, saejje fasciculatis, glabris, pedunculis longis 
nudis imifloris. Gmel. Sib. v. 4. 157; from the author. 

A.n. 802. Hall. Hist. v.\. 382. Davall. 

Stellariu biflora. Fl. Dan. t. 12 ; but not of Linnmis. 

On the highland mountains of Scotland. 

On Mael-ghyrdy. Mr. G. Don. Ben Lavvers. Mr. J. Mackay. 

Perennial. June. 

Root fibrous. Herb quite smooth. Stems several, in jDatches, de- 
cumbent in their lower part, then erect, 2 or 3 inches long, 
round, jointed, leafy. Leaves combined at their base, very 
slightly pointed. Flower-stalks terminal, solitary, erect, reddish 
occasionally, often as long as the whole stem, quite smooth 
and naked. FL white, a little drooping. Calyx-leaves obtuse, 
obscurely ribbed, smooth j tumid at the base. Pet. obovate, 
hardly so long as the calyx. .S7«;«. with us 10 3 Dr. Swartz 
says 5. Styles 5. Caps, of 5 distinct, oblong valves, recurved 
at the extremity, twice tlite length of the calyx. Seeds roundish- 
kidney-shaped, brown, smooth, not bordered. 

This is altogether a Sagina in habit, very much resembling the 
common jjrocumbens ; but without adverting to number or size, 
the structure of each part, carefully examined, shows sufficient 
differences. 

4. S. suhulata. Fringed Awl-shaped Spurrey. 

Leaves opposite, awl-shaped, bristle-pointed, fringed. 

Flower-stalks solitary, much longer tlian the leaves, 

slightly hairy. 
S. suhulata. Sivartz Stockh. Trans. for 1 /SI). 45. f. 1 ./. 3. mild. 

V. 2. 820. Fl. Br. 505. Engl. Bot. v. 1(3. t. 1082. With. 436. 

Hook. Scot. 145. 

5. laricina. Huds.2{)3. Lightf 2A4. Fl. Dan. t.S'^S. 
S. saginoides. Curt. Lond.fasc. 4. t. 35. Ehrh. Herb. 7 . 
Sagina procumbens ^3. Linn. Sp. PL 185. fl'illd. v. 1.71!). 
Saxifraga graminea pusilla, foliis brevioribus, crass ioribus, et suc- 

culentioribus. Rail Syn. 3 15. 

On barren sandy heaths. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root, size and habit much agreeing witli the last ; but the leaves 
are fringed with glandular, or slightly viscid, hairs, and termi- 
nate each in a very cons})icu()us hair-like jjoint, not sufliiiently 
expressed in F.ngl. Bot. Fl. but half the size of tiie saginoides, 
and more erect. O//. strongly keeled, at least when in fruit. 

z 2 



340 DECANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Spergula. 

Pet. white, obovate, as long as the calyx, or nearly so. Siam. 
more frequently 5 than 1 0. Caps, of 5 lanceolate valves, a little 
longer than the calyx. Seeds kidney- shaped, compressed, pale 
brown, encircled with a black line, but without any dilated 
margin. 
I have never found the marginal hairs wanting on the leaves, though 
they are commonly very minute. The fower-stalks are longer 
in proportion to the Jlowers than in the preceding, always more 
or less glandular and viscid, ^udthejlowers are almost perfectly 
erect. 



Class XI. DODECANDRIA. 
Stame7is 12—20. 

Order I. MO^OGYNIA. Pistil 1. 

245. ASARUM. Cor. 0. Ccd. 3-cleft, superior. Caps. 

of 6 cells. 

246. LYTHRUM. Pet. 6. Cal. 12-cleft, inferior. 



Order IT. DIGYNIA. Pistils 2. 

247. AGRIMONIA. Pet. 5, borne by the calyx. Seed^ 
in the bottom of the hardened calyx. 



Order in. TRIGYNIA. Pistih 3. 

248. RESEDA. Pt'/. in many segments. Ca-j^^. of 1 cell, 
gaping. 

(Euphorbia removed to Monoecia Monandria.) 



iTETRAGYNIA . Fistih 4.) 

TonneutilUi 1. 



Order I! . DODECAGYMA. ristih 12. 

249. Si:MlM:ini\ I'M. JM. I'J. (\:L in 12 deip scg- 
UKnls. Cf/ji.'^. I'J. 



342 



DODECANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

245. ASARUM. Asarabacca. 

Linn.Gen.235. Juss.73. Fl. Br. 509. Tourn.L286. Lam.t.394. 
Gcertn. t.\A. 

Nat. Ord. Sarmentacece, Linn. 11. Subsequently, but with 
hesitation, removed by him to the Rhceadece. 27. Aris- 
tolochice. Juss. 23. 

Cal. superior, of 1 leaf, bell-shaped, coriaceous, coloured, 
permanent, in 3 rather deep, upright segments, with in- 
curved points. Cor, none. Filam, 1 2, awl-shaped, half 
the length of the calyx. Anth. attached to the inner 
side of the filaments, below the summit, each of 2 round, 
separated cells. Germ, inferior, turbinate. Style co- 
lumnar, furrowed, nearly as long as the stamens. Stigma 
in 6 deep, stellated, recurved segments. Caps, coria- 
ceous, of 6 cells, not bursting, its outer coat a conti- 
nuation of the calyx. Seeds several in each cell, obovate, 
with a pale longitudinal crest. 

Dwarf, creeping, aromatic herbs, with simple, long-stalked, 
heart- or kidney-shaped, entire leaves; and solitary, 
stalked j^ot«;e;'5, of a dull greenish purple. 

1. A. eiiropcEiim. Common Asarabacca. 
Leaves two on each stem, kidney-shaped, obtuse. 

A. europium. Linn. Sp. PI. ^33. Willd. v. 2. 838. Fl. Br. 509. 
Engl. Bot. V. 16. t. 1083. Woodv. t. 86. Hook. Scot. 146. Fl. 
Dan. t. 633. Bull. Fr. t. 69. 

A. n. 1547. Hcdl. Hist. v. 2. 252. 

Asarum. Bauh. Pin.\97 . RaiiSyn. 158. Ger. Em. 836./. Mill. 
Ic. 35. t. 53. Brunf. Herb. v.\.7\.f. Trag. Hist. 64./. Cord. 
Hist. 112. f. Fnchs. Hist. 10. f. Matth. Valgr. v. I. 33. f. Ga- 
mer. Epit. 19. f. Dalech. Hist. 913. /. 914. Palmberg Sert. 
175. f. 

In mountainous woods in the north of England. 

In several woods in Lancashire 3 Leigh. Ray. Near Kirkby 
Lonsdale, Westmoreland, where it is gathered out of the woods 
for medical use. Dr. Batty. Professor Hooker suspects this plant 
to be not really a native of Scotland ; but that it is truly wild 
in the northern counties of England cannot be doubted. It 



DODECANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Lythrum. 343 

may have been naturalized in some other parts, where it occa- 
sionally occurs. 

Perennial. May. 

Roots creeping, entangled, with numerous, branching, stout fibres ; 
their scent when bruised very peculiar, partaking of pepper and 
ginger ; and they are said to be purgative, as well as emetic. 
Stems very short and simple, round, each bearing two dark 
green, shining, kidney-shaped, rather downy, leaves, two inches 
wide, on long downy stalks, and one drooping ^flower, not an 
inch long, fleshy in substance, of a lurid and singular aspect. 
The powdered leaves are used to provoke sneezing ; a few grains 
at a time may be safely taken, and they produce a considerable 
discharge of fluid by the nostrils. The herb increases plenti- 
fully by seed, without any care, as well as by root, in dry shady 
situations. 

246. LYTHRUM. Purple Loosestrife. 

Linn. Gen, 2A0. Juss. 332. FL Br. 509. Lam. t. 408. Gcertn. 
t.62. 

Salicaria. Tourn.t. 129. 

Nat. Orel. Calycanthemce. Linn. 17. Salicaricv. Juss. 91. 

Cal. inferior, of 1 leaf, cylindrical, striated, with 12 mar- 
ginal teeth, alternately larger and smaller. Pet. 6, ellip- 
tic-ohlong, equal, wavy, with short claws, inserted mto 
the rim of the calyx, spreading. Vdam, 12, thread- 
shaped, from the tube of the calyx, shorter than the co- 
rolla, the 6 alternate ones shortest, and sometimes want- 
ing; all incurved while young. Antlu roundish, incum- 
bent. Germ, superior, ovate-oblong. Stijlc thread-shaped, 
about as long as the longest stamens, a little curved. Htig- 
ma capitate. Caps, inclosed in the tube of the calyx, ob- 
long, membranous, pointed, of 2 cells. Seeds numerous, 
minute, obovate-oblong. 

Herbs with simple, entire, oblong leaves, square stems, and 

purple, axillary, nearly sessile yZotttVi-. 
Some species have occasionally, or constantly, flowers witli 
but 5 petals and 10 stamens. In others, half the stamens 
are abortive, or entirely absent. Several plants referred 
by LinnaHis to Lylhnim are now properly excluded ; 
especially those with irregular /rncvT.s', constituting the 
Cupliea of Jaccjuin, a fine South-American genus. 

1. L. Salicaria. Spiked Purple-Loosestrife. 
Leaves opposite, lanceolate; heart-shaped at the base. 
Flowers in whorled leafy spikes. Stamens twelve. 



344 DODECANDRIA— MONOGYNL\. Lylhnim. 

L. Salicaria. Linn. Sp. PL 640. WiUd. v. 2. 865. FL Br. 510. 
Engl. Bot. V. 15. t. 1061. Curt. Land. fuse. 3. t 28. Hook. 
Scot. 147. Fl.Dan.t.67l. 

Salicaria n. 854. Hall. Hist. v.\.37S. 

S. vulgaris purpurea, foliis oblongis. Raii Syn.367. 

Lysimachia spicata purpurea. Bauh. Pin. 246. Ger. Em. 2/6. f. 

L, altera. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 299./. Canier. Epit. 687. f. Da- 
lech. Hist. 1059./. 

L. purpurea communis major. Cliis. Hist. v. 2. 51./ 

In ditches and watery places, especially about the margins of 
ponds and rivers, abundantly. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root woody, branching at the crown. Stems from 2 to 4 feet high, 
erect, acutely quadrangular, either smooth or downy, leafy, ge- 
nerally simple. Leaves nearly sessile, lanceolate, acute, entire, 
various in length, the upper ones diminished to bracteas ; all 
mostly opposite 5 but there are occasionally 3, or even 4, in 
each whorl ; in which cases the number of angles in the stem is 
likewise increased. FL in numerous axillary whorls, 6 in each, 
of a variable crimson or purple, composing long leafy spikes, of 
great splendour and elegance, but vrithout smell.' Six of the 
calyx-teeth are long and reddish ; the others minute. Anthers 
conspicuous, red, with green or yellow pollen. Capsule ellip- 
tical, small. The herbage, generally almost smooth and of a 
dark green, becomes in dry situations hoary and downy, or in 
some degree hairy, as well as more dwarf in stature. 

2. L. hyssop- folium. Hyssop-leaved Purple-Loose- 
strife. Grass-poly. 

Leaves alternate, linear-lanceolate. Flowers axillary, so- 
litary. Stamens six. 

L. hyssopifolium. Sihth. 149. FL Br. 5 1 0. EngL Bot. v. 5. t. 292. 

P'urton V. 1. 227. t. 2. 
L. Hyssopifolia. Linn. Sp. PL 642. fVilld. v. 2. 869. Dicks. H. 

Sicc.fasc. 16. 2. Jacq. Austr. t. 133. 
Salicaria n. 855. Hall. Hist. v. I. 378. 
S. Hyssopi folio latiore et angustiore. Raii Syn. 367. Rupp. Jen. 

ed.HalL \A7.t. 6./ 2. 
Hyssopifolia. Bauh. Pin.2\8. 
H. sive Gratiola minor. Banh. Prodr. 108./ 
H. aquatica. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 780, 2./. 
Gratiola angustifolia. Ger. Em. 581./ 

In partially dried pits or ditches ; or places where water has stag- 
nated during winter -, but not common. 

On Hounslow heath. Hudson. In several parts of Cambridge- 
shire, Huntingdonshire, Bedfordshire, and Oxfordshire. Sibih. 
Relh. Abbot, kc. In Suffolk. Dickson. Worcestershire. Purfon, 



DODECANDRIA— DIGYNIA. Aorimonia. 545 

Annual. August. 

Root tapering. Herb of humble growth, with several purplish, 
leafy stems, seldom branched, of which one only is upright; the 
rest spreading or recumbent. Leaves bluntish, varying in 
breadth, about an inch long; a pair or two of the lowermost 
opposite ; the rest alternate. Fl. small, nearly sessile, light 
purple ; each with a ])air of small bracteas at the base. Seg- 
ments of the calyx all short, the narrower ones spreading. Stam. 
onlv 6, short, in a single row within the tube of the calyx. ' Some 
flowers are deficient in a sixth of all their parts. 



DODECANDRIA DIGYNIA. 
247. AGRIMONIA. Agrimony. 

Linn. Gen. 24\. Juss. 336. FL Br. dW. rourn. t. \ou. Lam. 
^ 409. Gccrtn.t.73. 

Nat. Orel. Senticoso'. Liini. 3r>, liosacccr. Juss. 92. Sec 
n. 74-, 78; also Grammar 172, sect. 3. 

Cal. inferior, of 1 leaf, tubular, permanent, with 5 small, 
acute, permanent marginal segments; the tube subse- 
quently hardened, closed over the seeds. Pet. 5, Hat, 
sj)reading, notched, each with a small narrow claw, at- 
tached to the rim of the calyx. Filam. ca])illary, irom 
the rim of the calyx, shorter than the corolla, indetermi- 
nate in number, from 7 to 20. Anth. small, compressed, 
2-lobed. Grrmcns 2, sometimes 3, in the bottom of the 
calvx, ovate, com})ressed. Styles lateral, sim})le, tlie 
length of the stamens. Stiy^vi. obtuse, uniiivided. Seeds 
2, occasionally 1, or .3, ovate, smooth, compressed, 
])ointed, erect, inclosed in the liardemcl tube ol tJie 
calyx. 

Astringent, aromatic, hairy, mostly perennial herbs : with 
inlerruj)tedly ])iiniate, cut, rarely ternate, teaves, eacii ac- 
companied by a pair of stipulas unitcil to \.\\c foot static. 
Flonrrs numerous, sjiikeil, yellow. 



346 DODECANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Reseda. 

1. A. Eupatoria, Common Agrimony. 

Stem-leaves pinnate; leaflets elliptic-oblong; terminal one 
stalked. Calyx encompassed with bristles. Spikes 
elongated. 

A. Eupatoria. Linn. Sp. PI. 643. TVilld. v. 2. 875. Fl. Br. 511. 
Engl. Bot. V. 19. t. 1335. Curt. Lond.fasc. 5. t.32. Mart. Rust, 
t. 37. Woodv. suppL t. 258. Hook. Scot. 147. Fl. Dan. t. 588. 
Bull. Fr. i. 229. 

A. n. 991. Hall. Hist. V. 1.423. 

Agrimonia. RaiiSyn. 202. Ger. Em.7l2.f, 

A. sive Eupatorium. Dod. Pempt. 27. f. 28. 

Eupatorium. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 362./. Camer. Epit. 756./ Fuchs. 
Hist. 243./. 244. 7c. 136./ 

E. Grsecorum, Agrimonia officinarum. Lob. Ic. 692./ 

In bushy places, by road sides, and about the borders of fields. 

Perennial, June, July. 

Root tapering, reddish, branched at the summit^, not creeping -, its 
flavour very astringent. Herb deep green, covered with soft 
silky hairs, and when slightly bruised exhaling a peculiar, but 
grateful, aromatic scent. Stem about 2 feet high, scarcely 
branched. Leaves alternate, a span long, of several pair of 
coarsely serrated leaflets, with various small intermediate ones -, 
the terminal leaflet more or less stalked, the size of the former. 
Stipulas of the upper leaves rounded, palmate. Fl. very nu- 
merous, yellow, in a dense tapering spike, with lobed bracteas. 
Cal. of the fruit encircled with a thick whorl of hooked prickles, 
which attach themselves to any thing that comes in their way, 
like burs. 

The herb is slightly bitter, aromatic and astringent, evincing a 
tonic property, for which it has always been noted, and which 
has procured it a place in several British-Herb teas. 



DODECANDRIA TRIGYNIA, 
248. RESEDA. Rocket. 

Linn. Gen. 242. Juss.245. Fl. Br. 5\2. Tourn.t. 238. Lam. 

t.4\0. Gcertn.t.76. 
Luteola, also Sesamoides. Tourn. t. 238. 



DODECANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Reseda. 347 

Nat. Orel. Miscellanece. Linn. 54. Capparides. Juss. 64. 
Resedacece. DeCand. 31. Hook. Scot. p. 2. 204. This 
order is marked with a sign of doubt by the learned 
M. DeCandoUe himself, and it is indeed very anomalous 
and obscure. I can trace no affinity in Reseda to any 
other order ; certainly not to Euphorbuc, or Tricocccc, 
Cal. inferior, of one leaf, deeply divided into several nar- 
row, spreading, irregular, permanent segments. Pet. 3, 
4, 5 or. 6, unequal, deciduous, variously, for the most 
part, jagged, some of them 3-cleft ; the uppermost con- 
cave at the base, as long as the calyx; the lowermost 
often undivided. Ncct. a flat, erect, solid, permanent, 
coloured gland, at the upper side of the flower, pro- 
ceeding from the receptacle, between the uppermost pe- 
tal, or petals, and the stamens. Filam. 1 1 or 1 5, in some 
instances more, short, capillary, drooping. Anth. elliptic- 
oblong, erect. Germ, superior, angular, unequally tumid. 
Styles 3, rarely 4, terminal, short, or scarcely any. »S/^^- 
mas obtuse. Caps, pitcher-shaped, angular, tumid, cori- 
aceous, open at the top between the styles, of 1 cell. 
Seeds numerous, kidney-shaped, stalked, ranged along 3 
lateral longitudinal receptacles. 
The styles are occasionally 4 in various species, and the re- 
ceptacles of the seeds always agree with them in number. 
Nothing can be more various, or more changeable, than 
the forms of the petals, or number of the stamens. The 
])lants are herbaceous, their surface minutely papillary, 
not hairy ; when bruised they are foetid, though the 
Jloiaers of some are fragrant. Leaves alternate, simple, 
mostlv' pinnatifid. FL numerous, pallid, racemose. 
Mr. J. Lindley, in a work no less scientific than splendid, 
has given a most ingenious, though perhaps too meta- 
]ihysical, view of this genus, in which he considers the 
flowers as aggregate, or capitate, the lateral ones being 
but rudiments, representetl by some of the jU'tals, antl 
the central one alone perfect. Mr. Brown's idea of An- 
tlwxanthum and Hierocte, see v. 1. 37 and 110, is some- 
what analogous to this. 

I . U. I.iilcola. Dyer's Rocket. Yellow-weed, or 

Weld. 

Leaves lanceolate, uiulivitkil. Calyx in four scginents. 

K. Luteolu. Lmn. Sp. /'/. (i 13. mild. v. 2.H70. Fl. Br. ;»I2. 
Enf;l. Hot. r. :>. L 320. Marl. fiiisL I. lO. Hook. Scot. I \7 . 



348 DODECANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Reseda. 

R. n. 1058. Hall. Hist V. 2. 12. 

Luteola. Rail Syn. 366. Ger. Em. 494./. 

L. herba, salicis folio. Bauh. Pin. 100. 

Pseudostruthium. Matth. Valgr, v. 2. 643/. Camer. Epit. 356./. 
Dalech. Hist. 822. f. 

Antirrhinoii. Trag. Hist. 362./. 

jS. Luteola minima, polygalse folio. Dill, in Rail Syn. 367 ? 

In waste ground, especially on a chalky soil, as well as in fallow 
fields, and on walls. 

/3. In corn-fields on Mount Ephraim, Tunbridge Wells. Mr. Du 
Bois. 

Annual, July. 

Root tapering. Stem wand-like, striated, leafy, somewhat branched, 
smooth like the rest of the herb, 2 or 3 feet high. Leaves ses- 
sile, of a darkish green, linear-lanceolate, obtuse, entire, single- 
ribbed, occasionally undulated ; frequently furnished with a 
small tooth on each side at the base. Clusters terminal, erect, 
many-flowered, dense, pointed. Bracteas small, linear-lanceo- 
late, acute, solitary at the base of each short simple partial- 
stalk. Flowers small, without much scent. Petals greenish 
white, naturally 3 ; the uppermost variously lobed ; lateral ones 
of 3 acute equal lobes ; but there are occasionally 2 small un- 
divided petals at the base. Nectary green. Stain, numerous, 
with yellow anthers. Styles 3. Caps, short, depressed. 

From the description of Du Bois in Ray's Synopsis, the variety j3 
might be suspected to be R. Sesa7noides of Linnaeus ; but it is ex- 
pressly said not to belong to the genus Sesanioides of Tourne- 
fort. 1 have seen no specimens. 

R. Luteola is rather foetid when bruised. It serves for dyeing wool 
yellow, or, with indigo, green ; the whole plant, when about 
flowering, being bailed for that purpose. 

2. R. lutea. Base Rocket. Wild Mignonette. 

Leaves deepty three-lobed ; lower ones piimatifid. Calyx 
in six divisions. 

R. lutea. Linn.Sp.Pl.QAr>. TVilld. V.2.S79. Ft. Br. 513. Engl. 

Bat. V. 5. t. 321. Hook. Scot. 147. Jacq. Austr. t. 353. Bull. 

Ft. t. 281. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 467./, bad. Dalech. Hist. 

1 199,/ not much better. 
R, n. 1056. Hall. Hist. V. 2. 11. 
R. vulgaris. Bauh. Pin. 100. Rail Syn. 366. 
R. Piinii. Ger. Em. 277. f. Lob. Ic. 222. f. 
Base Dyer's Weed. Pet. H. Brit. t.37.f.\\. 
(3. Reseda crispa gallica. Bocc. Sic. 77. t. 4]./. 3. Dill, in Rail 

Sijn. 366. 

On chalky hills and waste places, abundantly. 
Annual, or, in mild winters^, perennial. Jjily, August. 



DODECANDRIA— TRIGYNIA. Reseda. 349 

Root rather woody, in dry warm countries or seasons, often pe- 
rennial. Stem bushy, about 2 feet high, branched, striated, 
leafy, smooth. Leaves somewhat stalked, smooth, in 3 linear- 
oblong-, decurrent, entire, flat or wavy, principal segments ; the 
lower ones more numerously divided, and pinnatitid. Clusters 
terminal, many-flowered, tapering, with longer partial stalks 
than the last, each having a narrow bractea at the base. Fl. buft- 
coloured, slightly scented. Pet. C, variously lobed. Nectary 
green, notched, and fringed. Caps, oblong, prismatic, very un- 
even at the sides. 

/3 is a slight variety, though supposed by tlie great Sherard, on ac- 
count of its often perennial root, to be a distinct species. The 
Sweet Mignonette, R. odorata, thougli usually annual, may by 
care in a greenhouse, and constant pruning, be rendered peren- 
nial, and even shrubby. 



EUPHORBIA, })laced by Linnaeus in this Order, is now 
understood hy Jussieu and Brown to have separated 
flowers, conformably to the general character of its natu- 
ral order. What Linnaeus and others have taken for 
stamens^ appear to be distinct monandrous barren Jio'iscer^^ 
destitute of ccihix and corolla^ and each consisting mer. ly 
of a stamen., distinguished from its stalk by a sej)arating 
joint only, occasionally marked with some discoloration. 
The number of these^otcvT*? is indefinite, their period of 
perfection various, and they stand, several together, in 
one common involucrum^ with a central, solitary, /tv///^.' 
Jloxver. Conse(juently FAiphorbia is to be removed to 
Monoecia Mona n dria. 



350 



DODECANDRIA DODECAGYNIA. 
249. SEMPERVIVUM. Houseleek. 

Linn. Gen. 244. Juss.307. Fl. Br. 522. Lam. t. 413. Schmid. 
Ic. t.\7. Gcertn. t. 65. 

Sedum. Tourn.t.\4Q. f. C— I, P. 

Nat. Ord. Succulentcc. Linn. 13. SemjpervivcE. Juss. 83. 

Col, inferior, of 1 leaf, concave, permanent, in from 6 to 
12, more or less, deep, uniform, fleshy, rather acute, 
segments. Pet. as many as the segments of the calyx, 
and somewhat larger, lanceolate, acute, channelled, equal, 
spreading, withering. ISfect. an occasional, very minute, 
entire scale, at the base of each germen on the outer side. 
Filam. as many, or twice as many, as the petals, opposite 
to them, but not so long, when more numerous, partly 
alternate, awl-shaped, spreading. AntJi. of 2 round lobes. 
Germ, as many as the stamens, ranged in a radiating 
circle, oblong, pointed, compressed, each terminating in 
a spreading style., with a blunt stigma. Caps, as many as 
the germens, and of the same figure, as well as position, 
pointed, bursting along their upper or inner margin. 
Seeds numerous, minute, arranged along the inner mar- 
gin, at each side. 

Very succulent, herbaceous or shrubby ; tlie leaves simple, 
undivided, entire, numerously disposed in rosaceous 
tufts. Fl. spiked or clustered, yellow, reddish, pallid, or 
greenish. In our only British species, I have never 
found any nectaries ; but the microscopic Schmidel says 
they exist in every Sempervimim. If so, they will not 
serve, except by being notched in Sedm?2, to distinguish 
that genus from the present. I have not seen the 1 2 im- 
perfect stame7is, nor the abortive gerinens^ mentioned by 
Professor Hooker, Fl.Scot, 14-9. 

1. S. tectorum. Common Houseleek. , 

Leaves fringed. Offsets spreading. Edges of the petals 
hairy, entire. 

S. tectorum. Linn. Sp. PL 664. mild. v. 2. 932. Fl. Br. 522. 
Engl. Bot. V. \9. t. 1320. Curt. Loud. fasc. 3. t. 29. Hook. 
Scot. \49. Fl.Dan.t.60\. 



DODECAND.—DODECAGYNIA. Sempervivum. 351 

S. majus. Raii Si/n. 269. Ger. Em. 510./. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 
4C1./. Camer. Epit. 854./. 

Sedum n. 949. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 409. 

S. majus. Fuchs. Hist. 32. f. Ic. \7.f. 

On walls and cottage roofs, frequent. 

Perennial. July. 

Root fibrous, crowned with several rosaceous tufts of numerous, 
oblonp^, acute, keeled, fringed, extremely succulent leaves. 
Stem from the centre of one of those tufts, a foot high, erect, 
round, downy, clothed with several, more narrow, sessile, alter- 
nate leaves, and terminating in a sort of many-flowered cyme, 
with spiked branches. Fl. large, pale rose-coloured, without 
scent. Segments of the calyx 12 or more, with a similar num- 
ber o( petals, stamens and pistils. 

The leaves are cooling, when applied externally, and frequently re- 
newed. They possess moreover an astringent property, which 
is rather salutary in many cases. The Dispensatory describes 
a beautiful white highly volatile coagulum, formed of the fil- 
trated juice of these leaves, with an equal quantity of rectified 
spirit of wine. 



Class XII. ICOSANDRIA. Slam. 20 
or more^ from the rim of the calyx. 

Order I. MONOGYNIA. Pistil \. 

250. PRUNUS. Cal. inferior, 5-cieft. Pet. 5. Nut of 
the drupa with sliglitly prominent seams. 

Mespilus 1. 



Order 11. FENTAGYNIA. Pistils 2—5. 

251. MESPILUS. C^7. superior, 5-cleft. Pet. 5» Apple 

with 2 — 5 bony single-valved capsules. Seeds 2. 

252. PYRUS. C«/. superior, 5-cIeft. Pet. 5. Apple with 

2 — 5 membranous 2-valved capsules. Seeds 2. 

253. SPIRiEA. Cat. inferior, 5-cleft. Pet. 5. Capsules 

of 2 membranous valves. Seeds numerous. 



Order III. POLYGYNIA. Pist, numerous. 

254. ROSA. Cat. 5-cleft ; tube finally pulpy, Hned with 

hairs, and with numerous bristly seeds. 

255. RUBUS. Cat. 5-cleft. Berry superior, compound, 

deciduous. Recepf. sj)ongy, permanent. 

258. TORMENTILLA. C^//. ' 8-cleft. Pet. 4. Seeds 

naked, beardless. Precept, dry, obsolete. 

260. DRYAS. tJal. 8- or 10-cleft. Pet. 5 or 8. Seeds 
each with a feathery tail. 

259. GEUM. Cal. 10-cleft. Pet. 5. Seeds "each with a 

bent hooked tail. Becept. columnar. 



ICOSANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Primus. 353 

2oQ. FRAGARIA. Cal. 10-cleft. Seeds naked, even, on 
the surface of a moctly pulpy, deciduous receptacle. 

261. COM ARUM. Crt/. 10-cleft. Seeds \\?ike(\, even, on 
the surface of a spongy hairy permanent receptacle. 

257. POTENTILLA. CaL 10-cleft. Seeds naked, rug- 
ged, beardless. Recept. dry, obsolete. 

Spircea2, 3. 



ICOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



250. PRUNUS. Plum and Cherry. 

Linn. Gen. 249. Juss.SU. FL Br. ^26. Tourn.t.SOS. Lam. 
t, 432. Gcertn. t. 93. 

('erasus. Tourn. <. 401 . 

Nat. Ord. Pomacccc. Linn. 36. Bosacccc. Juss. 92. A"". 251 
— 253 the same. 

Cal. inferior, of 1 leaf, bell-shaped, deciduous, with 5 ob- 
tuse concave marginal segments. Pet. 5, roundish, con- 
cave, spreading, larger than the segments of the calyx, 
their short claws proceeding from its rim. Filam. 20 — 
30, awl-shaped, nearly as long as the corolla, from the 
rim of the calyx within the petals. Anth. short, of 2 
round lobes. Germ, superior, roundish. Style thread- 
shaped, terminal, the length of the stamens. St!<^ma or- 
bicular, peltate. Driipa roundish or elliptical. AV// very 
hard, somewhat compressed, of 1 cell and 2 more or less 
distinct valves, prominent at tlie margin, with an inter- 
mediate furrow ; kernel solitary, susjuMuled from the toji. 

7;7V'.s-, OY shrubs, s(mietimes thorny; with alternate, stalked, 
stij)ulated, sim})le, serrated and glandular leaves. Fl. 
white, on simple or compound stalks. Fr. aciil and 
austere, greatly improved and varied by culture, but not 
of the most wholesome (juality. Tlie even surface of the 
n?/t is supposed to distinguish Primus from Amy^^dalus ; 
that of the latter being full of superficial sinuses and chan- 



S54 ICOSANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Prunns. 

nels. But P. Padus differs a little from the rest, in 
having a rugged, if not a sinuous,* nut, 

1 . P. Padus. Bird Cherry. 

Flowers in cylindrical pendulous clusters. Leaves decidu- 
ous, with two glands on the under side at the base. 

P. Padus. Lin72.Sp.Pl.677. M'Uld. v. 2,984. Fl.Br.526. Engl. 
BoLv. 20. t\383. Dicks. H.Sicc.fasc.lS. 15. Hook. Scot A50. 
Fl. Dan. t. 205. Ehrh. Arb. 53. 

Padus n. 1086. Hall. Hist. v. 2.30. 

P. Theophrasti. Dalech. Hist. 312. f. 

Cerasus avium nigra etracemosa. Raii Syn.463. Ger. Em. 1504. f. 

C. racemosa sylvestris, fructu non eduli. Bauh. Pin. 45 i. 

Pseudoligustrum. Dod. Pempt. 777. f. 

In woods and hedges. 

Common in the North of England, and in Scotland. About Wat- 
ton and Dereham, Norfolk, plentiful. 

Tree. May. 

Of the ordinar}.' stature of a plum or cherry tree, with a hard close- 
grained wood, and smooth even 6rawc/ie5. Leaue^obovate, pointed, 
finely serrated, veiny, smooth, somewhat glaucous ; their scent, 
when bruised, resembling rue. At their base underneath aie 
two small glands. Stipulas in pairs at the insertion of each 
footstalk, linear, serrated, soon falling off. Fl. pure white, in 
copious, long, drooping clusters, making an elegant appearance 
in spring, but scarcely lasting a fortnight. Fr. small, black, au- 
stere and bitter, with a large corrugated nut. Birds of several 
kinds soon devour this fruit, which is nauseous, and probably 
dangerous to mankind ; though perhaps, like that of the Cher- 
ry-laurel, not of so deadly a quality as the essential oil, or di- 
stilled water, of the leaves. 

2. P. Cerasus. Wild Cherry-tree. 

Flowers in nearly sessile umbels. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, 
folded flat in the bud ; somewhat downy beneath. 

P. Cerasus. Linn. Sp. PI. 679. mild. v. 2. 991. H. Br. 526. 
Engl.Bot.v. ]0.t.706. 

Cerasus n. 1 082. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 28. 

a. Prunus avium. Linn. Fl. Suec. ed. 2. 165. 

P. rubella. Ehrh. Arb. 114. 

P. varia. Ehrh. Beitr. v. 7.127. 

Cerasus sylvestris fructu rubro. Raii Syn. 463. 

C. vulgaris. Ger. Em. 1502./. 

C. sativa, fructu rotundo, rubro et acido. Duham. Arb. v. 1. 148. 
t.56. 

Cerasa austera. Matth. Valgr. v. 1,213./. 

C. acidissima, sanguineo succo. Bauh. Pin. 450. 



ICOSANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Pruiius. 355 

/3. Cerasus sylvestris, fructu minimo cordiformi. Hoiv Phijl. 25. 

Rail Syn.463. 
Merry-tree, of the Cheshire peasants. IIow ibid. 
y. Cerasus sylvestris septentrionalis, fructu parvo serotino. Raii 

Syn. 463. ed. 2. 302. 
d. Prunus avium. Linn. Sp. PL 680 ? With. 40C. 
P. Cerasus y. Huch.2\3. 
P. nigra. Ehrh. Arh. 73. 
P. nigricans. Ehrh. Beitr. v. 7. 126. 
Cerasus sylvestris, fructu nigro. Raii Sijn. 403. 
C. nigra. Gcr. Em. 150,3./. bad. 
£. Corone or Coroun Cherry. Mill. Diet. 
In woods and hedges. 
/3. In various parts of Cheshire ; Mr. Stonehouse. Hoii\ Also in 

Lancashire and Westmoreland. Ray. 
y. On the banks of the Tees, about Bernard's-castle, plentifully. 

Johison. 
$. In the midland and eastern counties. 
s. About Bergh-Apton, Norfolk, and in Hertfordshire. 

Tree. Ma?/. 

Branches round, with a polished ash-coloured bark, whose cuticle 
splits horizontally. Leaves ovate, or ovate-lanceolate, pointed, 
veiny, with copious glandular serratures, and at the base 2 un- 
equal glands, sometimes removed to the footstalk ; the up\)er 
surface smooth ; the under more or less hairy, especially about 
the veins. These hairs disappear in the cultivated varieties, and 
though mentioned by Linnaeus as the mark of his P. avium, do 
not form a specific distinction. It is hard indeed to define species 
or varieties in plants so generally cultivated, and so widely pro- 
pagated by birds, and other natural or artificial means j being 
meanwhile subject to every possible accident of cross impregna- 
tion. The fowers in all the kinds are white, on long simple 
stalks, but few together, in umbels ))roduced by difierent buds 
from the foliage. Fruit almost globular ; in a, from which the 
common Kentish Cherry is but one remove, red, acid, and au- 
stere ; in (5 said to be smaller and heart-shaped 3 in 7 small, 
round, red, not ripe befoic Sei)tembcr ; in S rather small, 
roundish, black, and sweet ; in s larger and of a better flavour, 
but of tiie same colour, to which its name from Corone, a Crow, 
ai)i)cars to allude. The leaves in every variety are simjily folded 
flat wiiile young, by which Cherries ditVor from the lUilhice tribe. 
Stipules and hrarteas pale, with glandular teeth or fringes, deci- 
duous. Nut hard, very smooth. 

*■;]. P. (hnncstird. Wild Plum-tree. 
Flower-stalks solitary or in pairs. Leaves lanceolate- 
ovate; convolute while v»^nn^'. Hranclies witboiit tliorn<. 

■ J A 2 



356 ICOSANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Prunus. 

P. domestica. Linn. Sp. PL 680. mild. v. 2. 995. Fl. Br. 527- 
E7igL Bot. V. 25. t. ] 783. IVoodv. Med. Bot. t, 85. Hook. S^-ot. 
150. Ger.Em.\497.f. 

P. communis 8. Huds. 212. 

P. curvata. Ehrh. Arb. 144. 

P. n. 1079. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 27. 

P. sativa. Fuchs. Hist. 403. f. 

In woods and hedges, probably escaped from gardens. 

At Twineham, Sussex, apparently wild. Mr. Borrer. 

Tree. May. 

A moderate-sized tree, without thorns, Lff/res elliptic- oblong, 
copiously serrated, rarely glandular at the ])use ; hairy when 
young, especially underneath ; their edges coiled inward in the 
bud. Stipulas linear, bordered with glands, deciduous. Flower- 
stalks much shorter than in the Cherry, most frequently in pairs. 
FL snow-white. Fruit rather oblong, seldom quite globular, 
its colour and flavour very variable. The specimen sent by 
Mr. Borrer was almost round, dark purple, with a blue efflo- 
rescence. Mrs. Evelyn has communicated to Mr. Lambert, from 
Kent, flowering specimens of '' a wild yellow plum, excellent 
for making jelly only," known to the London confectioners. 
These specimens approach Ehrhart's P. curvata; but the 
branches are more downy, and we know nothing of his fruit. 
W'hether all our cultivated Plums may formerly have originated 
from the P. insiiitia hereafter described, its thorns having dis- 
appeared by culture, like those of the Pear-tree, is a question 
which no botanist perhaps can ever solve. As to its varieties, 
Gerarde declares that " to write[of Plums particularly would re- 
quire a peculiar volume, and yet the end not be attained unto, 
nor the stock or kindred perfectly known, neither to be distin- 
guished apart." He adds that each country has an abundance of 
its own peculiar varieties. Hence I conceive it scarcely possible 
to meet with the P. domestica in a perfectly natural state. 

4. p. insititia. Wild Bullace-tree. 

Flower-stalks in pairs. Leaves lanceolate-ovate; convo- 
lute while young; downy beneath. Branches thorny at 
the end. 

P. insititia. Linn. Sp.PLSSO. mUd.v.2.996. FL Br. 528. Engl. 
BoLv.\2.t.M\. Hook. Scot.} 50. 

P. n. 1081. HalL HisL v. 2. 28. 

P. sylvestris major. Raii Sijn. 462. Duham. Arh. v. 2. 184. f. 41. 

/3. p. sylvestris, fructu majore albo. Raii Syn. 462. 

y. P. sylvestris, fructu rubro, acerbo et ingrato. Raii Syn, 463. 

In hedges and groves. 

Tree. April. 

A small tree, with irregularly spreading, round branches, each 



ICOSANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Piunus. 357 

for the most ])ait, tipped with a sharp straight thorn. Leaves 
from hiteral, alternate, originally axillary, buds, and beeoming 
likewise alternate, on tlie young branches protruded from thence, 
broadly lanceolate, rather tapering at each end, sometimes el- 
liptical, serrated, downy beneath, at least when young, in which 
state their edges are incurved. Scales of the buds imbricated, 
concave, entire, brown ; the innermost fringed, greenish. FL 
from dillerent buds near the others, in pairs, on simple stalks 
not much longer than the calyx. Petals pure white. Fruit glo- 
bular, very sour and austere, usually black ; in /3 yellowish, or 
waxy with a red tint ; in y said to be red. There are several 
varieties of the black sort, differing in size and flavour, some of 
them very good even in a recent state, and all more or less ex- 
cellent when dressed. 

5. P. spinosa. Sloe, or Bkick- thorn. 

Flower-stxilks solitary. Leaves lanceolatej smooth. Branches 
thorny at the end. 

P.spinosa. Linn. Sp. PL 681. mihl. v. 2. 997. FL Br. 528. 

EngL But. V. 1 2. t. 842. JVoodv. Med. BoL t. 8-4. Hook. Scot. 151. 

FL Dan. t. 926. 
P. n. 1080. HalLHist.v.2.27. 
W svlvestns. Bauh. Pin. 44 1. Rail Sipi. 462. Gtr. Em. 1497. f. 

frag. Hist. 1016. /. Fuchs. Hist. 404. /. h. 229. /. Matth. 

Valgr. V. 1. 241./. Camer. Fpit. 165./. 

In hedges and thickets common. 

Shrub. March, JpriL 

A rigid bushy shrub, with sharp spinous branches; the bark blackish, a 
little glaucous and polished. Leaves much smaller than the last, 
scarcely an inch long j the earlier ones obovate ; all smooth, ex- 
cept when very young. 77. pure white, copious, earlier than the 
leaves, solitary, on short simple stalks, each from a small bud at 
the bases of the leaf-buds. Calyx spreading. Pet. witli scarcely 
any claws, Fr. globular, black, rather larger than a black cur- 
rant, acid, astringent, and very austere, not eatable except 
when baked or boiled with a large iiroi)ortion of sugar. The 
juice, inspissated over a slow fne, is a substitute for the Kgyj)- 
tian Acacia, or Indian Catechu. In some form or oilier, this 
juice is said to be used in faclilif)us or adulterated Port wine. 
The leaves also are reckoned among the adulterations of tea in 
England. They possess, in fact, a portion of that peculiar aro- 
matic flavour which exists in Spir<ra llmaria,]). .'^68, the Ameri- 
can (iauHhrria,nm\ some other plants, and which resembles the 
more delicate perfume of green tea. A water distilled from the 
blossoms of the Sloe is said to be used as a medicinal vehicle in 
Switzerl.md and (icrmai)) , but it surely \^ not very safe vr 
wholesome. 



358 



ICOS ANURIA PENTAGYNIA, 

251. MESPILUS. Hawthorn and Medlar. 

Linn. Gen. 251. Jim. 335. FL Br. d29. Tourn.t. 4\0. Lam. 

t. 436. Gccrtn. t. 87. Lindl. Tr. of L. Soc. v. 13. 99. 
Cratsegus. Linn. Gen. 250. Juss. 335. Lam. t. 433. Lindl. 

ibid. 105. 

Nat. Ord. see n. 250. 

Cal. superior, of 1 leaf, concave, in 5 deep permanent seg- 
ments. Pet. 5, nearly orbicular, concave, wavy, with 
short broadish claws proceeding from the rim of the 
calyx. Filam. 20, awl-shaped, incurved, from the rim of 
the calyx within the petals. Aiith. roundish, of 2 lobes. 
Germ, inferior, turbinate or roundish. Styles from 2 to 5, 
rarely solitary, thread-shaped, erect. Stigm. capitate, pel- 
tate. Apple globose, or somewhat depressed, concave at the 
summit, crowned wath the either converging or reflexed 
calyx, of from 2 to 5 bony cells, or capsules, each of one 
valve, and not bursting except in germination. Seeds 2 
in each cell, erect, obovate, obtuse, pointed at the base, 
where they are attached. 

Trees, generally thorny, wath simple, often lobed, deciduous, 
alternate, stalked leaves. Stipulas various. Fl. solitary or 
corymbose, white, often fragrant. Bracteas deciduous. 
Fruit pulpy or mealy. 

I readily concur with Mr. Lindley, in his valuable paper on 
the natural order oi PomacecE, Tr. of L. Soc. v. 13. 88 — 
106, in denominating this fruit ^pomum, or apple; rather 
than a hacca, berry, with Linnaeus and Gaertner. I wish 
moreover to restrict the term drupa to a fleshy fruit with a 
solitary nut. See Grammar 23. The genus Pyriis, as I 
understand it, exhibits a gradation of membranous and 
cartilaginous cells in the apple.^ some of them close, some 
valvular ; and in Mespilus the same part is similarly con- 
structed, though of a harder substance. Each seed, in 
both, has a double skin. It is perhaps to be wished that 
Cratcegus could be kept separate from Mespilus, but I 
cannot perceive the fruit to be more open, or the cells 
more exposed, in one than the other. With respect to 
hfibitj inflorescence, and the leafy calyx, Cratcegus parvi- 



ICOSANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Mespilus. 359 

folia of Alton, Pursh, &c., unites these two genera, to 
say notliing of other species. Nobody can be more 
aware than I am of the cUfliculties my ingenious friend 
just(|uoted has here had to encounter, or of the skill with 
which he has met them, though we may differ in opinion 
about some of his genera. 

i. M. Oxyacantlia, Hawthorn, Whitethorn, or May. 

Thorny. Leaves obtuse, variously three-lobed, serrated, 
smooth. Styles about two. 

M. Oxyacantha. GceHn. v. 2. 43. i. 87. Fl. Dr. 529. Engl. Bot. 

y.35. ^. 2504. HulLedrl. \Ah. He/M.\90. 
M. n. 1087. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 30. 
M. apii folio sylvestris spinosa, sive Oxyacantlui. Bauh. Pin. 454. 

Rtiii Si/n. 453. 
Crat'cegus Oxyacantha. Linn. Sp. PL G83. mild. v. 2. 1005. 

Huds. 214. With. 459. Huok. Scot. 151. H. Dan. t. 634. 

Jacq. Justr. t. 292./. 2. Ehrh. Arb. 34 . 
C. monogyiia. Jacq. Austr. t.292.f. I. Sibth. 15G. Abbot 108. 

Purton 235. E/irh. Arb. 44. 
Oxyacanthus. Ger. Em. 1327 .f. 

Acuta spina. Matth. Valgr. v. 1. 148./. Camcr. Epit. 85./. 
Sorbus aculeata. Cord. Hist. 176./ 
/3. Mcspihis apii folio sylvestris spinosa^ folio ct fructu majore. 

Dill, in Rnii Sijn. 454. 
y. Ghistonbury Thorn. If'itli. 459, 

In thickets, copses, hedges, and high open fields, every where. 

Shrub or small tree. May, June. 

Tlie inood is very hard, with a smooth blackish bark. Branches with 
lateral, sharp, awl-shaped tliorns. Leaves alternate, deciduous, 
on longish slender stalks, smootli, deep green, veiny, an inch or 
two long; tapering at the base; more or less deeply 3-lol)(d, 
or 5-Iohe(l, cut and serrated, wedge-shaped or rounded. Sti- 
pulas crescent-shaped, cut, deciduous, variable in sizcj in y ac- 
cording to Dr. Wiliiering very large, /'/.corymbose, terminal, 
on smootli stalks here and tliere glandular, sweet-scented, wliite, 
occiLsionally pink or almost scarlet. Anth. pink, changing to 
black. Styles 1 or 2 in different flowers of tlie same bunch, 
sometimes 3. fn/i^ mealy, insipid, dark red, occasionally yel- 
low J its cells as many ;us the styles, furrowed externally and 
very hard. The value of this plant for fences is well known. 
It is raised abundantly from seed, and bears elij)i)ing to any ex- 
tent. Hirds are fed with the fruit all winter long. 

.lacquin's ('. On/r/an/Z/uf has rounder broatler leaves than the more 
common variety, his tnonogyna, rcj)resente<l in Eni^l. Hot. lUit 
repealed csaminalion has satisfied me, and many other KngHsh 
botanists, thil flowens with a single stvle are e<[u;dly fre<|uent 



360 ICOSANDRIA—PENTAGYNIA. Pyrus. 

in both, though by no means universal in either. I susi3ect the 
older trees bear the rounder and less divided leaves. 

2. M. germanica. Common Medlar. 

Leaves lanceolate, a little downy. Flowers solitary, nearly 

sessile, terminal. Styles five. 
M. germanica. Liyin. Sp. PL C84. M'illd. v. 2. 1010. Fl. Br. 530. 

Engl. Bot.v. 22. ^.1523. Gcerin. v. 2. 43. t.S7. Ehrh. Arb. 154. 

I)uham.Arh.v.2. 14. t.4. 
M. n. 1094. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 33. 
Mespilus. Dod.PemptSOl.f. Trag. Hist.]0\4.f. Dill.inRau 

Si/n.453. 
M.sativa. Ger. Em.\453.f. 
M. vulgaris. Camer. Epit. 154. f. 
M. altera. Mattli. Valgr. v. 1 . 230./. 

In hedges. 

In all the hedges about Minshull, Cheshire ; Mr. Du Bois. Dil- 
leniiis. About Ashburnham, Sussex, truly wild. Rev. J. Davies. 

Tree. Mmj. 

Branches spreading j thorny in a wild state. Leaves deciduous, 
alternate, spreadmg, on short stalks, oblong-lanceolate, acute, 
wavy, generally entire, single-ribbed, veiny, 4 or 5 inches longj 
most downy beneath. FL solitary at the end of each branch, on 
short downy stalks, large^ with white undulated petals, inodo- 
rous. Cal. with long, narrow, downy, permanent segments. 
Stijles 5, club-shaped, encompassed at the base with an elevated 
ring arising from the Jioral receptacle. Fruit depressed, con- 
cave at the top, somewhat hairy, austere, not eatable till it is 
mellowed by keeping. Cultivation has produced many varieties, 
differing in size and flavour. The thorns disappear by culture, 
and are not to be seen in gardens, though 1 have noticed them 
on foreign wild specimens, and my late friend Mr. Davies, of 
Trin. Coll. Cambridge, observed them in Sussex. See also the 
wooden cuts of old authors. 

252. PYRUS. Pear, Apple and Service. 

Linn. Gen. 251, Juss. 335. Fl. Br. 531. Tourn. t. 404. Lam. 

t.435. Gartn.t.S?. 
Sorbus. Linn. Gen. 250. Juss.335. Lam. t. 434. 
Malus. Juss.334. Tourn. t.406. 

Nat. Ord. see n. 250. 

CaL superior, of 1 leaf, concave, in 5 deep, spreading, mostly 
permanent segments. Pet. 5, roundish, concave, much 
larger than the calyx, and proceeding from its rim, with 
short claws. Filam. 20, from the rim of the calyx within 
the petals, awl-shaped, shorter than the corolla. Anth. 



ICOSANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Pyi us. 36 1 

oblong, of 2 lobes. Germ, inferior, romulibh. Sfijlcs 
from 2 or 3 to 5, thread-shaped, about the length of the 
stamens. Sliguias simple, or bluntish. Apple roundish 
or somewhat oblong, umbilicated, fleshy, of as many carti- 
lao;iiious or membranous bivalve cells as there are styles. 
Seeds 2 in each cell, erect, obovate, flattened at one side. 

Trees, generally without thorns. Leaves alternate, stalked, 
simple or pinnate, entire or serrated. FL white or reddish, 
corymbose, umbellate, or panicled. Ft^fiit acid and austere, 
greatly improved by culture, very various in size, colour 
and figure. 

Cnertner first ventured to unite the above Linna?an genera, 
including the Quince, Cijdonia ; but the latter having 
very numerous horizontal seeds, may perhaps form a ge- 
nus along with Pi/rns japonica, whose fruit being erro- 
neously described by Thunberg, as having 5 valves, 
caused Mr. Lindley to make it distinct. But this fruit 
is no more valvular than an apple, and greatly resembles 
a (luince in odour. The cells of the fruit in Pyrus vary, 
even in one species, the common Pear, from cartilaginous to 
membranous, and gradations in texture from one species 
to another are so insensible, that they baffle all generic 
distinction. The bony cells of Mespilits, each of one 
piece, and not splitting asunder, perhaps sufficiently mark 
that genus. 

1 . P. communis. Wild Pear-tree. Iron Pear. 
Leaves simple, ovate, serrated. Flower-stalks corymbose. 
P. communis. Linn. Sp. PL GSG. JVilld. v. 2. 10 10. FL Br. j3\. 

En:4L Bot. V. 25. /. 1 784. Ehrh. Arb. G-1. 
P. Achras. Gccrtn. v. 2. 14. t. i>7 . 
P.n. 109G. HaU. inst.v.2.3j. 
P. sylvcstris. Dod. Penipt. 800./. Batth. I'in. A39. 
Pyrum strangnlatoriiim majus. Gcr. Em. 11.') 7./. 
Pyra. Camcr. Epit. I.V2./. 
Pyra.ster, scu Pyrus .sylvcstris. Raii Syn.'\J2. 

In woods and hedges. 

Tree. AprU, May. 

A tall handsome tree ; the hmnchrs first erect, then curved down- 
wards, and pendulous ; in a truly wild state thorny. Leaves 
ovate, or ellii)tic-oblong ; when young downy beneath, and co- 
piously fringed willi soil while lia'irs ; smooth and sliining when 
at tiie'ir full growth, deciduous. They lose tiieir serralures by 
culture. Sfijtuhis linear, soon falling. Floitcr-slalks terminal, 
downy, corymbose. 77. copious, snow-white, with j'iuk (int/urs. 



362 ICOSANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Pyius. 

Styles 5, with acute stigmas. Fruit obovate, generally hard and 
austere, but liable, even in a wild state, to many varieties, and 
sometimes eatable. The cultivated sorts, as every body knows, 
are innumerable. The wood is light, of a fine grain, and to- 
lerably hard. 

2. P. Mains. Wild Apple-tree. Crab-tree. 

Leaves simple, serrated. Flowers in a simple sessile umbel. 

P. Malus. Linn. Sp. PI. 686. WilhL v. 2. 1017. /'/. Br. 531. 

Engl. Bot. V. 3. ^.179. Hook. Scot. 151. Ehr/i. PL Of 405. 
P. n. 1 097. Hall. Hist. v. 2.35. 
Malus sylvestris. Raii Syn. 452. Ger.Em. 1461./. 
Mala. Camer. Epit. 141./. 

In woods, hedges and parks. 

Tree. May. 

Of more humble stature than the preceding, with spreading, irre- 
gular, more horizontal branches, altogether destitute of thorns , 
the leafy flowering shoots short and rugged. Leaves more or 
less elliptical, seldom losing all their serratures ; the young ones 
downy beneath. Stipulas linear, combined with the footstalks. 
Fl. umbellate, not corymbose, beautifully variegated with white 
and rose-colour, and slightly fragrant. Stalks and calyx more or 
less cottony. Styles 5. Fruit with 5 cartilaginous bivalve cells, 
globose, umbilicated at the bottom as well as the top, yellowish 
with a tinge of red, very acid and astringent ; yet there are se- 
veral varieties among the wild crabs, some of which are of ex- 
cellent flavour when baked with plenty of sugar, even surpass- 
ing many cultivated apples. The expressed juice of any of them, 
called verjuice, is used to cure sprains and scalds, being often 
kept by good housewives in the country for that purpose. 

3. P. to7^7?imaiis. Wild Service-tree. 

Leaves simple, somewhat heart-shaped, serrated, seven- 
lobed ; the lower lobes spreading. Flower-stalks corym- 
bose, branched. 

P. torminalis. Fl. Br. 532. Comp. 77. Ehrh. Beitr. v. 6. 92. WiUd, 

Sp. PL V. 2. ]02\. 
Crataegus torminalis. Linn. Sp. PL GS\. Huds.2\4. With. 458. 

Sibth. 156. EngL Bot. v. 5. t. 298. FL Dan. t. 798. Jacq. Austr. 

t. 443. MilL lilustr. t. 42. Piirton 235. 
C. Theophrasti. Dalech. Hist 99. / 332./. 
Mespilus n. 1088. HalL Hist. v. 2. 31 . 
M. apii folio sylvestris non spinosa, seu Sorbus torminalis. Raii 

Syn. 453. 
Sorbus torminalis. Ger. Em. 1471./. Trag. Hist. 1010. f. Cord. 

Hist. 1 76,samef. Matth. Valgr. v. 1 . 239/. Camer. Epit.l62.f, 



ICOSANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Pyms. 3G3 

In woods and hedges, chiefly in the midhmd and southern counties. 

Tree, jjpril, May. 

Of slow growth, but often of considerable size ; the wood hard ; bark 
smooth. Leaves deciduous, on long stalks, broad, smooth, firm, 
dark-green, veiny, sharply serrated, and with 7, sometimes 
only 5, acute lobes, of which the lower pair are broadest and 
most distant. Stipulas none. Fl. white, numerous, in large 
terminal, corymbose, downy panicles. Styles 3, 4 or 5, in 
flowers of the same panicle, and the cells of the little brown 
dotted apples answer to them in number. This fruit, not much 
larger than that of the Hawthorn, becomes agreeably acid and 
wholesome, after the frost has touched it, and may sometimes 
be seen in the London fruit-shops. Ray prefers its flavour to 
the True Service, which latter is now become obsolete. 

4. P. donicstica. True Service-tree. 

Leaves pinnate; leaflets uniform; downy beneath; serrated 
towards the point. Flowers panicled. Fruit obovate. 

P. domestica. En^l. Bat. v. 5. t. 350. Fl. Br. 532. Camp. 77, 

Fhrh. Beitr.v. 6. 95. Jrb. 155. 
P. Sorbus. Gccrtn.v. 2. 45. t. 87. 
Sorbus domestica. Linn. Sp. PL 684. mild. v. 'I. \009. Huds. 

215. mth. 460. Crantz Stirp. fasc.2. 48. t.2. f.3. Jacq. 

Aiistr. t. 447. Matth. Valgr. v. 1 . 237./. Lob. Ic. v. 2. i 06./. 
Sorbus. Rail Syn. 452. Ger. Em. 1471./. Trag. Hist. 1012./. 

Dalech.Hi^t. 330./. 
Sorbum ovatum, Fuchs. Hist. 576./. 
Mespilus n. 1092. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 33. 

In mountainous woods, very rare. 

In the mountainous ])arts of Cornwall, in many places, according 
to Mr. Moyle and Mr. Stevens j also in the moorlands of Staf- 
fordshire, according to Dr. Plot. Ray. In the middle of Wire 
forest, near Bewdley. Mr. Pitts. This last is only a solitary 
tree. Earl o/ Mountnorris. 

Tree. May. 

A large tree, of extremely slow growth, not bearing fruit or blos- 
soms till it arrives at a great age. The wood is very hard. 
Ltareif deciduous, alternate, pinnate, of about 7 or 9 pair o( ses- 
sile leaflets with an odd one, all nearly uniform in size and 
shape, oblong, une{[ual at the i)ase, acute, bright green, veiny, 
above an inch long, une(pially and sharply serrated from about 
the middle to the point ; smooth above ; clothed underneath 
with ileciduous cottony down. Stipulas linear, deciduous. Pa- 
nicles terminal, rather oblong, partly leafy, their branches re- 
peatedly forked, downy, with a few short, awl-shai)e(l, deci- 
duous hraefeas. Fl. the size of Ilawtiiorn, cream-coloured. 
Cal. woolly. Styles always 5, with blunt, s]>reading, concave 



361 ICOSANDKIA— PENTAGYNIA. Pyms. 

stigmas. Fruit obovatc, above an inch in length, reddish, 
^>potted, extremely austere, causing a most painful and durable 
irritation in the throat if tasted in an unripe state ; but when 
mellowed by frost or keeping, it becomes brown, soft, and eat- 
able, resembling a Medlar, though to most people less agree- 
able. Giertner always found rudiments of 2 seeds in each cell, 
though one only arrives at maturity. It is precisely a Pyrus, 
according to the original idea of that genus ; nor are numerous 
species wanting, with leaves more or less completely pinnate. 

5. P. auciiparia. Quicken-tree, or Mountain Ash. 
Roan-tree. 

Leaves pinnate; leaflets uniform, serrated, smooth. Flowers 
corymbose. Styles about three. Fruit globular. 

P. aucuparia. Gt^rtn. i'.2. 45. i.S7. F!. Br. 533. Ehrh. Beiir. 
V. 6.94. Arh. 54. Hook. Scot. 151. 

Sorbus aucuparia. Linn. Sp. PI. C,S3. irdld. v. 2. lOOS. Huds. 
215. Engl. Bot. v. 5. ^.337. Piirton 236. MUl. Illustr. t. 43. 
Fl. Dan. i. 1034. Crantz Stirp.fasc. 2. 49. t. \.f. 4. 

S. sylvcstri.s, foliis domestics similis. Bauh. Pin. 415. Raii 
Sijn 452. 

S. sylvestris. Matth. Vulgr. r. 1.238. /. Camer. EpU.l6l.f. 
Dalec/i. Hist. 332./. 

S. sylvestris, sive Fraxinus bubula. Gcr. Em. 14/3./. 

S. torminalis. Dalcch. Hist. 99. /: 

Mcspilus n. 1 09 1 . Hall. Hist. v.2. 32. 

Fraxinea arbor. Trag. Hist. 1008./. 1009. 

Orn us . Dud. Pcmpt^ 831 . f. 

In mountainous woods^ and hedges. 

Tree. May. 

A handsome tree, of slow growth, with a tough, close-grained, 
not very hard wood; the branches smooth, round, greyish. 
Leaves smaller than the last, being scarcely a span long j their 
leajlets narrower, more firm, downy beneath, not cottony, when 
young J afterwards smooth on boUi sides. Panicles corymbose, 
broad and flattish, with downy stalks. Fl. white, numerous, 
with a slight almond-like scent. Pe^ very concave. Styles 3, 
or 4, with small obtuse stigmas. Apples like berries, scarlet, 
globose, very juicy, sour and bitter, of as many cells as there 
are styles, the sides of which are pliant and leathery, not carti- 
laginous or rigid. Seeds 2 in each cell, though only 1 in general 
becomes perfect. Of the strict generic affinity between this 
and the last, notwithstanding the different consistence of the 
cells of their fruits, there can be no doubt. 

Many superstitious qualities are attributed by the Scottish High- 
landers to their Roan-tree, which is especially famous as a pro- 
tection against charms and witchcraft. The fruit, soaked in 



ICOSANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Pyrus. 365 

water to extract some of its bitternes.s, and then boiled with 
sugar, makes a kind of jelly, which is tolerably flavoured. A 
spirit is also reported by Ligiitfoot to be distilled from these 
berries. Birds of the Tlirursh kind devour them with avidity j 
and our Mountain Ash trees, planted for ornament in most 
parts of England, are thus unfortunately stripped, early in au- 
tumn, of their produce. 

6. V. pinnaUfida, Bastard Mountain Ash. 

Leaves deeply pinnatifid, or half pinnate; downy beneath. 

Flowers corymbose. Styles about three. 
P. pinnatifida. Ehrh. Beifr. v. 6. 93. Arb. Uo. Engl But. v. 2,3. 

<.2331. Comp.77. 
P.hybrida. Fl. Br. 534 ; hut not of IVilld. Sp. PL v. 2. 1022. 
Sorbus hybrida. L'uin. Sp, PL 6S4. Linn. JiL Fuse. \ . t. 6. FL 

Daii.t. 30\. 
Crataegus Aria y, Fennica, Linn. Snec. ed. 2. 1G7. 

On mountains in the western isles of Scotland. 

In rocky situations on (^airn na Callich, and other mountain';, at 
the north end of the isle of Arran. Mr. J. Maclcay. 

Tree. Mmj. 

A moderate-sized tree, with smooth grey branches, hoary when 
young. Leavesahenmtc, crowded about the extremities, stalked, 
oblong, acute, serrated, lobed, and towards the base often deeply 
pinnatifid -, smooth above j white and finely cottony beneath. 
Stipulas smooth, awl-shaped, attached to the footstalks, but deci- 
duous. FL cymose, cream-coloured, much like those of the last, 
or rather of the following, species. Stijlcs3 or 4, and the cells of 
the fruit, which arc soft and pliant like those of the Mountain 
Ash, agree with them in number. Whether this be a mere va- 
riety of the P. Aria hereafter described, or, as Linnftus thought, 
a mule between that tree and tiie Mountain Ash, it is regularly 
propagated by seed, and a frequent decoration of modern gar- 
dens and shrubberies. A decided variety of P. Aria, sliL>ht]y 
pinnatifid, growing on Castle Dinas ybran, was taken by Mr. 
Hudson for the I.,innsean Sorlms hiihrida. Dr. Pratinton has 
sent me this from the original spot, and it obviously connects 
the plant before us with the following ; see P. Aria /3. 

7. V.Aria. White Beam-tree. White Wild Pear- 
tree. 
Leaves simple, ellij)tical, cut, serrated, scored ; downy be- 
neath. Flowers corymbose. Styles about two. 

P. Aria. F/. Br. r)34. EngL Bot. i\2i). f. ISjS. Winch Guide 
r.1.47. Hook. Scot. \^2. Ehrli. Bcitr. v. \.20. Arh.SA. U'lUd. 
Sp. PLv.2. 1021. 



366 ICOSANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Spiraea. 

Crataegus Aria. Linn, Sp. PI. G81 . Huds. 214. Fl. Dan. t. 302. 

Ehrh. PL Of. 375. 
Mespilus n. 1089. Hall. Hist. v. 2.31. 

M. alni folio subtus incano. Aria Theophrasti dicta. Raii Sijn. 453. 
Sorbus Aria. Crantz Stirp.fasc. 2. 46. t. 2./. 2. 
S. alpina, Bauh. Hist. v. 1. 65./. 
Aria. Dalech. Hist. 202. f. 
A. Theophrasti. Ger. Em. 1327./. 
/3. Pyrus intermedia. Ehrh. Beitr. v. 4. 20. Arb. 94. W^i/W. .S/>. 

PZ. «. 2. 1021. 
P. hybrida. H.Br. 534. 
Crataegus Aria /3. Linn. Sp. PI. 681. 
Sorbus hybrida. Huds. 2 1 6. /f'i^/i. 461 . 

In mountainous woods on a chalky soil, and the fissures of lime- 
stone rocks. 

p. On the walls of Castle Dinas y Bran, Denbighshire. Dr. Pra- 
iinton. 

Tree. Maij. 

A tree of a moderate size, whose young branches are very white 
and downy j the old bark reddish brown, and smooth ; the wood 
very hard. Leaves on downy stalks, elliptic-oblong, doubly ser- 
rated ; sometimes with several marginal lobes, which is the cha- 
racter of /3, but not pinnatifid at the lower part as in the pre- 
ceding ; the upper surface smooth, of a fine green ; the under 
snow-white, and downy, marked with several straight, promi- 
nent, transverse ribs, having correspondent furrows above. Sti- 
pulas a slight, membranous, smooth dilatation, at each side of 
the bottom of the footstalks, generally elongated into lanceolate 
appendages, or real stipulas, which soon fall off. Fl. white, in 
large corymbose compound tufts, with downy stalks. Bracteas 
linear, smooth, deciduous. Sttjles 2, often 3 or 4. Fruit with 
as many coriaceous cells, globular, scarlet, dotted, mealy, acid 
and astringent. Seeds 2 in each cell. 

Ehrhart's authentic specimen of (3 accords with my Welsh ones, 
differing from the common Aria in having rather deeper margi- 
nal notches, or lobes ; but the I'^aves are not truly pinnatifid. 
Willdenow declares it to differ in its whole habit from P. Aria, 
which I can find nothing to confirm. There can scarcely be 
found a tree of the Aria on which some leaves do not answer to 
this variety^ 

253. SPIR^A. Spiraea, Dropwort and Mea- 
dow-sweet. 

Linn. Gen. 253. Juss. 339. Fl. Br. 535. Tourn. t. 389. Lam. 

t. 439. Gcertn. t. 69. 
Filipendula. Tourn. f. 150. 
Ulmaria. Tourn. t. 141. 



ICOSANDRIA—PENTAGYNIA. Splr^a. 367 

Nat. Ord. see n. 2,50. 

Cal. inferior, of 1 leaf, nearly flat at tlie base ; with 5 acute, 
permanent, marginal segments. Pet. 5, roundish or ob- 
long, attached by their claws to the rim of the calyx. Ft- 
lam. more tlian 20, from the rim of the calyx, ca}3illarv, 
wavy, nearly as long as the corolla. Ant/i. roundish, of 
2 lobes. Ge7-m. 5 or more, superior, ovate or oblong, 
compressed, each terminating in a short stout stijle. Siig- 
mas spreading, obtuse. Caj)s. as many as die germens, 
oblong, pointed, more or less compressed, each of 2 ra- 
ther membranous valves, and 1 cell. Seeds few, small, 
oblong, pendulous Irom the outer margin of each valve. 

The seed-vessels are bivalve capsules, not follicles as they 
Iiave recently been termed. The number oi' pistils is va- 
rious. 

Plants eidier shrubby or iierbaceous, generally smootli. 
Leaves alternate, simple or compound, entire, notched, 
or serrated. Injiorescencc various. Fl. white, or reddish. 
Qiialili) astringent. 

1. ^. salicifolia. Willow-leaved Splrcea. 

Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, unequally serrated, smooth. Clus- 
ters terminal, compound. 

S. salicifolia. Linn. Sp. PL 700. fVilld. v. 2. lOoo. FL Br.;)3r>. 
EngL Bot. V. 21. t. 14C8. With. 4()'S. Hull e<L 2. 147. Hook. 
Scot. lo2. Don H. Br. 32. Pall. Ross. v. 1. 3(3. t. 21. Ehrh 
Beitr. v. 7. 130. Select. 146. 

S. n. 47. Gmel. Sib. r.3. 188. ^39. 

S. Theophrasti forte. Clus. Hist. v. 1. 84./. Gcr. Em. KiOl. f. 
Bauh. Hist. v. 1.559./. 

S. salicis folio. Tourn. Inst. CIS. Duham. Arh. v. 2. 277. t. 75. 

In swampy, shady, mountainous situations. 

In moist hedges in Westmoreland, and on the borders of W'inan- 
dermerc J Mr. Gough ; near Hawkshcad, Cumberland; Mr. 
Dalton. ll'itliering. Wild in several parts of the south of'Si-ot- 
land. G. Don, Hooker. I believe it to be wild also at llafod, 
Cardiganshire, the situation in whicli it grows being perfectly 
similar to its native swamps in the north of Euroi)c. 

Shrub. Jul//. 

About 4 fiethigli, witli several smooth, wand-like, branched, leafy 
stems, the branches round, of a tawny hue. Leaves alternate, 
on short bordered stalks, ellipticdanc'eolate, or oblong, varying 
in breadth and acuteness. veiny, smooth on both sides, sharply 
and unequally serrated, deciduous, each about an inch and half 
long. Stipiilds none. /■'/. pink, inodorous, ^mall. nimierous, in 



368 ICOSANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Spiraea. 

elegant, compound, upright, terminal clusters, with small, linear, 
hairy, deciduous hracteas interspersed. Styles 5. 
Frequently planted in gardens and shrubberies, where it thrives in 
almost any soil or situation, but prefers such as are wet. 

2. S. Filipendula, Common Drop wort. 

Leaves interruptedly pinnate; leaflets uniform, serrated, 

smooth. Stem herbaceous. Flowers cymose, with many 

styles. 
S. Filipendula. Linn. Sj^. F1.7Q2. IViUd. v.2. \QG\. Ft. Br. 535. 

Engl Bot. V. 4. t. 284. Hook. Scot. 152. FL Dan. t. 635. 
Filipendula. RaiiSyn. 259. Ger. Em. \058.f. Dod.Pempt.56.f. 

Matth. I'algr. v. 2.217. /. Cawer. Fp'it. 608./. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. 

p. 2. \89, but not the f. frag. Hist. Sm.f. Dorsien. Botan. 124./. 
F. n. 1 136. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 5Q. 
GEnanthe Filipendula. Lob. Ic. 729. f. 

In open elevated pastures, on a chalky or gravelly soil. 

Perennial. July. 

Root woody, with many hard elliptical knobs, through wh.ich the 
fibres are continued. These are black externally, white and fa- 
rinaceous within. Stem a foot or more in height, round, smooth, 
leafy principally in the lower part ; panicled in a cymose man- 
ner' at the summit. Leaves chiefly radical, spreading or de- 
pressed, smooth, dark green, elegantly pinnate, with oblong, 
narrow, opposite or alternate leaflets, and as many, or more, 
small intermediate ones ; all deeply, sharply, and unequally cut. 
Stipulas linear, acute, entire, united laterally to the base of each 
Yndicul footstalk, the stem-leaves being furnished with a pair of 
rounded cut lobes in their stead. Panicle forked, cymose. Fl. 
on short partial stalks, without bracteas, erect, cream-coloured, 
tinged externally with red. Petals obovate. Germens 10 or 
more, hairy, with short recurved styles^ and large blunt stigmas. 

Linnaeus, Amcen. Acad. v. 3. 89, says " the dried knobs of the 
roots, beaten or ground into meal, afford no despicable sub- 
stitute for bread." The whole plant nevertheless is very astrin- 
gent. A beautiful double-flowered variety is often seen in gar- 
dens. 

3. S. Ulmaria. Meadow-sweet. Queen of the 
Meadows. 

Leaves interruptedly pinnate ; down}' beneath ; the termi- 
nal leaflet largest and lobed. Stem herbaceous. Flowers 
cymose, with many styles. 

S. Ulmaria. Linn. Sp. PL 702. TVilld. v. 2. 1061. Fl. Br. 536. 
E7igl. Bot. V. 14. f. 960. Curt. Land. fasc. 5. ^.33.- Hook. 
Scot. \52. Fl.Dan.t.547. 



ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rosa. SG9 

Filipendula n. 1 135. Hall. Htst. v. 2. ot). 

Ulmaria. Rail Syn. 2.30. C/o'. Pami. 699. /. Hist. v. 2. 198./. 
Bauh. Hist. t\3. p. 2. 488./. bad. 

Regina prati. Dod. Pempt. 57. f. Ger. Em. 1043./ 

Barbicapra. Lob. Ic. 711./. 

In moist meadows, and about the banks of rivers and ditches, 
common. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root fibrous, without knobs. Stems 3 or 4 feet high, leafy, 
branched, furrowed, angular, smooth. Leaves of a few large, 
pointed, unequally serrated, veiny leojlets ; the terminal one 

. deeply 3-lobed ; intermediate ones very small ; all white and 
densely downy beneath. Stipulas rounded, deeply toothed. 
Fl. extremely numerous, cream coloured, with a sweet but 
oppressive hawthorn-like scent, in dense, compound cymose pa- 
uicles. Cal. reflexed. Pet. roundish, Stam. numerous. Ger- 
mens G or 8, sometimes more, spirally contorted, with shoxistyles, 
and large capitate stigmas. 

The taste of the herbage, like the scent of the flowers, is aromatic, 
resembling the American Gaultheria procumbens, as is well ob- 
served by Dr. Bigelow, in his American Medical Botany, v. 2. 
30. ^.22, Nor is it unlike the flavour of Orange-flower water. 
Dried sloe-leaves partake of this flavour, see p. 357 ; and hence 
we trace it to the perfume of green tea, and the delicious odour 
of the Chinese Olea fragrans, a plant in no respect allied to our 
Meadow-sweet. 

SpircBa salicifolia, see n. 1 , has been found in Gibside wood, Dur- 
ham, by Mr. R. Wigham. 



ICOSANDRIA VOLYGYMA. 
254. ROSA. Rose. 

Lm«.Ge«. 254. Jim. 335. Fl. Br.'t'S?. Sm. in Rcess Cyd. v. 30. 
Tourn. t. 408. Lam. t. 410. G(crln. t. 73. Woods Tr. of L. Soc. 
r. 12. 173. 

Nat. Orel. Senticoscc. Linn. 3.5. Rosacac. Juss. D2. 

Cal. inferior, of 1 loaf; lube pitcher-sliaped, conlrncted at 
the summit, permanent, finally sncciilonl ; limb in 5 



370 ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rosa. 

deep, ovate-lanceolate, pointed, concave, imbricated, per- 
manent or deciduous segments ; either all simple ; or 2 
of them pinnate with leafy appendages on both sides ; 1 
on one side only ; the other 2 naked on both sides. Pet, 
5, inversely heart-shaped, about as long as the segments 
of tlie calyx, and attached by broad claws to the rim of 
its tube, deciduous. Filam, numerous, capillary, much 
shorter than the petals, from the rim of the calyx within 
the corolla. Anth. roundish, flattened, of 2 oblong tumid 
lobes. Germens numerous, oblong, lining ^ the tube of 
the calyx, interspersed with dense silky hairs.^ Styles 1 
to each germen, lateral, smooth or hairy, all passing^ 
through the Jloral receptacle proceeding from the rim of 
the calyx ; in some cases united into a cylinder. Stigmas 
obtuse. Fruit globular or ovate, formed of the perma- 
nent, pulpy, coloured tube of the calyx, closed at the 
summit, and lined throughout with the numerous, oblong, 
angular, hard, bristly seeds^ interspersed with rigid hairs. 

Shrubs for the most part prickly, hairy and glandular. 
Leaves alternate, in all our species deciduous, pinnate 
with an odd leaflet, in one exotic species simple ; leaflets 
sessile, opposite, oblong, ovate, or roundish, simply or 
doubly serrated, frequently glandular, their common 
footstalk and ribs prickly, bristly, or glandular. Stipulas 
oblong, acute, united laterally in pairs to the base of the 
common footstalk; the uppermost changing to simple 
hracteas. Fl. tenninal ; solitary or aggregate, stalked ; 
red, white, or yellow, more or less fragrant. Fruit called 
the Hip, scarlet, or blackish, rarely eatable. This is the 
most favourite genus of the whole vegetable kingdom, on 
account of its beauty and fragrance, but one of the most dif- 
ficult with respect to the determination of its species. Mr. 
Joseph Woods, in the essay above quoted, and Mr. John 
Lindley, in a more recent Monograph, have greatly il- 
lustrated this subject. My learned friends Mr. Sabine and 
Mr. Edward Forster have also favoured me with many 
valuable remarks. With these guides, and my own ex- 
perience of 23 years since the publication of this genus in 
the Flora Britannica. I proceed to a more accurate ac- 
count of our British Roses. The terms I shall employ 
are such as are in familiar use, through every department 
of botany, and therefore require no particular explana- 
tion. 

I am obliged to decline the use of one word, first intro- 



ICOSANDRIA—POLYGYNIA. Rosa. 371 

duced into English in the history of the present genus, 
but not by Mr. Woods, sepals, sepala, for the divisions, 
whether segments or leaves, of the calyx. Those 
who are much conversant with the system of Jussieu 
cannot but perceive the frequent difBculties that arise 
between him and Linnaeus, in determining whether, in 
certain genera, tlie calyx is of one piece or of many, and 
this question embroils the fundamental characters of 
some of Jussieu's orders. His distinguished follower 
Professor DeCandolle has attem})ted to remove this 
difficulty, by adopting a connnon term for the leaves or 
the segments of a cajyx ; so that in future botanical 
language there shall be no distinction between them. 
But it is surely better to encounter some ambiguities in 
the study of nature, than to confound things or ideas 
that are essentially distinct : and it is better that any 
system, whether natural or artificial, should be honestly 
acknowledged defective, rather than that clear generic 
differences should be neglected or invalidated. In Rosa 
the fi'uit, or hip, is only in appearance intermediate in 
nature between its own natural order and the Pomcicece. 
The calyx is of a single leaf, whose limb has 5 deep seg- 
ments, and whose tube becomes, as Mr. Woods proj:)erlv 
understands it, the receptacle of the seeds ; but this tube 
is not itself a germen, like that of the Pomaccce^ though 
Linnaeus so denominated it. The analogy of the whole 
order of Rosacece shows its real nature. So important a 
distinction requires to be marked, but the term scpala 
designedly leaves it ambiguous. This word itself, adopted 
from Necker, an obscure and })aradoxical writer, miglit 
long puzzle a student, who would perhaps not conceive 
the highest veneration for its contriver, on finding scpala 
a lame anagram of petala. If such be the case, as I 
have been informed, it renders all further remarks su- 
perfluous. 

Mr. ^\^)()ds I believe first suggested the importance of 
ghuuhilar bristles, setic^ on tne stems of Roses, as con- 
stituting a primary character. This, as far as I have 
had experience, is perfectly well-founded. The jire- 
sence of these bristles on the stem or branches consti- 
tutes the essential mark of my first section. The form 
of the prickles, acul'u whether straight and slender, sud- 
denly originating from a broad depressed base ; or 
hooked, dilated irraduallv downward, and more or less 



37'2 ICOSANDIIIA— POLYGYNIA. Rosa. 

compressed, is perhaps of the next degree of importance. 
I do not so much regard the frequent inequality of these 
prickles. The transition of the upper stipulas into brac- 
teas is nearly general in British Roses, and therefore less 
discriminative than Mr. Woods in some cases makes it. 
The simple or double serratures of the leaflets, and even 
their pubescence, are in my opinion duly appreciated by 
this judicious writer. The characters derived from 
hence do indeed occasionally vary, as is the case, more 
or less, with every botanical distinction. There is no 
mathematical certainty in natural history, our definitions 
being generally but a choice of difficulties. The occa- 
sional failure in particular instances, even of specific 
characters generally most decisive, as opposite, or alter- 
nate, entire or serrated, leaves, does not overset our ge- 
neral confidence in those distinctions. So neither does 
a partial or occasional change in the leaves of Roses, 
from simple to compound serratures, prove such differ- 
ences entirely futile. I am led therefore, by a careful 
revision of the genus, to think the accidental mutations 
to which I allude have induced Mr. Lindley to combine 
too many species together ; while Mr. Woods, by too 
absolute dependance on some characters, has perhaps 
now and then made species of varieties. In the study 
of a genus hitherto imperfectly understood, the latter is 
the least injurious error. Corrected judgment may, 
hereafter, combine what precise observation, in the first 
instance, has with due caution separated, and my spe- 
cific definitions may then be curtailed. I trust that 
neither of my intelligent friends will feel offended if, in 
a matter of so much conjecture, uncertainty, and no- 
velty, I, in a few instances, differ from them. What we 
have done may afford a clue for the guidance of others, 
who will try all our principles, by applying them to 
practical use. In the synonyms of foreign authors, un- 
less verified by a comparison of specimens, I have been 
very sparing, seeing how many mistakes are daily made 
by compiling or copying, instead of observing. 

* Branches bristlij. Prickles mostly slender, nearly straight. 

t 1 . R. cinnamomea. Cinnamon Rose. 

Flower-stalks bracteated, smooth. Calyx mostly simple. 
Fruit globose. Bristles deciduous. Leaflets oblong, 
simply serrated, finely downy; glaucous beneath. 



ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rosa. 373 

R. cinnamomea. Linn. Sp. PL 703. M'illd. v. 2. 1065. Engl. Bot. 
V. 34. t. 2388. Camp. 78. M^oods Tr. of L. Soc. v. 12. 1 75. Retz. 
Prodr. 120. Jfzel. Ros. Suec. tent. 1. 7. Sims and Kon. Ann. 
r. 2. 2U;. Ger.Em. 1208./. 8. 

R. foecundissima. FL Dan. t. 1214. 

R. majalis. Herni. Ros 8. Refz. Obs.fctsc.S. ?,3. Afzel. Ros. Suec. 
tent. 1 . 8. Sims S; Kon. Ann. v. 2. 21 7. Lindl. Ros. 34. 

R. collincola. Ehrh. Beitr. v. 2. 70. Arb. 25. 

R. mutica. FL Dan. t. 688. 

R. odore cinnamomi simplex. Bauh. Pin. 483. 

R. cinnamomea, fioribus subrubentibus, spinosa. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 
39./; prickles too many. 

R. rubra prsecox, flore simplici. Besl. Hort. Eyst. vern. ord. 6. t. 5. 
/. 3. Bauh. Pi;/. 483. 

Rose de Canelle. Lob. Ic. v. 2. 209. 

Rosier printanier. Reijnier Mem. de .d Suisse, v. 1. 222 ; fro7n the 
author. 

p, with double flowers. 

Rosa cinnamomea. Lindl. Ros. 28. t. 5. Besl. Llort. F.yst. vern. 
ord. 6. t. 3.f.2. Clus. Hist. v. 1 . 115./. Ger. Em. 1268. /. 7. 

R. foecundissima. Munchh. Hausvater v. 5. 279. Roth Germ. v. 2. 
]). ]. 5.~)7. 

R. minor rubello multiplicato flore, asperis spinis armata. Bauh. 
Hist. V. 2. 38./; prickles too large and numerous ; otherwise very 
good. 

In woods and thickets ; a doubtfid native. 

In a wood in Aketon pasture, near Pontefract, Yorkshire. Mr. Sa- 
lisbury. Not now to be found there. Mr. Sabine. 

/3 is common in gardens. 

Shrub, Mtnj. 

Stem 4 or 5 feet high, with irregular, spreading, leafv, round 
brandies, of a dark purplish brown, beset witli verv slender, 
white, glandular-tipped bristles, often wanting, as Air. Woods 
remarks, on the uj)per part of the plant, and always soon deci- 
duous • so that they are rarely observal)ie on dried specimens, 
tnough the smjdl j)a|)illary ])oints, from which tiiey originated, 
may eas;ily be seen. Prickles very few, generally in pairs under the 
young branches, small, slender, pale, slightly deflexed, each with 
adilated, oblong, flat base. Common footstalks slender, round, 
slightly comj)resse(l, downy, almost uniformly without prickles, 
each with a j)air of oblong, acute, membranous, smooth, pur- 
plish, wavy, combined stijtulas, fringed with sessile <;lands, at- 
tached to its base ; the upper stipula.s, wanting leaves, be- 
come simple and dilated, assuming the form of alternate br<tf- 
teas. Leaflets 5 or 7, elli|)tic-laMceolate, ncute. simplv but un- 
e(pially serrated ; of a greyish green, and nearly naked, above ; 
glaucous and finely downy beneath ; the lowermost gradually 
smallest. Floinr-sl(ttks I, 2 or 3, terminal, simjile, romul, 



S74 ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rosa. 

smooth, longer than the bracteas. Tube of the calyx smooth, 
globular, sometimes depressed, sometimes a little elongated j 
segments of the limb verv long and narrow, each with a lanceo- 
late leafy point ; their base ovate ; their inner surface and 
edges densely downy ; one or two of them sometimes bearing 
a few linear marginal appendages. Petals broad, concave, 
light crimson, or purplish, rather shorter than the calyx ; their 
claws pale and veiny. Stain . short, yellow. Styles still shorter, 
very hairy, with smooth, blunt, green stigmas. Fruit globose, 
rarely tapering at the base, the size of a white currant, of a 
reddish, orange-colour. The Jiowers, even in the double va- 
riety, have very little scent, though some writers compare them 
to Cinnamon. 
This Rose may possibly be wild in the place above mentioned, 
as it grows in most parts of Europe. It is scarcely known in 
gardens, except with double flowers. The bristles, first no- 
ticed by JMr. Woods, are hardly to be seen except on fresh 
specimens. The prickles are always more or less deflexed, 
sometimes a little hooked, as described in R. fcEcuyidissima of 
authors. The second specimen in the Linneean herbarium, 
mentioned by Mr. Lindley, has double flowers, and by its 
ticket appears to have come from a garden, not from a wild 
Swedish plant. I cannot find any difference between the R. ma- 
jalis, the mutica of FL Dan., and the cinnamomea, any more 
than between these and the cinerea and turbinella of my la- 
mented friend Swartz, who was latterly inclined to make a 
superabundant number of species of Roses. I have them from 
himself, as well as those of Dr. Afzelius. The editors of the 
Flora Danica did not always see specimens of their plants, and 
one of them has therefore been deceived by the drawing oU. 688, 
to define the footstalks smooth. He has also misquoted synonyms 
of J. Bauhin and Haller which belong to R. alpina. 

2. R. riiheUa. Red-fruited Dwarf Rose. 

Flower-stalks generally without bracteas, bristly, like the 
prickly stem and simple calyx. Fruit globose. Prickles 
straight, scattered. Leaflets elliptical or roundish, 
smooth, with mostly simple serratures. 

R. rubella. Fngl. Bot. v. 36. t. 2521 . Comp. 78. Woods Tr. of L, 
Soc.v. 12. 177. 

On the sandy sea coast. 

Sent from Northumberland by Mr. Winch. 

Shrub, July. 

Stem bushy, 2 or 3 feet high, round, branched, spreading, 
beset with straight, very slender prickles, various in length, 
intermixed with more numerous, smaller, glandular-tipped 
bristles, such as occur plentifully on the footstalks, ribs of the 



ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rosa. 373 

leaflets, Jlower-stalks, and segments of the cahjx, sometimes on 
the lower part of its tube. 'J'he footstalks are often prickly be- 
sides. Thidstipulas?ixe glandular at tlie margin, dilated, undu- 
lated, and leafy, but hardly ever become bracleas, though I have 
an example or two of such a change. Leajiels from 7 to 11, not 
more, broadly elliptical and bluntish, with broad, acute, mostly 
simple, rarely notched or glandular, serratures ; smooth and 
green on both sides, except the rib; j)ciler beneath. Mr. Woods 
has remarked a few chaffy scales at the insertion of the leaflets. 
Flower-stalks solitary, simple, rough with glandular bristles. 
F/. either blush-coloured, or white blotched with pink. Seg- 
ments of the calyx quite simple, reddish ; slightly downy on 
the inner side 3 bristly at the back, like some of the lower por- 
tion of its tube. Fruit bright scarlet, globular, with a short 
neck, and crowned with the limb of the calyx. 

The colour of the fruit, though it cannot well enter into a spe- 
cific definition, affords a striking distinction between this and 
the following species. The supposed variety from Mr. Lee's 
nursery, bearing a short blackish fruit, as described by 
Mr. Lindley, was, 1 am told, a foreign plant, and it appears 
that 7^. rubella of this author is different from my original one, 
whose fruit is neither elongated, nor I believe pendulous. 
R. peudulina of Roth {not pendula) is taken up by that writer on 
report, and can be of no authority ; and the only clear point in 
the history of Pallas's R. aljnna is, as Mr. Lindley justly deter- 
mines, that it is ditierent from the Linnaean plant, so well 
known in Switzerland, as n. 1107 of Haller. The account of 
R. rubella in English Botany, is, I believe, correct. 

The authentic specimen of R. pinipinellifolia, marked A, in the 
Linntean herbarium, has smooth Jioiccr-stalks, and a globose 
smooth calyx-tube, without a neck. It cannot therefore belong, 
as Mr. Woods suspected, to this species, but is truly the fol- 
lowing, under which I shall give its history. The prukly, or 
rather j)erhaps bristly -stalked variety of spinosissima quoted in 
Fl. Br. from \\'ithering, should seem by that character to belong 
to rubella, but this is contradicted by Mr. Winch, Geogr. Dis- 
frib. 40. 

3. 11. s'/nnosissima . Buniet Rose. 

Flower-stalks without bracteas, mostly smooth, as well as 
the simple calyx. Fruit globose, abruj)t, somewhat de- 
pressed. Prickles of the stem stiai^ht, uiieijual, nu- 
merous, intermixed with glandular bristles. Leaflets 
roundish, smooth, with simple serratures. 

R. spinosissima. Lnn. Sp. PI. 70.5. Fl. Suec.ed. 2. \7\. liVUl. 
v. '2. 10(i7. Fl. lir. ;):37. /://.;'/. Bot. v. 3. t. 187. H'oods Tr. of L. 
Sac. V. 12. 178. Lindl. Rns .",(). fltids. 218. /•/. l)„n. t.A9S. 
Ehrh.Jrb.Sj. 



376 ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Roiia. 

R pimpinellifolia. Linn. Si/st. Nat. ecIAO. \0G2. A. Herb. Linn. Sp. 

PL 703. mild. V. 2. 1067. Sabine Tr. of Ilort. Soc. v 4. 282. 
R. n. 1 106. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 40. 

R. campestris spinosissima, fiore albo odoro. Bauh. Pin. 483. 
R. campestris odorato flore. Cliis. Hist. u. 1 . 1 1 6./,/. 
R. campestris odora. Clus. Pauu. 1 1 1./. 1 14./. best. 
R. dunensis, species nona DocL Penipt. \87.f. 
R. pumila spinosissima, foliis pimpinell^e glabris, flore albo. 

Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 40. f. Raii Sijn. 4.35. 
R. pimpiiiellae folio. Ger Em. 1270./ bad, as wantmg prickles. 
R. sylvestris pomifera. Lob. Ic. v. 2.211. f. Dalech. Hist, \27.f 

thi same. 
^. R. Ciphiana, seu R. pimpinellee foliis minor nostras, flore ele- 

gant^r variegato. Sibb. Scot. p. 2. 46. t. 2. 
R. pimpinellifolia. Jacq. Fragm. 7\. t. 107./. 1. 
R. Pimpinella minor Scotica, floribus ex albo et carneo eleganter 

variegatis. Pluk. Almag. 322. Dill, in Rail Sijn.4ob. 
ypusilla. Woods Tr.of L. Soc. v. \2. 179. Flower-stalks very 

short. Fvuit large, depressed. 
On sandy heaths, banks and hillocks, especially towards the sea. 
/3. First noticed by Sir Robert Sibbald, on his own estate in Scot- 
land, and since frequently cultivated in gardens. 
y. In Ireland. Mr. Sabine. 

Shrub. July. 

Of the same stature as the last, but the prickles on the stem are 
much more abundant, and very unequal, straight, though often 
" deflexed, oblong at the base. A few bristles are interspersed, 
diftering from the prickles in their smaller size and glandular 
tips only. Leaflets usually 7, sometimes 0, smooth, opaque, 
almost orbicular, with broad simple serratures, which are 
largest towards the abrupt extremity, and very rarely here and 
there notched, or double, especially in luxuriant plants, whose 
leaflets are larger and more elliptical. Common footstalks more 
or less beset vvith small glandular bristles ; sometimes prickly. 
Stipulas linear-wedge-shaped, fringed with glands ; their points 
dilated, widely spreading, leafy, acute, often cut or lobed ; the 
upper ones never, as far as I have seen, assuming the appear- 
ance of bracfeas. Flower-stalks solitary, varying in length, 
swelling upwards, angular when dried, quite smooth and 
naked, "according to my observation ; but some of Mr. Borrer's 
Sussex specimens have bristly flower-stalks, like Mr. Woods's 
spinosissima s. Tube of the calyx very smooth, globose, often 
abrupt or flat at the top ; segments of the limb almost invari- 
ably simple, spreading j smooth at the back ; acute, or slightly 
leafy, at the point ; converging more or less as the fruit ripens. 
• Petah cream-coloured, yellow at the base, delicately fragrant ; 
in /3 striped, or copion'^>ly blotched, with red. Fruit generally a 



ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rosa. 377 

little depressed, of a deep purplish black when quite ripe. I 
have never tasted it. Withering records that tiie juice, " di- 
luted with vi-ater, dyes silk and muslin of a peach colour, and 
with the addition of alum, a deep violet ; but it has very little 
effect on woollen or linen." 
Such is our native j^lant, whose garden or foreign varieties are not 
the object of this work. They are ably explained by Mr. Sabine. 
The herbarium of Linnjeus contains no original or authentic spe- 
cimen, marked or numbered by himself. What bears this name 
is a paper of sevcrnl specimens, sent by a French correspondent, 
and marked by Linnaeus pimpinellifolia, but to which I have put 
the name spinosisshint ,- and to this Mr. Woods adverts, as the 
true English ])lant ; Linn. Trans. IH3. It is not however in itself 
of any authority, though unquestionably the same species with 
another specimen, of more im])ortance, as being the only cer- 
tain authority for R. pimjnnellifol'uiy and this last is sufficiently 
perfect to decide any question, notwithstanding the stem being 
stripped of its prickles, an accident often happening to the spino- 
siss'ima, in exposed situations, as Mr. Woods truly remarks. 
Whatever might be the OY\^m\t\ sphioiissima of Linnaeus, though 
its synonyms preclude all doubt, and the cinnamontea seems to 
me out of the question, as he has recorded that the ripe fruit of 
his spinosmima is black ; he certainly did not recognise it in 
this specimen, nor even advert to it, as at all related thereunto. 
He described this identical specimen, by the name of pimpinelli- 
folia, which he has written upon it, subjoining the letter A, 
by which the species is distinguished in Si/st. Nat. ed. 10. r. 2. 
10G2 ; according to his practice in that edition, to avoid disturb- 
ing the numbers of the older species. This luckily establishes 
the authority of the specimen beyond all question. The ])Iant 
was suhsequoUlij received into the 2d edition of Sj). Plant., but 
Linnajus knew not from whence it came, and still less was he 
aware of its being jjrecisely his R. spinosissinia of the 1st edition 
of that work. This name being the original one, and peculiarly 
appropriate, I cannot comply with Mr. Sabine's suggestion of 
changing it, however unwilling to differ, in any point, from so 
able and candid a friend. I must also beg leave to observe 
that neither Willdenow, Miller, nor Jacquin, however meri- 
torious, arc of any authority in this case j except that, it their 
R. pimpinellifolia were specifically distinct, tliis name might re- 
main with it, as being verv des( riptivc. See Tr.of Hart. Soc. 
r. 1.282. 

4. 11. i//rn////a. Pricklv I'lU'xpaiHk'd Rose. 

FlowLT-sUilks rrenerally without hracteas, bristly, like the 
♦:^l<)hular iVuit aiul sini])le calyx- Stem bristly and very 
piickly. Leaflets idliptieal, doubly and sharply soiratcd: 
tlieir \eiiis bairv Ix n<"atli. Ft lals convolute. 



S78 ICOSANDRIA-POLYGYNIA. Rosa, 

R. involuta. Fl. Br. 1398. Comp. 78. Engl. Bot. v. 29. t. 2068. 
Woods Tr. of L. Soc. v.\2. 1 83. Lindl. Ros. 56; syn, incorrect. 

In the western part of Scotland. 

Found in several parts of the Hebrides, by the late Rev. Dr. 
Walker, and Mr. J. Mackay. The Rev. Dr. Stuart is recorded, 
by Mr. Woods, as having gathered it in Glen Lyon ; and Mr. 
G. Don in the isle of Arran. 

Shrub. June. , 

Akin to the last, the stem, as in that, bearing innumerable crovrded, 
slender, very unequal, nearly straight prickles, intermixed with 
glandular bristles, both which are likewise observable on the 
Aowny footstalks. Leaflets 7 , rarely 9, broadly elliptical, doubly 
and sharply serrated, the intermediate serratures numerous and 
glandular ; green and smooth on both sides, except the rib and 
veins which are densely hairy beneath, sometimes above. Sti- 
pulas seldom changing to bracteas. Flower-stalks solitary, 
thickly covered with strong glandular acute bristles, as is almost 
universally the globular tube of the calyx, whose segments are 
long, bristly, for the most part simple, but in one of my garden 
specimens fringed with a few narrow glandular leaflets'. Petals 
pale red, sometimes deeper at the margin, all concave, and 
scarcely half-expanded. Stijles short. Ripe fruit not hitherto 
observed. 

5. R. Doniana. Dwarf Hairy Rose. 

Flower-stalks generally without bracteas, bristly, like the 
globular fruit and simple calyx. Stem bristly and prickly, 
like the downy footstalks. Leaflets elliptical, doubly and 
sharply serrated, hairy on both sides. Petals spreading. 

R. Doniana. Woods Tr. of L. Soc. v. 12. 185. 

R. Sabini/3. Lindl. Ros. .i9. 

R. Sabini. Burton v. 3. 44 ; according to Mr. Sabine. 

In the Highlands of Scotland. 

On the mountains of Clova, Angusshire. Mr. G. Don. 

Shrub. June, or July. 

Stem about 2 to 5 feet high, less extensively creeping at the root, ac- 
cording to Mr. Don's observation, than the last, and less prickly 
in the upper part. The leaflets are clothed with fine soft hairs 
on both sides, not merely the ribs or veins ; and the flowers are 
distinguished by their white expanded petals. The radical shoots, 
though very prickly, are described by Mr. Woods as less so than 
those of R. involuta. The sharp double serratures of the leaves 
are alike in both, and essentially distinguish these two species 
from the spinosissima. Of their ripe fruit we have no account, 
nor have I seen more than a dried specimen of R. Doniana. 

It is much to be wished that this Rose should aftord a permanent 
wreath in honour of its discoverer, one of the most indefatigable 



as well as accurate of botanists, who loved the science for its 
own sake, and braved every difficulty in its service. He infused 
the same spirit into his sons, who are living evidences of his 
knowledge, and of his powers of instruction. 

6. ^. gracilia. Tall Bristly Rose. 

Flower -stalks usually in pairs, bristly, often bracteated. 
Branches, globular fruit, and simple calyx bristly. Larger 
prickles curved, mostly two together. Leaflets doubly 
serrated, hairy on both sides. 

R. gracilis. Woods Tr. of L. Soc. vA2. \S6. 

R. villosa. Engl. Bof. v. 9. t. 583 ; excluding the syn. and thefruit. 

In thickets in the north of England. 

Near Darlington. Mr. Robson. At Pooley bridge, Cumberland, as 
well as between Keswick and Lorton. Mr. M'oods. 

Shrub. Jiihj. 

Stem 8 or 10 feet high, with scattered, dark brown, haiy brayicheSy 
bearing numerous bristles and small straight prickles, the former 
being distinguished by their glandular tips only. The larger 
and more genuine prickles are curved downwards, purplish, with 
an oblong dilated base, and placed usually in couples, under the 
origin of each young branch. None of these are exhibited in the 
figure of Engl. Hot. Footstalks downy, with copious glandular 
bristles, and a few very distinct hooked prickles. Leajiets 7 or 
9, broadly elliptical, doubly and sharply serrated, the interme- 
diate serratures glandular ; finely hairy on both sides, and of a 
greyish green 3 the mid-rib glandular, and somewhat bristly. 
Stipulas oblong-wedge-shaped, pale gieen, fringed with glandsj 
their points acute and spreading. Flower-stalks terminal, usually 
in pairs, unequal, sometimes, according to Mr. Woods, 3 to- 
gether, sometimes solitary, all beset with longislj, straight, 
reddish, glandular-tipped bristles, such as are more or less scat 
tered over the globular tube of the cah/x, which is seldom quite 
destitute of them. Similar ones are plentiful on the limb of the 
calyx, whose segments arc almost uniformly simjjle, fringed at 
the points with glandular bristles, and not longer than the co- 
roLla. Petals slightly concave, of a fine pink, white at the base. 
Ripe/n^i/ not observed. 

Mr. Woods hits shown great judgment in his account of this spe- 
cies, which is certainly tlie R. villosa drawn in Kngl. Rot., with the 
fruit perhaps of some other species. Hut I must confess the Hose 
1 had in contemplation in the description, as well as in Fl. Rrit., 
wiLs the R. sylri'stris pomiftra majar, Bauli. J'in. 4t^i. R. pnnio 
spinoso, folio hirsiilo, Rauh. Hist, r 2. 38./. the common Apple 
Rose, single or double, of our gardens; which Hudson and every 
British botanist, till lately, has without scruple taken for /?./><>- 



380 ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rosa. 

■mi/era major of Parkinson's Farad. 4 1 8. ^. 4 1 9./. 7, and of Ray's 
Sijnopsis, ed. 2. 297. ed.'S. 455. It is clearly Parkinson's plant, 
and nobody could doubt its being that of Ray, who describes it 
plentiful in the mountainous parts of Yorkshire and Westmore- 
land. This great botanist however does not quote Caspar Bau- 
hin, nor J. Bauhin's very expressive figure ; and all English bo- 
tanists of the present day declare that this garden Apple Rose, 
characterized by its long elliptical leaflets, and very large, droop- 
ing, bristly /rwi^, scarlet at first, afterwards blackish, crowned 
with the narrow, simple, involute calyx, is not found wild in 
England. I shall speak of Ray's plant hereafter. Mr. Sowerby, 
or Mr. Robson, may well be excused for annexing the fruit of 
either of these to the gracilis, considering how little these plants 
were then known, and indeed how very nearly they all are re- 
lated. 

7. R. Sabini. Sabinian Bristly Rose. 

Flower-stalks somewhat aggregate, bristly, often bracteated. 
Branches, globular fruit, and pinnate calyx bristly. 
Prickles scattered, straightish. Leaflets doubly serrated, 
nearly smooth, with hairy ribs. 

R. Sabini. Woods Tr. of L. Soc. r. 12. 188. Lindl. Ros.^0, excl. the 
variety. 

/S R. involuta. IVinch Geogr. Distrib. 41 ; according to Mr. Sabine, 

In mountainous thickets in the North. 

In Scotland. Mr. Jackson. Near Dunkeld. Mr. Borrer. Near 
Haweswater, Cumberland. Mr. Woods. |3 In Heaton Dene, be- 
low Benton bridge, Northumberland, rare. Mr. Winch. One 
mile from Upper Leatham, towards Gisborough, Yorkshire. 
Mr. S. Hailstone. 

Shrub. July. 

Stem from 5 to 8 feet high. Branches brown, beset in their 
lower part with scattered, pale, nearly straight prickles, each 
suddenly springing from an oblong base 3 and in the upper 
with much smaller purplish prickles, often hardly distinguishable 
from the glandular bristles which accompany them. Footstalks 
downy, glandular, and copiously prickly. Leaflets 5 or 7, 
broadly elliptical, often rounded and blunt, with sharp double 
glandular serratures 3 the upper surface green, smooth, or slightly 
hairy, especially the mid-rib 3 under rather paler and more hairy 
about the ribs and veins. Stipulas wedge-shaped, keeled, finely 
glandular at the edges, with sharp, spreading, lanceolate points. 
Flower-stalks 1 or 2, sometimes 3, beset with unequal glandular 
bristles, as is likewise the globular tube of the calyx, the latter 
being rarely destitute of them. Segments of the calyx tapering, 
])innate with a greater or less number of lanceolate, , or linear. 



ICOSANDRIA-POLYGYNIA. Rosa. 381 

acute marginal leaflets, and clothed, as well as fringed, like 
those leaflets, with numerous short bristles, or stalked glands. 
Pe/aZ*' large, expanded, of a fine red. Wipe fruit, sent by Mr. 
Hailstone, ovate, bright scarlet, bearing a few glandular bristles, 
especially at the base, and crowned with the long, upright, 
glandular, tawny segments of the calyx. 
B. Sabini, honoured with the name of a most indefatigable and in- 
telligent observer and cultivator of the whole genus, is perhaps 
the finest British species, though hitherto overlooked. It con- 
cludes the list of those which bear glandular bristles on the stem, 
and is distinguished from all the rest by the pinnate, or con\- 
pound, segments of its calyx. 

** Branches "jcithout bi^isties. Prickles nearhj strcdght. 

8. R. villosa. Soft-leaved Round-fruited Rose. 

Fruit globose, somewhat depressed, partly bristly. Calyx 
slightly compound. Prickles nearly straight. Leaflets 
rounded, bluntish, all over downy. 

R. villosa. Linn. Sp. PL 704 ? H. Suec. ed. 2. 463. Herb. Linn. n. 3. 

mild. V. 2. 1069 ? IVoods Tr. of L. Soc. u. 12. 189. Ft. Br. 5:^8 /3. 
K. mollis. Kngl. hot. t\3:). t. 24a9. Rees's Cyd. v. 30. n. 21. 

Comp. 7S. Ji'inch Geogr. Distrib. 42. 
R. tomentosa /3. Lludl. Ros. 77. Hook. Scot. 156. 
/3. R. heteroph\ 11a. Woods Tr. of L. Soc. v. 12.19.>. 
y. R. pulchella. Woods ibid. \9ij. 

In bushy, rather mountainous, situations, in Wales, Scotland, and 
the north of England. 

Between Edinburgli and Ravelston wood, gathered in 1782. Found 
also by Mr. G. Jackson in Scotland ; by the Rev. Hugh Davies 
in Anglesea ; by Mr. Woods in Yorkshire and Cumberland 3 and 
by Mr. Winch in Northumberland. 

/3 near Edinburgh. Mr. Borrtr. 

y near Ingleton, Yorkshire. Mr. Woods. 

Stent about 6 feet high, often much less, with scattered brown 
prickly branches, rather glaucous when young, but neither 
bristly nor hairy. Prickles scattered, pale, slender, nearly 
straight. Lef[/icts i) or 7 , more or less rounded and obtuse, 
often obovate, with double acute glandular sorratures ; both 
surfaces soft and downy, with a hoary as|)ect ; the under j)alest, 
wrinkled, with jjrominent veins, lootstdlks downy, bristly and 
glandular, with several sliglilly curved jjrickles. Stipulas ob- 
long, pointed, very downy, thickly fringed with minute, almost 
sc>sile glands ; the uj)|)er pair or two often destitute of leaves, 
and each pair united into a broad, ovate, acute, woolly braclea, 
with a stronc: mid-rib. Howrr-stalks I or 2 at the summit of 



Sm ICOSANDBIA— POLYGYNIA. Rosa. 

each branch, rather short, and not always rising above the brac- 
teas, more or less plentifully beset with slender, unequal, glan- 
dular bristles, but not downy. Tube of the calyx unequally 
globose and rather depressed, besprinkled with strong glandular 
bristles, becoming a large, irregularly globose, or slightly pear- 
shaped, prickly /rwf^, purplish when half grown, but finally scar- 
let. The segments of the calyx are always, as far as I have seen, 
in some degree compound, though far less copiously pinnate than 
in R. tomentosa ; they are densely prickly and glandular at the 
back, downy in the upper part, and stand nearly upright on the 
fruit, which they greaily exceed in length. Petals of a fine, 
rather deep, and mostly uniform red, or pink coloiir. 

The rounded soft and hoary lenjiets, and large globular, by no 
means elliptical, or ovate, /rwi^, crowned by the very long, per- 
manent, tawny divisions of the calyx, characterize this species, 
though one of the latter is never free from an accessory leaflet 
or two. The perfectly straight radical shoots are said by Mr. 
Lindley and Mr. Sabine to afford a permanent mark of distinc 
tion between this and the following species. I think with Mr. 
Woods that this is the R. villosa of the Linnsean herbarium, and 
the specimen there preserved proves, by an inscription at the back, 
which escaped his notice, to be what Osbeck gathered in Suder- 
mannia. Linnaeus in his Sp. PI. no doubt confounded this plant 
with the Great Apple-bearing Rose of the gardens, of which I have 
already spoken under n. 6, R. gracilis. Ray might originally 
confound our present villosa with that, which should in future be 
called pomifera. So might Haller under his n. 1 105, and so un- 
questionably did Hudson and Lightfoot under their i;i//oscf. I have 
done the same in Fl. Brit., and am now happy to correct my 
error, hoping that some botanist will ascertain the native coun- 
try of R. pomifera, and whether it g^ows near Basil, or Mont- 
pellier, as John Bauhin records ; though in his mention of the 
latter station, near the famous hortus Dei, he describes the fruit 
as only the size of a hazel-nut, while his figure is certainly the 
pomifera. R. villosa, Fl. Dan. ^ 1458, is evidently pow I/era, 
though the leaflets are rather too acute. Lightfoot's description, 
to which Mr. Woods adverts, Tr. of L. Soc.v. 12. 199, is mani- 
festly copied from Haller, see his n. WOd ; and only shows that 
the latter, as well possibly as Lightfoot himself, had R. pomifera 
in contemplation. I have been induced by Mr. Woods's per- 
suasion to remove the synonym of DiUenius quoted in Fl. Br. 
and Engl. Bot., R.sylvestris folio molliter hirsuto,fructu rotundo 
glabro, calyce et pediculo hispidis, Rail Syn. 4/8, from the pre- 
sent species to R.subglobosa hereafter described. 

Of the two varieties of R. villosa above indicated, (S is large and 
luxuriant, apparently owing to richness of soil ; while y on the 
contrary seems diminished, by its mountain station, to a size less 
luxuriant than the specimen figured in Engl. Bot. t. 2459, which 



ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rosa. S83 

it much resembles, I have received the latter in flower and fruit 
from Mr. Hailstone, who gathered it at Redcar, near Gisbo- 
rough, Yorkshire. The fruit is pear-shaped, bright scarlet, 
near an inch long, and the accompanying foliage is greatly en- 
larged. Petals not at all crenate. 

9. R. tomentosa. Downy-leaved Dog Rose. 

Fruit broadly elliptical, bristly. Calyx copiously pinnate. 
Prickles slightly curved. Leaflets ovate, acute, more or 
less downy. 

R. tomentosa. Fl. Br. .539. Engl Bot. v. 14. t. 990. Rees's Cycl. 

V. 30. n. 39. Comp. 78. Woods Tr. of L. Sac. i;. 1 2. 1 97. Lindl. 

Ros. 77, a. Part. 736. Afzel. Ros. Suec. tent. 1.5. Sims ^ Kan, 

Ann. V. 2. 2\4. 
R. villosa /3. Huds. 219. mth. 466. Hull 111. Fillars Daiiph. 

r.3. 551. 
R. villosa. Ehrh. Arh. 45. 

R. sylvestris fructu majore hispido. Rail S'jn. cd.2. 296. ed.^. 454. 
R. sylvestris alba, cum aliquo rubore, folio hirsuto. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 

44./. good. 
/S. R. scabriuscula. Engl.BoLv.27 . t. \S^6. Comp. 7%. Woods Tr. 

of L. Soc. i;. 12. 193. 
R. n. 459. Winch Guide ?;. 1 . 48 ? i'. 2. pref 5 ? 

In hedges and thickets. 

/3 Near Newcastle. Mr. Winch. In hedges on the north side of 
Bury 8t. Edmund's, Suffolk, 1804. 

Shrub. June, July. 

Stem 6 feet high or more, branching, bushy, with round, brownish, 
leafy, prickly, but otherwise smooth and naked, branches. 
Prickles often two near together under the insertion of each leaf, 
besides a few scattered solitary ones, all slender and awl-shaj)ed, 
in some degree curved, but with no very great dilatation at the 
base ; nor are they compressed and sickle-shaped, like the spe- 
cies of the next section. Leaflets 5 or 7, ovate, or slightly el- 
liptical, most acute at the extremity, and somewhat pointed ; 
their serratures double, acute and glandular ; both surfaces 
usually hoary, soft and downy, with a slight resinous scent, the 
under one more or less glandular. Footstalks downy, sometimes 
beset with many hooked |)rickles, as well its with copious glan- 
dular bristles. Sfipulas linear, downy, with a dense glandular 
fringe ; the up|)erniost becoming broad, ovate, pointed hractcas. 
Flower-stalks usually 2 or 3, often solitary, seldom 1, longer or 
shorter than the bracteas, clothed ])lentifully witli glandular 
bristles of various lengths. Tube of the (dli/v elliptic-oblong, 
sometimes almost globular, generally covered irrt'gularly with 
glandular brisllts, which are most crowded about the base 3 but 



384 ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rosa. 

occasionally it is quite smooth. Two segments of the very 
bristly limb, and one side of a third, copiously pinnate, with long, 
leafy, acute, toothed and glandular leaflets, as abundant as in 
any species whatever. Pe/aZi' light red, white in their lower half ; 
sometimes white blotched with red. Fruit scarlet, generally 
bristly, broadly elliptical, retaining the liynb of the calyx, either 
spreading or reflexed, till quite ripe, when the latter usually 
falls off. ' 

^ appears at first sight a very distinct species, whose leaves are 
greener, and more harsh, nearly smooth except the ribs, which 
are hairy. Such at least is my Suffolk plant, first noticed in 
company with Sir T. Cullum and Mr, Crowe, the calyx-tube of 
which is remarkably slender. This 1 had in view in the descrip- 
tion of Eugl. Bot., though the figure was drawn from a plant of 
Mr. Winch's, then considered the same. The latter has a rounder 
calyx-tube, and the Icafiets, except their ribs, are quite smooth. 
Another specimen from this gentleman precisely accords with 
those from Bury ; while Mr. Woods describes those he received 
from Mr. Winch as " hoary with a velvety down, and exceed- 
ingly soft on both sides j perhaps even more so than is usual in 
any other species. " So I find them, and these therefore can 
onlv belong to R. tovientosa. They prove how liable its pubes- 
cence is to vary. 

Tt. tomentosa was originally detected in the neighbourhood of Nor- 
wich about 45 years ago, and first published in FL Brit, under 
that name, which Mr. Lindley has very properly retained, in 
spite of the doubtful claim of a far less applicable one, of Ger- 
man origin, inollissivia. John Bauhin's synonym, though of late 
neglected, cannot be disputed. 

Mr. Woods enumerates 15 varieties, or different appearances, of 
this species, two of which I venture to refer to the following. 
To the rest I could add several, for I have seen this plant, on 
removal to a rich and damp garden, assume so rank and prickly 
a habit, as to be scarcely recognised, and even in its various 
wild situations the pubescence varies greatly. Still 1 find no con- 
siderable alteration in the divisions of the calyx, nor in the el- 
liptical shape of its tube. 

*** Branches liithmit bristles. Prickles hooked, comjyressed. 
Styles distinct. 

10. R. subglohosa. Round-headed Rose. 

Fruit globular, abrupt, somewhat bristly. Calyx copiously 
pinnate. Prickles conical, hooked, compressed. Leaf- 
lets elliptical, acute, downy on both sides. 

R. tomentosa s and >;. Woods Tr. of L. Soc. v. 12. 201. 

R. sylvestris folio moUitcr hirsuto, fructu rotundo glabro, calyce et 
pediculo hispidis. Dill, in Rail Sy7i. 478. 



ICOSANDRIA—POLYGYNIA. Rosa. 585 

In hedges and thickets. 

Near Kingston-upon-Thames. Sherard. Near Timbridge Wells, 
and Down, in Kent. Mr. Woods. In Cambridgeshire. Rev. J. 
Holme. Anglesea. Rev. H. Davies. 

Shrub, June, July. 

A stronger plant than the last, with stout round branches. Prickles 
chiefly in couples under the leaves and younger branches, hooked, 
conical, tapering gradually from a very broad base, all in some 
degree compressed laterally, but particularly so on the young 
vigorous shoots. Leciflets a or 7, elliptical and rather broad, 
but more or less acute at each end ; hoary soft and downy on 
both sides 3 doubly serrated. Footsialks downy, prickly, slightly 
glandular. Stipulus downy, acute, fringed with glands. Flower- 
stalks from 1 to 8 or 9, the more numerous the shorter, beset 
with glandular bristles, mostly bracteated with the uppermost 
leafless stipulas, which are ovate-lanceolate, acute, glandular and 
downy. Tube of the c«/?/.r large, tumid, globose, abrupt, often 
slightly depressed, sometimes a little elongated at the base ; va- 
riously besprinkled with bristles, but sometimes almost naked, 
as Sherard and the late Mr. H. Davies observed. In a half-ripe 
state its surface is corrugated, from the projection of the nume- 
rous seeds, and has a purplish-olive hue. It then much resem- 
bles a half-grown Bullace Plum. 1 have not seen the ripe hip, 
nor \\\^Jlou:ers. The segments of the limb of the calyx are ex- 
panded, tawny, very rough with bristles or stalked glands, and 
copiously pinnate in the manner of R. tumentosa. The whole 
plant, excej)t the prickles and calyx, bears more resemblance to 
villosa than tomentosa, and is particularly remarkable for its large 
globular half-ripe /7-«/7. Whether it may be entitled to rank as 
a species, must be determined by future inquiries, ;is we are 
still but learners in the specific characters of this genus. 

11. R. ruhiginosa. Sweet Briar, or Eglantine. 

Fruit obovate, bristly towards the base. Calyx pinnate. 
Piickles hooked, compressed ; \\\\\\ smaller slrait»luer 
ones interspersed. Leaflets eliiptical, doubly serrated, 
lialry; clothed beneath with rusty-coloured glands. 

R. rubiginosa. Linn. Mant. 2. r>G\. ll'illd. Sp. PL v. 2. 10/3. H. 

Br. :V1(). Engl. Bid. r. 14. /. 991 . Comp. 78. Hook. Lond. t.WQ. 

Scot. 1;)7 a. IVUh. m\. Hull 111. Jaccj. Austr. t. 50. Ehrh. 

Arb. 7h. Lindl. Ros. H6 a. 
R. Kglanteria. Linn. Sp. PI. cd. 1. 491 ? Hud.s. 218. J foods Tr. of 

J.. Sor. V. 12. 20G. Herm. Rus. 17. Afzel. Rus. Suec. tent. 1. 8. 

Sims S< Kon. Ann. v. 2. 21.S. 
R. suavlfolia. Liirhff.2C)2. Ft. Ihm. t.^70. 

R. n. iiu.j. Hall. irist.v.2.:v.). 

R. folils subtiis rubiginosis et odoiaiis Hall. Enum. 350, excluding 

the tar. y. nhith w R. tumentosa. 
VOL. II. 2 c 



3S6 ICOSANDRIA—POLYGYNIA. Rosa. 

R. sylvestris foliis odoratis. Bauh. Pin. 483. DocL Pempt. 187. 

n'.]0. 
R. sylvestris odora. Raii %«..4r>4. Ger. Em. 1269./. 1. 
R. sylvestris odorata, incarnatoflore. Besl. Hort. Eyst. vern. ord. 6. 

^6./. 1. 
R. foliis odoratis^ Eglentina dicta. Bauh. Hist. v.2.4i.f. 

In bushy places on a dry gravelly or chalky soil ; sometimes on 
sandy islands in small rivers, as between Norwich and Yarmouth. 

Shrub, June, July. 

Stem bushy, erect, 4 or 5 feet high, with numerous, stout, compact, 
smooth,' green branches, reddish when young. Prickles of two 
kinds ; the larger often in pairs as well as scattered, hooked, 
sharp, conical, compressed, light brown, with a very broad 
base ; smaller chiefly interspersed among the former, in great 
numbers, on tlie strong radical shoots, being much smaller and 
straighter, but still different from bristles, and scarcely observ- 
able on the flowering branches. Lecifiets 5 or 7, more elliptical 
tlian ovate, rather acute, of a bright pleasant green, bordered 
with double glandular serratures ; the upper surface minutely 
hairy ; under covered with reddish viscid glands, from which prin- 
cipally exhales that peculiar fragrant scent, compared to apples, 
but much more generally agreeable. For the sake of this scent 
the plant is often forced, and is very grateful, without being 
oppressive, in close apartments ; but it is most delightful in 
hedges and shrubberies. Footstalks downy, glandular, with se- 
veral hooked prickles, and, I think, some bristles. Stipulas 
linear-lanceolate, pointed, closely and uniformly fringed with 
o-lands, such as are often found likewise on their under side 
near the extremity 5 the upper ones changing to ovate, pointed 
bracteas. Flower-stalks generally from 1 to 3, sometimes much 
more numerous, clothed with long, slender, unequal, glandu- 
lar bristles, some of which, as Mr. Woods remarks, assume the 
form of slender curved prickles, destitute of glands. Tube of 
the calyx elliptical, tinged with red, irregularly bristly ; segments 
of the limb more copiously pinnate than is shown in Etigl. Bot., 
their divisions distantly toothed and glandular. Petals bright 
pink. Fruit scarlet, mealy and insipid, more or less bristly, espe- 
cially about the base, its form obovate, occasionally nearly ellip- 
tical, crowned with the withered segments of the calyx, which 
however are partly deciduous. Mr. Woods observes that the 
earliest hip is always obovate, though some of the later ones 
may assume an elliptical shape. 
Mr. Woods's variety (3, with curved but not hooked prickles, and 
smaller, sometimes rounder, leaflets, agrees very nearly with 
Mr. Lindley's ^ rotundifolia, first published by Rau, which 
I have from Nuremberg. The tube of the calyx, even in 
Mr. Woods's own specimens, appears to me as bristly at the 
base as in our common Sweet Briar. 



ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rosa. 387 

! cannot but prefer the name ruhiginosa for this species, because 
it is certainly what Linneeus so denominated, though he origi- 
nally confounded the synonyms of this plant with the Yellow 
Briar, his R, Eglanteria. But in the 2d editions of Sp. PL and 
FL Suec. his Eglanteria is determined by its yellow flowers, and 
all the specimens in his herbarium marked Eglanteria are the 
Yellow Briar, of which the Austrian Rose, R. bicolor, Jacq. 
Hort. Vind. ^ I. is a very transient variety. Linnaeus was first 
made aware of his error by his correspondent Mygind, who 
sent him the ruhiginosa ; and this Retzius asserts to be the 
Swedish plant, Prodr. FL Scandinav. 120, 121, the Neglantyr 
of the Swedes. Linnaeus could surely never have seen it wild. 

Whether R. suaveolens of Pursh be our ruhiginosa, does not con- 
cern the British botanist. Mr. Linclley is decidedly of this opi- 
nion, but what Dr. Bigelow has sent me from Boston, North 
America, appears distinct. A careful comparison of living spe- 
cimens may hereafter decide the question. 

The specimens of Schleicher, described by me as R. montana of 
Villars, in Rees's Cyclopedia, and alluded to by Mr. Lindley, 
Ros. 115, are sufficiently ample and perfect, wanting only the 
petals, to prove them distinct from ruhiginosa, the leajieis being 
quite smooth in every part, and ratl^er glaucous beneath. 

12. Vk,. micrantha. Small-flowered Sweet Briar. 

Fruit elliptical, somewhat bristly, contracted at the summit. 
Calyx pinnate, deciduous. Prickles hooked, scattertxl, 
nearly uniform. Stem straggling. Leaflets ovate, doubly 
serrated, hairy ; glandular beneath. 

R. micrantha. Engl. Rot. r. 3r>. t. 2490. Comp. 1^. Rees's Ojcl. 
V. 30. n. 3.j. IFoods Tr. of L. Soc. v. 1 2. 209. 

R. ruhiginosa /3. LindL Ros.SJ. Hook. Lond. t. 110./. 10, icith 
erroneous synonyms. Purt. v. 3. 40. 

In hedges and thickets, chiefly in the south of England. 

Shrub. June, July. 

RrancJiL's much more weak and slender than in the last. Prickles 
fewer, either solitary or in |)uirs under the leaves and xoung 
branches, rarely in any other part ; nor are there any smaller 
and straighter ones interspersed. Leaflets broadly ovate, acute, 
of a rather dee])er green than in R. ruhiginosa, and less rusty, 
though glandular, beneatii. They are also far less fragrant, as 
the cultivators of Sweet Briar well know ; but Mr. \^'oo(ls says 
this circumstance is variable. Indeed nothing is more so tlian 
the scent of aromatic plants, according to the difterent states of 
the atmosphere. Floncrs light red, usually small, l)ut this 
mark also is said to be variable. Tube of the calyx ovate, with 
ft contracted cylindrical neck, its surface in some degree bristly, 
e.speciallv at the base, tiiough. as Mr. Woods remarks, thi* 



S88 ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rosa. 

prickles thereabouts are not so long as in ruhig'mosa ; segments 
of the limb not very much pinnate, falling off as the fruit ripens. 
The latter is scarlet, sometimes quite smooth, retaining its 
oval form, with a short neck, and commonly much smaller than 
the hips oi rubiginosa. 
Mr. Lindlev, partly as it seems at the persuasion of Mr. Lyell, 
makes- this a variety of the last ; but Mr. Borrer, Mr. Sabine 
and Mr. Woods agree with me in keeping it distinct. Till we. 
have more experience in the specific characters of this genus, 
as no one can be competent, in difficult cases, to come to an ab- 
solute conclusion, it is safer to discriminate than to confound. 

13. B.. Borreri. Downy-stalked Dog Rose. 

Fruit elliptical, smooth. Flower-stalks aggregate, hairy. 

Calyx copiously, often doubly, pinnate, deciduous. 

Prickles hooked. Leaflets ovate, doubly serrated, hairy, 

without glands. 
R. Borreri. JVoods Tr. of L. Soc. v. 12. 210. Winch Geogr. Dis- 

trib. 45. 
R. dumetorum. Engl. Bot.v.36. t.2d79 ; but not, it seems, of 

Persoon. 
R. rubiginosa ^. Lindl. Ros. 88. 
/3 R rubiginosa inodora. Hook. Lond. ^.117. 

In hedges and thickets. 

Shrub. June, July. 

Slem from 6 to 10 feet high, round, firm, with numerous, spread- 
ing, smooth, leafy branches. Prickles solitary or in pairs under 
the branches and leaves, strongly hooked and deflexed, each 
with a large oblong base. Footstalks downy. Leaflets mostly 
7, broadly ovc^te, acute, doubly serrated, deep green, shining, 
minutely hairy, flat ; the under side rather paler, most hairy 
about the ribs, destitute of glands, as well as of scent. Stipulas 
linear, pointed, glandular at the edges, but not at the back ; 
the uppermost changed to ovate, pointed, slightly hairy hracteas, 
fringed with stalked glands. Flower-stalks aggregate, some- 
times numerous, seldom solitary, mostly downy or bristly, 
rarely quite naked. Tube of the calijx elliptical, green or 
brownish, smooth and naked; segments of the limb rather short, 
spreading, deciduous, distantly fringed with stalked glands ; 
two of them very copiously pinnate ; with crowded, broad, 
partly compound, acute, smooth subdivisions. Petals flesh- 
coloured, or light red, rather small. Fruit deep scarlet, occa- 
sionally almost globular, with a short neck ^ sometimes rather 
obovate. 

Dr. Panzer of Nuremberg has sent this species for E. sepium of 
Rau, Enum. Rosar. 90, which Mr. Lindley considers as brae- 
tescens of Woods, and a variety of canina. 



ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rosa. 389 

R. Borreri has been found near Edinburgh, by the very excellent 
botanist whose name it bears, with more hoary leaves than usu- 
ally occur in England. The small-leaved variety /3, figured in 
Professor Hooker's t. 1 17, is referred hither by that writer, en- 
tirely on Mr. Lindley's authority, as a scentless Sweet Briar. I 
have seen no specimen, but the excellent figure answers to 
R. Borreri, except the smallness of the leaflets, which are not 
half the size of mine or Mr. \\'oods's specimens, or of Engl. 
Bot. 1.2579. 

14. Ji. cdsia. Glaucous-leaved Rose. 

Fruit elliptical, smooth. Flower-stalks smooth, solitary. 

Calyx distantly and sparingly pinnate. Prickles hooked, 

uniform. Leaflets elliptical, soinewhat doubly serrated, 

glaucous ; hairy beneath, w^ithout glands. 
R. csesia. En<yl. Bot. v. 33. t. 2367. Comp. 78. JVoods Tr. of L. 

Soc. v.]2.2\2. 
R. canina pubescens. Afzel. Ros. Suec. tent. 1. 2. Sims 8^ Kon. 

Ann.v.2. 211. 

In the highland valleys of Scotland, but very rare. 

At Taymilt in Mid Lorn, Argylshire ; and in Strath Tay, between 
Dunkeld and Aberfeldie. Mr. Borrer. By the side of Loch Tay. 
Mr. George Anderson. 

Shrub. July. 

A compact bush, about 4 or ,3 feet high, remarkable for the very 
glaucous hue of its foliage, young branches, and calijx. The 
stem and main branches are of a purjjlish brown, smooth, fur- 
nished with pairs of strongly-hooked, light-brown prickles, un- 
der the leaves and young shoots, each prickle having an oblong- 
elliptical base, often longer than itself. Leaflets ') or 7, elliptical, 
acute, their serratures slightly notched and glandular, as well 
as unecjual, but not very regularly or distinctly double ; the 
upper side glaucous, smooth, rarely downy ; under hairy, es- 
pecially about the rib and veins. Footstalks downy, and in some 
degree glandular, but scarcely jjrickly. Stipulas oblong, acute, 
pale, downy, fringed with glands ; the uppermost gradually 
broadest ; those at the summit clianged for ovate pointed hractcas. 
rioKcr-stalks in all the si)ecinu'ns 1 have seen always solitary, 
smooth and naked, shorter than the hracteas. Mr. Borrer says 
tliey arc sometimes in j)airs. Fl. of an uniform, but very beau- 
tiful, carnation hue, occasionally white. Tube of the calyx el- 
liptical, naked, very glaucous, subsequently brownish ; seg- 
ments of tlie limb eith. r smootli at tl>e back or ghuuhdar ; 
one of them i)iniuite, with a few narntw, distant, sometimes 
slightly glandular, leaflets. If 1 am right in the synonym of 
Dr. Afzclius, which on the most careful scrutinv I see no reason 



390 ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rosa. 

to doubt^ the styles are prominent and very hairy 5 segments 
of the calyx deciduous ; fiiiH elliptical, probably red. 
Dr. Afzelius publishes his plant as indubitably a distinct species 
from can'nia, and that it is so I think none can doubt, unless, 
like the French botanist Gerard, we reduce the whole genus 
of Rosa to one species. Dr. Swartz sent the same as R. collina 
of Jacquin ; an error easily corrected by an original specimen 
in my hands from that celebrated autlior, in which the Jiower- 
stalks are very bristly, the lenjlets roundish, simply serrated, 
not glandular, nor at all glaucous. 

15. R. sarmentacea. Trailing Smooth-leaved Rose. 

Fruit broadly elliptical, naked. Flower-stalks aggregate, 
smooth or minutely bristly. Calyx strongly pinnate. 
Prickles hooked. Leaflets ovate, doubly serrated, very 
smooth. 

R. sarmentacea. HwaHz MSS. Woods Tr. of L. Soc. v. 12. 213. 

II. glaucophylla. IVinch Geogr. Distrib. 45. 

R. canina. Roth Germ. v. 2. p. 1 . 5G0. Curt. Loml.fasc. 5. t. 34. 

In hedges and bushy places common. 

Shrub. June, July. 

Stem 8 or 10 feet high, with long, spreading, prickly, green or 
brownish branches. Prickles hooked and strongly deflexed, 
compressed, variously scattered, often in pairs under the in- 
sertion of the leaves or young branches j their bases dilated, 
but not depressed. Lerifleis 5 or 7, ovate, acute, doubly and 
sharply serrated, with glands interspersed, very smooth on 
both sides 3 the upper side either greyish and opaque, or more 
seldom of a shining green -, the under sometimes glaucous. 
Footstalks usually quite destitute of hairiness, but more or less 
glandular, as well as furnished with hooked prickles j some- 
times the upper edge is hairy. Stipulas somewhat dilated, 
smooth, green, serrated, and slightly glandular ; the upper- 
most changed to ovate, pointed, often more glandular, bracteas. 
Flower-stalks seldom solitary, usually 3 or 4 together and quite 
smooth ; sometimes besprinkled with small glandular hairs. 
Fl. pink, fragrant. Tube of the calyx elliptical, rather narrow, 
contracted into a neck at -the top, quite smooth and naked j 
segments of the Ihnb deciduous, pinnate, with numerous, long, 
pointed, often broad and sometimes pinnatifid, leaflets, glandu- 
lar and bristly at their edges. Fruit elliptical or ovate, scarlet, 
as grateful to the palate probably as that of the real R. canina, 
with which this equally common plant is generally confounded. 
The combined styles certainly protrude in some degree, even 
in Mr. Woods's specimens as well as Dr. Swartz's, approaching 
to the character of R. syslyla and arvcnsis, but arc much shorter 



ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rosa. S91 

than in those species, nor is the disk, or Jloral receptacle, so ele- 
vated a& m R, systyla. 
Mr. Woods has quoted Roth's canina, probably because that 
author says the haves are doubly serrated. For the same 
reason I have referred to the canina of Curtis, whose figure 
sufficiently well represents our plant, the stijles perhaps ex- 
cepted. 

16. R. hractescens . Bracteated Downy Rose. 

Fruit globose, smooth. Flower-stalks aggregate, occa- 
sionally somewhat hairy. Calyx pinnate, with entire 
leaflets. Prickles aggregate, hooked. Leaflets ovate, 
almost simply serrated ; downy beneath. Bracteas rising 
much above the fruit. 

R. bractescens. Woods Tr. of L. Soc. v. 12. 21 G. 

hi hedges and thickets. 

About Ulvcrston, Lancashire, and Ambleside, Westmoreland. 
Mr. Woods. 

Shrub. June, July. 

A bush 6 or 7 feet high, with diffuse branches. Prickles hooked, 
each from a broad base, in ])airs under each leaf and young 
branch, and often accomi)anied by a few smaller ones, making 
a kind of whorl, but there are scarcely any solitary scattered 
prickles in other places. Leaflets large, elliptic-ovate, acute ; 
for the most part simply, but here and there doubly, serrated ; 
downy or finely hairy on both sides, especially beneath, where 
the ribs arc always very hairy, and the mid-rib often prickly. 
Footstalks downy,' bearing several hooked prickles, with now 
and then a glandular bristle. Stipulas broad ; downy exter- 
nally ; entire towards the base ; serrated upwards, and acutely 
pointed ; several of the upper ones greatly dilated, their leaves 
diminished, and more or less incomplete ; the uppermost of all 
being changed to very large, concave, ovate, pointed, entire 
bracteas, overtop])ing the flowers. Flowcr-sfalks 2, 3, or 4, 
rarely solitarv, for the most part naked, sometimes beset with a 
few weak scattered hairs, or bristles. Tube of the calyx globu- 
lar, smooth ; segments of the linib smooth at the back, pinnate 
with several lanceolate, entire, slightly bristly or glandular, 
leaflets. Petals flesh-coloured. Styles a little prominent, very 
iuiiry. Stigmas forming a i)romincnt cone, intermixed with 
hairs. 

vSoveral good botanists have referred this species to li.canuia, 
from which it apparently ditlers in many |)artieulars. At least 
I do not tliink myself autliorized to abolish it, haviiig never 
seen the plant alive, nor liave I any other information than 
what i'^ alloided bv the description, ami three dried specimens, 



392 ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rosa. 

of Mr. Woods. The following is perhaps more doubtful^ but 
for the same reasons I leave it for future inquiiy. 

17. V^, diimetorum. Thicket Rose. 

Fruit elliptical, smooth, as tall as the bracteas. Flower- 
stalks aggregate, slightly hairy. Calyx copiously pin- 
nate, somewhat cut. Prickles numerously scattered, 
hooked. Leaflets simply serrated, hairy on both sides. 

R. dumetorum. Woods Tr. of L. Soc. v. 12. 217. '' Thu'ill. Paris. 
250/' according to Mr. Woods. 

In hedges in the southern counties occasionally 5 seldom in any 
abundance. IVoods. 

Shrub. Jane. 

From 4 to 6 feet high, with many weak spreading branches 
Prickles rather plentiful, and for the most part irregularly scat- 
tered, often in pairs under the footstalks, strongly hooked, 
broad at the base. Leaflets much smaller than in the last, of a 
grass green and rather shining, elliptic-ovate, acute, with simple, 
uniform, scarcely ever divided serratures, finely hairy, more or 
less, on both sides ; the mid-rib very hairy, sometimes prickly, 
beneath. Footstalks hairy and prickly. Stipulas narrow, ser- 
rated. Bracteas serrated, pointed, often leafy and jagged, 
longer than the /lower-stalks, which are short and stout, com- 
monly 2 or 3 together, smooth, or a little hairy. Tube of the 
calyx roundish or elliptical ; segments of the limb rather co- 
piously pinnate, v»^ith long, entire or toothed, leaflets. Petals 
reddish. Stijles prominent, a little hairy. Stigmas forming a 
round hairy head. Fruit red, ovate, or nearly globular. 

18. U. Forsteri. Downy-ribbed Dog Rose. 

Fruit elliptical, smooth, like the aggregate flower-stalks. 
Calyx copiously, and somewhat doubly, pinnate. Prickles 
scattered, conical, hooked. Leaflets simply serrated; 
smooth above ; ribs hairy beneath, 

R. coUina jS and 7. TVoods Tr. of L. Soc. t;. 12. 219. 

In hedges. 

Shrub. June, July. 

Stem 6 or 8 feet high, with spreading, sometimes weak, branches. 
Prickles either in couples under the leaves and young branches, 
or solitary and dispersed, conical at the base, hooked, not de- 
flexed ; sometimes very small with a broad base. Leajlets 5 or 
7, elliptical, acute, sharply and unequally, but never doubly, 
serrated, nor glandular, though the tips of the serratures are 
brown and cartilaginous 5 upper surface of a rather glaucous 
green, either opaque or shining, quite smooth ; under paler, the 



ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rosa. 393 

mid-rib especially very hairy. Footstalks hairy or downy, prickly, 
as well as obscurely glandular. Stlpulas oblong*, pointed, fringed 
in the upper part with glands 3 a little hairy externally ; the 
upper ones changed for large, ovate, nearly smooth, pointed 
bracteas, longer than the f^mooih Jiower-stalks, which are usually 
2 or 3 together. Tube of the calyx elliptical, quite smooth 3 some- 
times nearly globular ; segments of the limb externally roughish, 
but not glandular, irregularly, sometimes doubly, pinnate, with 
smooth, lanceolate, brown-tipped leaflets or subdivisions. Pe- 
tals flattish, pale red ; sometimes white. Floral receptacle con- 
vex. Styles but slightly hairy, distinct, and not very prominent. 
Stigiuds in a round lax head, smooth. Fruit elliptical, occa- 
sionally nearly globular. 

I do not perceive any remarkable difference between Mr. Woods's 
collina (5 and y 5 the latter is said to be common all around Lon- 
don, and indeed throughout England. His a, or supposed type 
of the species, is R. collina, Jacq. Jusfr. t. 197, which, by a spe- 
cimen from the author, appears distinctly characterized by its 
dense habit, hrlsily flower-stalks, very hairy styles, and rounded 
leajiets. This latter has not been gathered in Britain. Finding 
myself obliged to separate it from the plant Mr. \Voods has de- 
scribed, I gladly concur with Mr. Sabine in giving Mr. Forster's 
name to what thus becomes a new species, totally different in 
the simple and naked, not glandular, serratures of its leaves 
from all the preceding, principally R. Borreri, which it other- 
wise resembles 3 and from R. canina in its hairy mid-rib. 
Whether any other characters may be discovered betwixt R. For- 
steri and canina, on a comparison of living specimens, must 
for the present be left in doubt 3 for there are many particulars, 
concerning several of our most common Roses, that still re- 
quire investigation. 

Of Mr. Woods's 5, an elegant little plant, with small pointed 
leaflets, I have only seen one dried specimen, which answers to 
the above specific character. 

19. R. /libernica. Irish Rose. 

Fruit nearly globular, smooth, as well as the flower-stalk s- 
C'alyx pinnate, with entire apjiendages, permanent. 
Prickles sliohtly curved, scattered, unecjual. Leaflets 
sim})ly serrated, elliptical ; ribs hairy beneath. 

R. hibernica. Engl. Dot. r. 3 1 . /. 2 1 9G. Camp. 78. If'oods Tr. oj 
L Soc.v. 12. 222. Lindl. Ros. 82. 

In thickets in Ireland. 

Discovered in the counties of Dcrry and Down, particularly near 
Iielf'a.st harbour, by Mr. 'IVnipleton, who, in consequence of 
its being juilged a new Irisli ])lant, received from a society at 
Dublin, *' ciemplu raro ct inautlito," a ))reiuium of ."»0 pounds 



391 ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rosa. 

sterling. This gentleman has many mote claims to botanical 
distinction. 

Shrub. June — November. 

A compact bush, from 3 to 6 feet high, copiously branched, and 
very prickly. It has much of the habit and characters of the 
first section of the genus, and some of its smaller prickles look 
very like bristles ; but they are not glandular nor quite straight. 
The curvature of all the prickles indeed is but slight, though the 
larger ones are sufficiently hooked, as well as compressed, to 
entitle the plant to a place in our third section, being moreover 
allied to several neighbouring species. Leaflets 5 or 7, smaller 
than most of this section, elliptical or roundish, acute, strongly, 
sharply, and rather unequally, but by no means doubly, ser- 
rated, quite destitute of glands ; the upper surface a little glau- 
cous, rarely besprinkled with fine longish bail's ; under smooth, 
except the ribs, which bear plenty of white hairs, unequal in 
length and direction. Footstalks hairy and in some instances 
prickly, not glandular. Stipulas smooth, dilated upwards, mi- 
nutely serrated, with spreading points ; the uppermost often 
changed for smooth, ovate, pointed, slightly serrated bracteas. 
Tube of the calyx globular, very smooth ; segments of the limb 
pinnate, with a few linear-lanceolate, entire leaflets, neither 
cut nor glandular. Flowers rather small, of a light blush-co- 
lour. Floral receptacle vei*y flat. Styles distinct. Fruit orange- 
coloured, roundish-ovate, sometimes almost exactly globular, 
crowned with the upright permanent segments of the calyx, about 
its own length. 

20. R. canina. Common Dog Rose. 

Fruit ovate, smooth or somewhat bristly, like the aggre- 
gate flower-stalks. Calyx pinnate, deciduous. Prickles 
strongly hooked. Leaflets simply serrated, pointed, quite 
smooth. 

R. canina. Linn. Sp. PL 704. Willd. v.2. \077. FLBr.540. Engl. 

Bot. V. 1 4. i. 992. Woods Tr. o/L. Soc. v. 12. 223. Lmdl. Ros. 98, 

with many doubtful synonyms. Hook. Scot. 157. Winch Geogr. 

Distrib. 46. Herm. Ros. l\. Fl. Dan. t. 555. Trag. Hist. 986./. 
R. n. 1101. Hall.Hist.v. 2. 3S. 
R. sylvestris inodora, sen canina. Rail Syn.A74. 
R. sylvestris vulgaris, flore odorato incarnato. Bauh. Fin. 483. 
R. sylvestris alba cum rubore, folio glabro. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 43./. 
/3. R. surculosa. Woods Tr. of L. Soc. v. 12. 228. 
y. R, nuda. Woods ibid. 205 ? Fruit globular. Prickles nearly 

straight. 

in hedges, woods and thickets, common. 

Shrub. June, July. 

Stem 6 or 8 feet high, stout and prickly, with long, trailing or 



ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rosa. 595 

spreading; branches. Prickles scattered or in couples, stout, 
hooked and strongly deflexed, except in the doubtful variety yj 
their base large, much elongated and flattened. Leaflets 7, large, 
elliptical, with a small twisted point more or less apparent, 
shari)ly and simply, though often unequally serrated, and not 
glandular ; perfectly smooth in every part ; the upper surface 
deep green, either opa(|ue or very shining 5 under paler. Foot- 
stalks beset with a few hooked prickles, the upper edge often 
slightly hairy, rarely bristly or glandular. Stipulas linear, taper- 
pointed, smooth, with glandular serratures, which are sonie- 
times very slight. Bracteas ovate, pointed, serrated and hairy 
at the margins. Flower-stalks from 1 to 4, or many more, ac- 
cording to the strength of the shoot or branches, for the most 
part smooth, but sometimes furnished with weak glandular 
bristles as well as the elliptical tube, and simply pinnate seg- 
ments, of the calyx, though both the latter are usually smooth. 
Flowers of various shades of pink, large, fragrant and beautiful j 
seldom quite white. Floral receptacle small and flat. Styles 
slightly prominent. Fruit ovate, stripped of the segments of 
the caiyx, bright scarlet, of a peculiar and very grateful flavour 
when ripe, especially if made into a conserve with sugar. How 
far any of our other Roses, hitherto confounded with this, par- 
take of the .same flavour, I have not had the means of knowing, 
but this much concerns those who prepare Conserve of Hips. 
* I have often been sensible of a great diversity of flavour in these 

fruits, casually gathered late in autumn. 
Var. (5 differs in having remarkably strong shoots, bearing some- 
times great plenty of flowers ; but I agree with Mr. Sabine in 
thinking it a mere variety. Most Roses, if cut down, send up 
such vigorous shoots the next season. 
y is more doubtful, having the calyj-iuhc globose, and the prickles 
nearly straight ; but no safe judgment can be formed upon the 
only known specimen, gathered by Mr. Woods at Ambleside. 
The wooden cut in Dodonaeus, Pempt. 18f), named R. sylvestris, 
belongs to this species, though it serves in Gerarde to represent 
the Sweet Briar, see ??. 1 1. 

**** Branches without bristles. Prickles hooked, compressciL 
Styles combined. 

2\. R. sijstula. Close-styled Dog Uose. 

Fruit ovate-obloiifr, smooth. I'lower-slalks rrlaiuliilar. Ca- 
lyx pinnate, deciduous. Prickles hooked. Leaflets sim- 
ply serrated. Moral iece})tacle conical. Styles com- 
bined, smooth. 

R systyla. " Bastard Florr. (I'Jn/ou, as ijuotal hy nc.siuin.i, Journ. 
dp Hot. V 2. 1 13" 5 Woods Tr. <>/ L. Sm. v. 12. 230. Lindl. 
lins. 111. tlook. Sn>t. i:)9. 



396 ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rosa. 

R. collina. Engl. Bot. v. 27. t. 1895 j excluding the syn. 

^ lanceolata. Lindl. ibid. Leaflets ovate-lanceolate. Fruit sphe- 
rical. 

y Monsonice. Lindl ibid. Stem more dwarf, erect, many-flowered ^ 
branches occasionally bristly. I have not seen this. 

" R. collina Monsonige'. Redout. Ros. v. 3. 67.'' Sabine. 

In hedges and thickets. 

Common in Sussex. Mr. Borrer. At Walthamstow, Quendon, 
and Clapton, near London. Mr. E. Forster. At Donnington 
castle, Berkshire. Mr. Bicheno. Near Penshurst, Kent, and 
Hornsey, Middlesex. Mr. Woods. Hills in the south of Scot- 
land ; -Mr, Hopkirk. Hooker. 

Shrub. June, July. 

** A slender shrub, from 8 to 12 feet high." Woods. Prickles 
hooked, with a greatly dilated base j sometimes on the main 
stem large, conical, with a small curved point, compressed, well 
compared by Mr. Woods to a parrot's beak. Leaflets 5, more 
rarely 7, elliptic-ovate 3 in /3 more lanceolate 3 acute, simply 
serrated ; smooth above -, ribs for the most part hairy beneath. 
Footstalks glandular and minutely prickly, somewhat downy. 
Stipulas linear, acute, downy at the edges, and either glandular 
or serrated ; the uppermost changed for 2 or 3 lanceolate brac- 
teas. Flower -stalks aggregate, various in number, rough with 
many glandular bristles. Tube of the calyx elliptic-oblong, 
brownish, smooth except at the very base ; segments of the 
limb copiously pinnate, with long, narrow, taper-pointed, entire, 
or slightly glandular, smooth leaflets. Fl. fragrant, concave, 
pink or almost white. Floral receptacle conical. Styles vmited 
into a simple, prominent, furrowed, but not hairy, column, 
Vvhich gave rise to the name. Stigmas separate, smooth. 
Fr-uit ovate-oblong, in p globular, smooth, scarlet, stripped of 
the segments of the calyx, but crowned with the prominent 
floral-receptacle and permanent styles. 

Tlie supposed variety y, to which Mr. Sabine first gave the 
name of R. MonsonicF, was found in a hedge near Watford, by 
Miss Monro, from whence it was removed to the garden of 
Lady Monson. It is described as very beautiful, having stout, 
erect stems, bearing large bunches of most elegant flowers. 
Mr. Lindley says i\\Q fruit is of a more orange red than the usual 
hue of R. systyla. The bristly branches indicate a far different 
tribe. 

22. R. arvensis. White Trailing Dog Rose. 

Fruit globose or elliptical, smooth. Flower-stalks glandu- 
lar. Calyx pinnate, deciduous. Prickles hooked, scat- 
tered. ^Leaflets simply serrated. Floral receptacle 
slightly convex. Styles combined, smooth. 



ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rosa. 597 

R. arvensis. Huds. ed. I. 192. ed. 2. 219. Linn. Mant. 2. 245. 

Willd. Sp. PL V. 2. 1060. Ft. Br. 538. Engl. Bot. v. 3. 188. 

Woods Tr. of L.Soc.vA2.2^2. Lindl. Ros.li2. Hook.ScoL]5S, 

Villars Dauph. v. 3. 548. 
R. sylvestris. Ilerm. Ros. 10. 
R. serpens. Ehrh. Arb. 35. 
R. repens. Jacq. Fragm. 69. t. 104. 
R. n. 1102. Hall. Hist. V. 2. 39r 
R. arvensis Candida. Bauh. Pin. 484. 
R. campestris repens alba. Ibid. 

R. sylvestris altera minor, flore albo nostras. Raii Syn. 455. 
R. sylvestris, folio glabro, flore plane albo. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 44./. 
Rosier rampant. Reynier Mem. de la Suisse v . 1. 222 3 from the 

author, who describes it as not known to Haller. 

In hedges, thickets, and the borders of fields, chiefly in the mid- 
land and southern counties. Mr. Woods remarks that it is rare 
in the mountainous districts. Common in Norfolk. 

Shrub. July. 

A bush about 4 or 5 feet high, much more when supported, send- 
ing forth abundance of trailing, glaucous, often mahogany- 
coloured, arching branches, many feet in length. Pricliles all 
scattered, not in pairs, strongly hooked, smaller than those of 
R. canina. Leaflets 5, rarely 7, elliptic-oblong, acute, simply, 
though sometimes unequally, serrated, generally smooth on botii 
sides ; glaucous beneath, vi'here the ribs are often hairy. 
Footstalks prickly, finely hairy as well as minutely glandular. 
Siipubis linear, acute, narrow, glandular at the margins. Brae- 
teas similar, linear-lanceolate. Fl. rarely solitary, generally 
from 3 to 5 together, rather concave, slightly scented, white 
and very elegant ; the buds frequently blush-coloured. Flower- 
stidks often dark red, rough with numerous short glandular 
bristles. Tube of the calyx elliptic-oblong, glaucous, partly 
reddish, smooth, rarely glandular ; .segments smooth or some- 
what glandular, pinnate, with lanceolate smooth leaflets. Flo- 
ral receptacle convex, but not conical, nor so prominent as in 
R. syslyla, though the styles are much longer, united, as in that, 
into a stout furrowed column, destitute of hairs, which is not 
the case with any other British Rose, except the last, and 
crowned by the smooth stigmas, crowded, and partly combined, 
into a round head. Fruit of a dark blood-colour, usually, as 
far as I have seen, globular and .smooth. Mr. Woods describes 
it as in general elliptic-oblong, at least where the stalks are 
aggregate, lie highly commends its flavour, as well as that of 
R. sysfyla. 

I have never perceived any specific diflercnce between R. arrnisis 
atul the Ayrshire Hose, now so fiecjuently i-ultivated. 'i'he latter 
has been ))roved bv .Mr. Sabine's accurate inquiries, see 7V. of 
Jhnt. Snc.v. 1. l."»f). to be of exotic origin, ami llu'ri'r»)re lioes 



398 ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rubus. 

not belong to the present subject, any more than R. sempervirens, 
now and then confounded with both -, but which^ unless I am 
greatly mistaken, may always be known, besides other marks, 
by its very hairy styles. 

The eminently beautiful Rose, suspected by Mr. Sabine to be a 
double blush-coloured variety of aivensis, called in the Nurseries 
round London the '' Double Hip Rose," and mentioned by 
Mr. Woods and Mr. Lindley, has not only a very different aspect, 
but likewise different characters, approaching R. gallica and its 
allies, with which it nearly agrees in magnitude. The branches 
are really furnished, like those species, with glandular bristles, 
as in my first section, and the subdivisions of the cahjx bear 
long, tawny, marginal hairs. The stijles I have not been able 
to examine, but Mr. Lindley says they are not' united, a most 
essential distinction ! ! cannot but concur with him in think- 
ing this plant the offspring of some of the common garden 
Roses, whether by the pollen of R. arvensis, which it approaches 
rather in general external similitude than in any one character, 
I greatly doubt. Mr. Sabine informs me the original plant was 
found in Devonshire ; and I am also indebted to this gentleman 
for the account of another remarkable variety, of a stout habit, 
with very large pale-flesh-coloured petals, found wild in a hedge 
in Somersetshire, by our much-lamented friend Mr. George An- 
derson, a most faithful and intelligent observer. This is now 
known to cultivators by the name of R. arvensis Andersonii. 

The Swedes have not R. arvensis, nor do they in general seem to 
know it. Linnaeus adopted it, apparently without a specimen, 
from Hudson ; and my very correct friend Dr. Afzelius thinks 
it was afterwards confounded with something else. Fl. Dan. 
t. 398, certainly a different species from arvensis, is referred by 
Dr. Afzelius to pimpineUlfolia, under which, as spinosissima, see 
n, 3, I have quoted that figure. 

255. RUBUS. Bramble and Raspberry. 

Linn. Gen. 254. Jnss. 338. Fl. Br. 541. Sm. in Reess Cycl. v. 30. 
Tourn. t. 385. Lam. ^ 441 . Gcertn. t. 73. 

Nat. Ord. see 7i. 254. 

Cal. inferior, of I leaf, in 5 deep, simple, ovate-oblong, con- 
cave, pointed, permanent segments, either spreading or 
converging. Pet. 5, obovate, spreading or nearly erect, 
often crisped, or folded, about the length of the calyx 
or shorter, attached by their claws to its rim, alternate 
with its segments, deciduous. Filam. numerous, capillary, 
erect, shorter than the petals, from the tumid rim of the 
calyx within the corolla. Anth. roundish, flattened, of 2 
lobes. Ger?n. numerous, globular, crowded closely to- 



ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rubus. 399 

gether into a round liead. Styles 1 to each gernien, lateral, 
short, ascending, permanent, elongciied after the flowering. 
Stigmas obtuse, permanent. Berry compound, globular, 
concave, deciduous, of several round, juicy, combined 
grains, upon a conical, dry, spongy receptacle. Seeds soli- 
tary, ovate-oblong, keeled, hard,' wrinkled and pitted. 
Pla?its all perennial. Stems shrubby, rarely herbaceous; 
branched or simple; erect, ascending, or trailing; angu- 
lar or round ; leafy, usually prickly, as well as the whole 
of die herbage, which is also *^ hairy, often downy, 
or partly glandular and bristly. Leaves alternate, 
stalked ; pinnate, digitate, somewhat })edate, ternate, or 
simple ; veiny, serrated, or unequally jagged or notched ; 
most downy beneath. Stipulas linear-lanceolate, often 
very narrow, in pairs, attached to, or entirely originating, 
from, the base of each footstalk. Fl. terminal, white or 
red, inodorous ; in the shrubby species numerously ag- 
gregate, and variously panicled, from the erect or ascend- 
ing stems of the preceding year ; in most of the herba- 
ceous ones solitary and upright. Fmit black, crimson, 
or yellowish, wholesome, in many cases highly grateful. 
The seeds have only one testa, or skin, lined with a 
simple membrana, ox film ,- see Grammar, 26. They are 
not therefore nuts, as tliey want an external shell / nor 
are the grains drupas, though the seeds ai'e solitary. 

* Stem sJiruhhif, angular. 

\ . R. Jniticosfis. Common Bramble, or Black- 
berry. 

.Stems nnguhir, furrowed ; barren ones arched and elon- 
gated. Prickles hooked. Leaves })edate, of five, stalked, 
ovate-oblong leaflets; white and downy beneatli. Pa- 
nicle cylindrical, twice compound. Calyx reflexed, im- 
armed. 

H. tVuticosus. Linn. Sp. PL 707. Ilcrh. Linn. n. :>. ff'illd. r.'2. 
1 08 4. FL Br. .0 4;{. Kni;L Hot. v. 1 0. /. 7 1 .■,. Hook. Scot. 1 60 ? 
ff'eilic and Nrrs Rnh. Germ. 21. /. 7. 

R. n. 1101). llalL Hist. V. 2. V2. 

H. major, fructu nigro. Ihinh. Hist. i\2. C)7.f. Cluthr. Ir. 109. /". 
R<iii Sifn. \C)7 . 

Kubus. 'Lob.(>hs.6\9.f. Ic.v.2.2\\.f. Dud. Pempt 712. f\ 
Ger. Km. \272./. Camcr. Epit. 7'*\.f. 

j3 R vulgaris major, fructu albo. Haii Syn. 4(17. 

Ill luxlict's, tliii-kc'ts and woods, common. 



400 ICOSANDRIA—POLYGYNIA. Rubus. 

Shrub. July, August. 

Stems truly shrubby, of a dark red or purple, strongly angular, 
with intermediate furrows, many feet in length, tough and 
woody, biennial, if not perennial, flowering the second year, 
branched, leafy ; the barren ones smooth, arched, and some- 
times taking root at the extremity; the others erect, and 
slightly downy at the upper part. Prickles numerous on the 
angles of the stems, sharp and strongly hooked, reddish. 
Leaves firm and durable, almost evergreen, of 5 ovate-oblong, 
acute, or pointed, sharply and unequally serrated leajieis; which 
are dark green, smooth, or slightly hairy above ; snow-white, 
finely downy, and strongly veined, with a prickly rib, beneath ; 
the terminal one largest, with a long partial stalk ; 2 next with 
much shorter partial stalks, each of which bears a considerably 
smaller, nearly sessile, leaflet, so that the whole leaf is strictly 
pedate, the uppermost on the flowering stems only being ter- 
nate, or even simple. On the same branch are sometimes seen 
a few leaves that are pale green at the back, and merely hairy, 
not at all cottony, or white. Footstalks in some degree hairy, 
all beset with strongly hooked prickles. *S^ipw/a5 bristle-shaped, 
hairy, in pairs upon each footstalk near the base. Clusters erect, 
oblong, rather densely panicled, twice compound^ many- 
flowered ; their branches and stalks rather angular, white, and 
finely downy, without glandular hairs. Bracteas solitary, linear- 
lanceolate, white or hoary. Ft. erect, handsome. Calyx downy 
all over, reflexed in the flower, as well as in fruit, destitute of 
prickles, and of glandular hairs. Petals of a delicate pink, 
rarely if ever white. The excellent authors of the '' Rubi Ger- 
manici,'" on the contrary, find them generally white. Stamens 
red. Berry nearly globular, of very numerous purplish-black, 
smooth juicy grains, of a sweet but mawkish flavour, ripened 
late in autumn. 

Several reputed varieties of this species, almost equally common, 
have been observed in Britain, dift'ering in the shape and pu- 
bescence of their leaflets, not to mention other characters. 
These have recently been proposed as species, in a very able 
work, with excellent plates partially coloured, by Dr. A. Weihe 
and Professor Ch. G. Nees ab Esenbeck, of Bonn, under the title 
of Rubi Germanici. Some of them were sent me from Shrop- 
shire by the Rev. E. Williams in 1801 , and others have been no- 
ticed, long since, by Mr, E. Forster, Mr. Borrer and Mr. Bicheno, 
who have all favoured me with specimens accompanied by valuable 
remarks as usual. Mr. Thomas Furly Forster has also been long 
attentive to the same subject. Mr. Bicheno recommends a new 
arrangement of all the species of this genus, which is here nearly 
adopted. If I do not go quite so far as the writers of the above 
work^ in the received number of species, my reasons will appear 



ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rubus. 401 

in the sequel. I take advantage of the permission they are 
pleased expressly to grant me, fully relying on their candour. 
Notwithstanding the colour of the flowers, I cannot suppose our 
British R.fruticosus to differ from theirs. 

2. R. plicatus, Plaited-leuved Bramble. 

Stems angular, all nearly erect. Prickles deflexed. Leaflets 
five or three, sejxirately-stalked, ovate, plaited ; hoary 
beneath. Panicle compound, corymbose. Calyx re- 
flexed, unarmed. 

R. plicatus. Wtxhe and Ndcs Rub. Germ. 13. ^ 1. 

In hedges. 

Common in hedges in Shropshire. Rev. Edward fVilliams. 

Shrub. Jul//. 

Stems 4 feet or more in height, all nearly erect, but according to 
\Veihe and Nees the barren ones are in shady situations consi- 
derably elongated ; they are reddish when exposed to the sun, 
otherwise green, angular, but not furrowed, smooth, or slightly 
hairy towards the panicle only. Prickles smaller than in the 
foregoing, pale, deflexed or partly hooked, on the angles of the 
stem, not very numerous ; those on the footstalks, and ribs of 
the leaves, copious, reddish, and rather more curved. Leaves 
of the barren stems, and lower ])art of the fertile ones, of.'> 
teajiets; upper ones on the latter of 3; tlie uppermost of all 
sinijjle, occasionally three-lobcd ; the middle leajlet on a long 
stalk, the rest on shorter ones, all distinct and somewhat hairy : 
leaflets larger than in the preceding species, broadly ovate, 
acute, or ])ointed, coriaceous, more or less plaited towards the 
margin, strongly and unequally serrated, sometimes jagged ; 
their under surface hoary and linely downy, but not wliite or 
cotton V, strongly ribbed, witli many line, transverse, parallel, 
connecting veins. Slipiilas like the last. Panicle sliorter and 
more corymbose, hairy, not white and downy, nor does it bear 
scarcely any glandular bristles j in my only specimen it is twice 
or thrice com|)oun{l, in the figure quoted sim|)le, in both inter- 
sj)ersed, more or less, with simple, ovate leaves, bearing large 
stipulas. Bractcas like the latter. Flowers white. Oi///.f re- 
flexed. I have not seen the fruit. It is said to be acid, black 
Hnd shining. 

3. R. rhamivfollna . Hiicktboni -leaved Bramble. 

Stems anijjular, furrowi-d ; barrni ones arched. Prickles 
deflexeil, stnii^ij;hl. Leaves sli^hily pedate, of five or 
three orbienlar, obovate, or somewhat heart-shaped, 
pointed lealhts; hoary beneath. Panicle twici' com- 
pound, finely hairy. Calyx >pre;ulin|^. 



402 ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rubus. 

R. rhamnifolius. Weihe and Nees Rub. Germ. 20. t. 6 ; excl. Engl. 

Bot. t. 715, and perhaps Lam. t. 441./. 2. 
Rubus. Trag. Hist. 970./. Fuchs. Hist. 152./. '' DeCand. Fr. 

v.4.475." 
j3. R. cordifolius. fVeihe and Nees Rub. Germ. 19. t. 5. 
Rubus. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 356./. 
R. fruticosus. Mill. Illustr. t. 45. 

In woods and hedges, not uncommon. 

Near Henfield, Sussex. Mr. Borrer. In a wood at Hale End, 
near Walthamstow, Essex. Mr. E. Forster. Abundant in woods 
about Tangley, Oxfordshire. Mr. Bicheno. 

Shrub. July, August. 

Stems angular, with slight intermediate furrows, more or less va- 
riegated with blue, either smooth or minutely hairy ; the barren 
ones arched, many feet in length, described by W eihe as often 
taking root at the extremity. Prickles variously scattered, 
chiefly on the angles of the stem, reddish, or purple, pointing 
downwards, but more slender, narrower at the base, and less 
hooked than in R. fruticosus, or even plicatus ; except those of 
the footstalks and ribs of the lectflets, which are all hooked, or 
sickle-shaped, as in those species. Leaves of the barren stems, 
and great part of the fertile ones, of 5 leaflets; upper ones 
upon the latter of 3 j the topmost simple ; the central leaflet 
on a very long prickly partial-stalk, the rest on short ones, of 
which the 2 lateral are sometimes combined : leaflets large, flat, 
pointed, sharply and copiously serrated ; bright green and 
nearly smooth above ; downy and hoary, with shining white 
hairs interspersed, beneath, but not pure white and cottony as 
in R. fruticosus ; their shape is obovate, often doubly serrated, 
but in the ternate ones more orbicular, with nearly uniform and 
simple serratures ; in /3 they are somewhat broader, and heart- 
shaped at the base, but I can find no other difterence in any 

• part whatever of the two plants. Stipulas linear-lanceolate. 
Panicle oblong, twice or thrice compound, somewhat leafy, 
hairy and prickly, the partial stalks round, densely downy, 
hoary j not snow-white and angular like those of the first spe- 
cies, nor do they bear prominent glandular hairs, like many of 
the following. Bracleas linear-lanceolate. Fl. white, or purplish. 
Calyx spreading, not closely reflexed even when in fruit ; its 
segments white and densely downy, with some appearance of 
minute glandular dots, but no bristles, nor prickles, in any spe- 
cimen I have seen. Fruit black, of not very numerous grains. 

In one of Mr.Forster's specimens the upper leaflets of the flowering 
stem are almost lanceolate, but this seems of rare occurrence; 

The authors of the Rubi Germanici suspect ^.715 of Engl. Bot. to 
belong to this species. I have no specimen of the identical 
plant there delineated, but the shape of the leajiets, and the 
broad hooked red prickles, certainly rather indicate the true 



ICOSANDRIA^POLYGYNIA. Rubus. 403 

fruticosus, described above from authentic wild specimens, com- 
pared with those of Linnaeus. 

4. R. leucostachys. White-clustered Bramble. 

Stems angular, downy. Prickles deflexed, slightly hooked. 
Leaves of five or three roundish-ovate, or heart-shaped, 
pointed, jagged leaflets ; hoary beneadi. Panicle cylin- 
drical, and, like die unarmed reflexed calyx, minutely 
glandular. 

R. leucostachys. ScJdeicher MS. 

In woods and thickets. 

Near Heniield, Sussex, and in St. Leonard's forest. Mr. Borrer, 
In Hampshire. Mr. Bicheno. Near Hale End, Essex. Mr. K. 
For.^tcr. About Newbury. Mr. Bicheno. 

Shrub. July, August. 

Mr. Borrer observes that this species " rivals the frulicosus and 
rhamnifoVius in size, and resembles them in mode of growth ; 
but is readily distinguishable by its abundant shaggy and 
shining pubescence, and narrow cluster or panicle. The leaves 
also are generally more jagged, and even the old stems are 
rarely without hairs. The shoots are angular, scarcelv fur- 
rowed." All the specimens I have seen confirm this account. 
One of them was received by Mr. E. Forster from a well-known 
Swiss botanist, Mr. Schleicher, under the above name. What 
I find peculiar in this species are the abundant little glands, 
sessile or somewhat stalked, scattered over the branches and 
stalks of the long, narrow, cylindrical panicle, as well as the 
outside of the calyx, but seldom projecting so far as the copious 
hairs of those parts. The calyx moreover is destitute of prickles, 
€xce])t a few short ones occasionally at the very base. Petais 
white or ])ale red. Fruit globular, black. 

This species is sometimes found, by Mr. Borrer, with heart-shaped 
leaflets, which may further justify my referring cordifolius to 
rUamnifnlius. 

.'). II. glan(lf//(hSffs. Glandular Bramble. 

Stems angular; branches and footstalks hairy, with (dan- 
dular bristles interspersed. Prickles deflexetl, paitlv 
hooked. Leaflets five or three, downy beneath. Pa- 
nicle and calyx very prickly and liairy, with copious 
glandular bristles. 

H.glandidosus. licUardi Append, ad 11. Pedevi. in Mem. Acad. 

Taurin. r. .""». 2'M). " DrCand. I), r. 4 ;" on the atithoritv of the 

author. 
H. idiei varietas. Rcynier MS. 

In woods, thickets, ami hcdq;es. 

•2 uJ 



404 ICOSANDRIA--POLYGYNIA. Rtilms. 

In Sir Michael le Flemings woods at Rydall, Westmoreland, 
where no other Bubus grows. Mr. D. Turner. Common in 
Sussex. Mr. Borrer. As common iu Essex. Mr. E. Furster. 
Near Newbury. Mr. Bicheno. 

Shrub. Jniy, August. 

The barren shoots of this species, which neither Dr. Bellardi, nor 
Professor DeCandoIle, perhaps, has examined, bear leaves with 
5 ovate, acute, stalked leaflets; those eminent botanists de- 
Bcribe the leaves as all ternate, which is the case with those of 
the flowering stems only. All the stems are angular, furrowed 
towards the top, and, as Mr. Borrer observes, " nearly as stout 
at the base as those of R. fruticosus, but not so tall." All are 
copiously beset with scattered, unequal, dettexed, partly hooked 
prickles, and in the upper }>art with glandular bristles. The 
prickles of the footstalks and ribs of the leaves are plentiful, 
and strongly hooked. Lecifleh on the flowering stems rather 
obovate, and more jagged 3 all the leujiets are bright green 
and smooth above j pakr and downy beneath, but not hoary 
except when very young. Stipidas very narrov>'. Panicle some- 
what corymbose, not elongated ; its lower branches spreading 
horizontally) alt the general as well as partial stalks are 
clothed with numerous, partly hooked prickles, abundance of 
shaggy hairs, and of straight, unequal, glandular-tipped, viscid 
bristles. The calyx is also hairy, copiously glandular, and more 
or less armed with straight prickles. The last character, and 
the prominent glandular bristles of the brtmches, panicle and 
calyx, mark this species well, and prevent its being confounded 
with any variety of the leucostachijs, whose glands are minute, 
and sunk amongst its hoary pubescence. The calyx of R. glan- 
dulosus sometimes, when extremely prickly, terminates in leafy 
points. Petals white, narrower than in any of the foregoing. 
Fruit black, of numerous, rather small, grains; its calyx re- 
flexed. 

My Swiss specim.en, gathered by M. Favrod, exactly accords with 
our English ones in all the above marks. Yet M. Reynier, to 
whom it was sent, considered it as a variety of the (Common 
Raspberry, /?. Idceus, and wrote a history of it, to that eflect, for 
his Memoires on the Natural History of Switzerland, of which 
one volume only seems to have been published. It is difficult to 
imagine the grounds on which his opinion could be founded. 
My excellent friend Professor DeCandoIle first determined the 
synonym of Bellardi, who quotes, with doubt, but perhaps justly, 
R. hybridus of Villars, Dauph. v. 3. 559. 

6. R. nitidus. Smooth Shining Bramble. 

Stems obtusely angular, spreading, smootli. Prickles 
hooked. Leaflets five or three, somewhat hairy beneath. 
Panicle and calyx sparingly prickly, without bristles. 



ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rubu^s. 105 

R, nitklus. U'elhe (ind Npcs Rub. Germ. 1/. f.4. 

R. major, fructu nigro. Schniid. Ic. t. 2 ; accoiding to Weiht? and 

Necs. 

In thickets and woods, not rare. 

On Snelsmore Common, near Newbury. Mr. Ulcheno. In St. 
Leonard's forest, Sussex (also in Normandy). Mr. Borrer. In 
Shropshii-e. Rev. E. Wiliiauis. 

Shrub. Jnlij, August. 

A slender straggling plant, with no hoarlness, except about the 
edges and inside of the aibjx. The prickles of every ))iirt are 
strongly hooked. Stems redchsh, with obsolete or blunt angles, 
few or no liairs, and no glandular bristles. Lfaves l)right green 
and shining on their upper side ; paler anrl minutely hairy, but 
not lioary, with strong prickly midribs, and straight parallel 
transverse ribs, beneath ; all ])ointed, sharply serrated ; those 
on the barren stems of 5 leaflets, somewhat j)edate ; the rest 
of 3. The dowering stems are numerously branched. Panicles 
simple, or slightly compound, sometimes aggregate, all erect, 
with slender hairy stalks, and a few strong scattered prickles, 
(in Mr. Williams's specimens chiefly at the base,) but no bristles, 
nor glands. Bracteas lanceolate, })artly fringed. Cal. bearing 
a few prickles, hairy, scarcely glandular or viscid, s})readiiig, 
not strongly reflexed, and sometimes becoming subsequently 
inflcxed. Pet. broadish, white or pink. Fruit black and shining, 
of large but few grains. The authors of the liiibi Germanici 
indicate two varieties of this species, one with rose-coloured 
flowers, and acid /r«i<; the other with wh'xiii Jlowers, and a 
sweet fruit. The latter is judged by them to be Schmidel's 
plant, cited in Fl. Brit, as my cori/lifulius. I rely on their better 
oi)j)ortunities of information. No living specimens of B. nitidwi 
have come under my o])servation. 

7. R. ajlnls. Ovate Hairy Bramble. 

Stem.s ant^iilar, reclininfr, nearly smoolb. Pi ickh s booked. 
Leaflets five, three, or solitary, ovate-lieait-slKiped, 
])oii)te(l ; loosely hairy beneath. Panicle liaiiy and 
prickly. Calyx hoary, unarmed. 

\\. allinis. Weihe and Nees Rub. Germ. KJ. f.3 ami f.S. b. 

In wof)ds, JK'dges, and bushy i)laces. 

In a lane at Ilactfield, Sussex ; also in Kpping lorcsf. Mi F.. 
Forsfer. 

Shrul). ,//////, Au^utit. 

Most nearly related to the last, as Dr. Weihe observes. He ( oni- 
pares il also to the second species, R. jdicntus, on account of 
some slight tin;Iulation, not always very evident, in the central 
leafiel. It is distinguished from R. nitidus l»y its hairy, (u 
hoarv, sometimes densely downv, jutttufr, ;\n'i much more 



40() ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rubus. 

hoary calyx, the latter being destitute of prickles. The leaflets 
also are larger, more pliant, and finely hairy or downy on both 
sides in some degree, though scarcely ever hoary. The prickles 
are all hooked. Stem purplish, a little hairy in the old part ; the 
branches much more so, and rather acutely angular. Panicle 
more or less compound and corymbose, apparently somewhat 
glutinous, but not evidently glandular, nor at all bristly. Calyx 
hoary all over, destitute of prickles and glands, moderately re- 
flexed, sometimes finally recurved over the fruit, which is of a 
blueish black. Petals v.'hite. 
1 find nothing to ascertain this as the R. fruticosus of Linn. FL 
Suec. which Weihe and Nees suspect it to be ; neither can I 
positively controvert that opinion. The species requires further 
investigation. 

8. R. mherectus. Red-fruited Bramble. 

Stems angular, ascending, smooth; branches roundish. 
Prickles deflexed. Leaflets five, three, or seven, ovate- 
heart-shaped, pointed, minutely hairy beneath. Clus- 
ters simple, hairy, prickly, on lateral leafy branches. 
Calyx slightly hairy, unarmed. 

R. suberectus. Anderson Tr. of L. Soc. t\ 11. 218. <. 16. Engl. 
Bot. V. 36. t. 2572. Camp. 79. Hook. Scot. 159. 

R. nessensis. " Hall Tr. of R. Soc. Edinb. v. 3. 20." 

R. fastisiatus. JVeihe and Necs Rub. Germ. 14. f. 2 ? 

o 

hi thickets and woods. 

On the banks of Loch Ness. Mr. W. Hall. About the Devil's 
bridge, Cardiganshire, and in other parts of Wales, as well as 
in the highlands of Aberdeen and Perthshire, and in Dallow 
Gill, near Rii)ley, Yorkshire. Mr. G. Anderson. On the hills of 
Forfarshire. Mr. G. Don, from himself. At Frant, near Tun- 
bridge Wells. Mr. E. Forster. hi Ashdown forest, Sussex. Mr. 
Borrer. 

Shrub. July, August. 

The steins, as Mr. Anderson observes, are biennial, flowering the 
second year, and no more, like those of the Raspberry j they 
grow nearly upright, without any support, and are about 3 or 4 
feet high, bluntly angular, brittle, reddish, leafy, destitute of 
hairs, but armed with scattered, deflexed, scarcely hooked, 
prickles, much smaller than in any of the foregoing species, and 
generally not above a line or two long ; when larger they are 
dilated or elongated at the base. The floweringifews bear several 
lateral, alternate, spreading, simple or compound branches, 
whose leaves are ternate, the uppermost simple, each branch 
hairy, and more or less prickly, terminating in a long, simple, 
bracteated, hairy cluster of 10 or 12 large, white, upright 
,/lcu:ers. Bracteas lanceolate^ hairy, not hoary ; sometimes cut 



ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rubu.. 407 

or lobed. Ftower-stalh hairy, and sparingly glandular 3 the 
lower ones only sometimes bearing a prickle or two. Cal. 
densely woolly within, externally hairv, totally destitute of 
prickles ; its segments moderately spreading while in flower, 
afterwards reflexed, but not closely. Pet. crumpled. Bernj of 
a rather small number of dark red, or blood-coloured, not 
purple, grains, said to be agreeably acid, with some flavour of 
the Raspberry, ripening later than that fruit, and it is therefore 
recommendefi by Mr. Anderson as perhaps not unworthy of 
cultivation. 

The foliage of this species is in one respect ])eculiar. Some of 
the leaves on the barren stems, though generally of 5 lenjiets, 
the 2 lowermost of which are quite sessile, are often furnished 
with a ])air of similar email leaflets on the central stalk, below 
the terminal one, so that the whole leaf'm partly digitate, partly 
pinnate, combining the foliage of the Bramble and the Rasp- 
berry. The leajiets are all of a deep green, ovate, or heart- 
shaped, pointed, sharply serrated ,• quite smooth above 3 paler, 
with hairy ribs and veins, beneath. Stipulas linear-lanceolate. 
Footstalks sparingly and minutely prickly. 

I have confined my description entirely to British native specimens. 
The It. fastigiatus of Weihe and Nees agrees well with our 
plant, and those authors notice a near approach to the peculiar 
form of the leaves, "■ the middle leaflet being sometimes deeply 
divided into 3 parts." But they describe the fruit of " a deep 
shining black," which seems an essential difference 5 and they 
most unaccountably refer the ))lant of \\ngl. Bot. to their nitidus, 
to which I am very sure it bears very little relationslu}), that spe- 
cies having black berries, sharp strongly-hooked prickles, a com- 
j)ound panicle, and a great difference of habit. 

My references to the Rnbi Germanici will be found not always to 
agree with the pages of that work, which, however excellent in 
more important j)articulars, is singularly erroTieous in numerical 
matters j nor does its synonymy on the whole seem so masterly 
as the plates and descriptions. Pollich's description of R.fru- 
ticosus, so indiscriminately laboured, conveys no precise ideas 
to my mind of the present species, though the able writers just 
mentioned are of a different oj/inion. I regret that their work 
goes no further at ])resent than It. tomentosus ; a curious spe- 
cies, not yet found in Britain, remarkable for the softness of itss 
leaves. 

•■* Stems s/inihhi/^ round. 
\). R. i(l(('f(s. Raspberry. 

Stems romid, erect, Miiooth, with downy branches ; their 
prickles straight and slender. Leaves pinnate, of five or 
three, ovate, rather an^uhir leaflets, very downy beiuath. 



4Q8 ICOSANDBIA— POLYGYNIA. Rubiis. 

Clusters prickly, somewhat compound. Flowers pen- 
dulous, 

R.idaeus. Linn. Sp. PL 706. mild. v. 2. \08\. Fl.Br.54\. Engl. 
Bot. V. 34. t, 2442. Woodv. t. 138. Hook. Scot. 159. Fl. Dan. 
t.78B. Ger.Em.[272.f. Matth.Valgr.v.2.?ib7.f. Cliis. Hist. 
v.\.]l7.f. Dcdcch. Hist. 123./. Cmner. Epit. 752. /. bad. 
Ehrh.Jrh.26. 

R. n. 1108. Hall. Hist. V. 2. A\. 

R. idaeus spiiiosus, fructu rubio. Uait Syn.A67. Bauh. Hist, v, 2. 
59./. 

In mountainous woods and thickets. 

Plentiful in Wales, Scotland, and the north of England. On 
woody hills between Norwich and Thorpe, truly wild. ,Mr. 
Borrer finds it abundantly in some of the forests of Sussex. 

Shrub. Maij, June. 

Root creeping. Stem$ biennial, erect, 3 or 4 feet high, branched, 
round, })ale or puri)lish, more or less besprinkled with small, 
straight, slender prickles, frequently rather resembling bristles, 
sometimes said to be altogether wanting; the young leafy 
flowering-branches are downy and simple. Leaves pinnate, 
with 2 pair of lateral leaflets and a larger terminal one; those 
of the upper or flowering branches usually ternate only ; all the 
leaflets ovate, acute, serrated, or cut and angular ; green and 
nearly smooth above ; clothed beneath with white cottony 
down ; their ribs slightly i)rickly. Footstalks downy and prickly, 
with a longitudinal furrow. Stipulas narrow, united laterally to 
the footstalks. FL small, white, pendulous, in drooping, ter- 
minal, mostly simple, clusters, whose stalks are furnished with 
hooked prickles, such as are now and then found on the downy 
wide- spreading calt/x. Petals narrow, erect. Fruit crimson, of 
numerous juicy grains, beset with the permanent styles, and 
highly fragrant, with a very deliciously perfumed sweet and acid 
flavour, more exquisite in the wild state, in general, than when 
cultivated. There are several garden varieties, one with a pale 
amber-coloured //ja;;, and another which bears late in autumn. 

10. R. corylifolhis. Hazel-leaved Bramble. 

Stems round, spreading; barren ones somewhat angular. 

Prickles scattered, straight, deflexed. Leaflets five or 

three, roundish-heart-shaped ; finely hairy beneath. 

Panicle minutely glandular, as well as the reflexcd 

calyx. 
U. corylifolius. FL Br. 542. Engl. Bot. v. 12. L 827. Comp. 70. 

Anders. Tr. of L. Soc. i.-. 1 1 . 2 1 9. Hook. Scot. 1 GO. 
R. fruticosus. Ehrh. PL Off, 415. Hoffm. Germ, for 1800. 231 j 

according to the author. 



ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Riibus. 109 

In hedges and thickets frequent. 

Shrub. July. 

Stems biennial ; the barren ones very long and trailing, unless 
accidentally supported, sometimes arching, glaucous and pur- 
))lish ; green in the shade j they are brittle and full of jjith, ge- 
nerally with 5 slightly prominent angles, and besprinkled witli 
copious, rather small, j/rickUs, placed without any order and 
not confined to the angks, all very nearly straight, though a 
little detlexed. The flowering sie)ns are round, more uju'ight, 
not (]uite so prickly, throwing out abundance of young hairy 
leafy hramhcs, terminating in nearly sim])le, corymbose, hairy 
and downy p'lnicli^s, v.hich are armed with straight prkkhsy 
and besprinkled with sliort glandular bristles. Leaves on the 
barren stems of ;'> very large, broadly ovate, somewhat heart- 
shaped, pointed, sharply serrated leojlels, often precisely like 
hazel-leaves ; peculiarly soft and minutely hairy, for the most 
part, beneath, though Ehrhart's specimen is almost smooth ; the 
2 lowermost nearly or quite sessile ; the prickles of ihe'irjoot- 
sfiilks and ribs moderately hooked : the leaces of the flowering 
branches are uniformly of 3 much smaller, more cut leajlets ; 
all light green and very soft, not white or hoary, at the back. 
Sti])Hl(is and hracteas linear-lanceolate, often very narrow. 11. 
large, white, earlier than most of the genus. Cal. hoary and 
hairy, dotted with minute, scarcely prominent, glands, often 
))rickly at the base, spreading in the flower, reflexed wlien in 
fruit. Berry large, agreeably acid, of larger and fewer grains 
than in R. fruticosus, and of a browner black, ripened before 
that oi \\\G. fruticosus and its allies. 

The late Mr. (i. Anderson, un excellent observer, found the barren 
stems of this species taking root at tlic extremity, as often as 
those of R. fruticosus. That this accident however is not very 
general in either, appears from the anxiety witli which country 
nurses and quacks seek it out, in order to cure children of the 
vvlioo])ing cough, by drawing them through the arch thus form- 
ed by the stem of a Bramlde. The i^'lduds on the calyv and 
Jlitwcrstalks of R. corylifolius, thougli not hitherto notici-d, di- 
stinguisli it from fruticosus as essentially as the scattered 
straight ]>rickUs of the stem, or any other mark whatever. 
These i^ldnds nearly agree with R. l< ucostacliys, as du the 
straight jyricklcs of tl»e pauicle. 

11. R. Cfc^ius. lilue l^iaiublo, or Dow-bniy. 

Stems jinrstiate, round, «.>1aiK'()US, prickly and luistly. 
Prickles (leflcxed. Leallets thrive; hairy hciuatii; la- 
teral ones lobcd externally. Calyx enibraein;^; tin fruit. 

R. caesius. Lhm. Sp. yv. TOG. Jl'ifhl. r. 2. \{)V I. //. Ih. :> 12. llnjf. 



410 ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rubus. 

Bot. v.l2.t.S26. Hook. Scot. 160. Bull. Fr. t.3S\ -, calyx 
erroneous. Fl. Dan. t. \2\3. Ehrh.Arb.95. 

R.n. 1110. Hall. Hist, V. 2. 43. 

R. minor, fructu ca&ruleo. Bail Syn. 467. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 59./. 
bad. 

R. repens, fructu csesio. Bauh. Pin. 479. Goodyer in Ger. 
Em. 1271. 

R. minor. Dod. Pempt. 742. f. 

In woods, bushy places, under hedges, and in the borders of fields. 

Shrub. June, July. 

The stems are trailing, prostrate, weak, round, glaucous, leafy, 
armed with copious, deflexed, unequal, slender, bristly prickles. 
Leaves of 3 ovate, acute, doubly serrated leajiefs, downy beneath ; 
some of the almost sessile lateral ones, on the fertile as well as 
barren stems, are deeply lobed at the outside. Footstalks with 

■ a few small prickles, rather deflexed than hooked. Stipulas va- 
riable, mostly very narrow. Panicles corymbose, of a few 
white, or blush-coloured,^ou;er-s ; their stalks beset with straight 
deflexed prickles, and generally with plenty of glandular bristles, 
more prominent than in the last. The calyx also, sometimes 
very prickly, is covered with similar projecting bristles, and its 
segments, which are considerably pointed, close over the ripe 
fruit, whose grains are few, large, juicy, black, with a fine glau- 
cous bloom, and very agreeably acid. Seeds large, compressed, 
deeply pitted. 

This is a variable species, often approaching some varieties of the 
last, and sometimes having 5 leciflets, as Mr. G. Anderson re- 
cords under his account of the corylifoUus, Tr. of L. Soc. v.W. 
220 5 while on the other hand, '' small specimens occur in 
chalky thickets," as Mr. Borrer observes, *' which at first sight 
strikingly resemble E. saxatilis.'' These species are, neverthe- 
less, perfectly distinct. 

Bohemian specimens of the R. nemorosus of Hayne, sent by a 
learned and experienced traveller, Mr. Sieber, are certainly in 
part ccEsius, though one of them approaches corylifoUus, except 
having much smaller leaves, and ^mguiarjlowering-branches. 

*** Ste?ns herbaceous, 

12. R. saxatilis. Stone Bramble. 

Leaflets three. Stems ascending, slightly prickly, herba- 
ceous, with prostrate runners. Panicle with lew flowers. 
Calyx of the fruit converging, without prickles or glands. 

R saxatilis. Linn. Sp. PI. 708. IVilld. v. 2. 1088. Fl. Br. 544. 

Engl. Bot. V.32. t. 2233. Hook. Scot. 161. FL Dan. t. 134. Ger. 

Em. 1273./. - 
R. n, 11!K Hall Hist. V. 2. 43. 



ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Rubus. Ill 

R. saxatilis alpinus. Chis. Pan. 1 15./ IK). Hist. v. 1. 1 18./. 
R. alpinus humilis. Baiih. Hist. v. 2. 61./ 
Chamserubus saxatilis. Bauli. Pin. 470. Rail Syn. 261. 

In dry stony mountainous woods^ especially in Scotland, and the 
north of England. 

Perennial. June. 

Root ratlier woody. Herb of a light green, slightly downy or 
hairy, not hoary, throwing out a few very long, round, trail- 
ing runners, either naked or leafy, taking root at the extremity, 
where they, in the following spring, send up one or two simple 
herbaceous flowering stems, from 3 to 6 inches high, which are 
angular, slightly hairy, and often armed with a few small, weak, 
spreading prickles. These stems bear 2 or 3 alternate, long- 
stalked, ternate, serrated or notched leaves, not unlike those of 
a Strawberry, the mode of growth of the two plants being also 
very similar. Stipulas elliptic-oblong. Panicle terminal, corym- 
bose, simple, downy, seldom a little prickly, of 3 or 4 upright, 
small, greenish-white ^ott'er^. Ca/. angular at the base; its 
segments oblong, downy within, externally somewhat hairy, 
but not at all prickly or glandular ; spreading in the Jlower ; in- 
flexed, but not closely, in ihe fruit; which consists of 1,2, or 
3 large crimson grains, agreeably acid, but not })erfumed. 
Seeds large, tumid, pitted, and elegantly wrinkled. 

By the above description, it is evident that this sjjecies can never 
be confounded with any variety of the Dew-berry. 

13. IX. ca^cticiis. Dwarf Crimson Bramble. 

Leaflets three, bluntly serrated. ISteni without prickles, 
bearing one or two solitary flowers. Petals roundish. 

R. arcticus. Linn. Sp. PL 708. Fl. Lapp. n. 207. ed. 2. 170. /. 5. 
f. 2. JVilld. r 2. 1088. Fl. Br. 544. Engl. But. v. 23. t. 1585. 
^ Hook. Scot. \C)\. Curt. Mag. t. \32. Fl. Dan. t.4SS. 

R. humilis, flore pur])urco. Buxb. Cent. 5. 13. /. 26 ; very bad. 

R. trifolius humilis non spinosus, sajjore cf odore Krauariie, friiciu 
rubro polycocco, Rubo idaeo siinili. Amni. Ruth. 185. 

R. humilis, Fragariie folio, fruclu rui)ro. Rudb. It. Lapp. [). Act. 
Suer. 1720. [)i). 

Fragaria fruticans. Rudh. Hurt. Ups. cd. 1. 17. 

On stony mountainous moors, rare. 

In rocky mountainous parts of tlie isle of Mull. R(v. Dr. U\ilk<r. 

On Ben-v-glo, above hlair, Scotland. Mr. Cotton. 

I'erennial. .)/</7/, June. 

Roots slender, creeping, branched, but without rumuTs. Stems 
herbaceous, erect or ascending, 3 or 4 inches higli, leafy, angu- 
lar, smooth, mostly simple and sijigle-flowcreih l.Kins about 
.'> or 4, alternate, un rather long, cliannelled, shghtly downy 
footstalks; each of 3 strawberry-like Unficls, stioiigly ribln^d 
and broaflK as well as bluntly sirrutid ; smooth above ; often 



112 ICOSANDllIA— POLYGYNIA. Rubus. 

a little clov/ny beneath. Stipufas elliptical, obtuse, erect. 
Flower crimson, on a solitary, simple, downy and minutely 
glandular stalk. Segments of the calyx lanceolate, spreading, 
downy, frequently more than 5. Pet. longer than the calyx, 
roundish, with a notch at the end ; sometimes jagged, as repre- 
sented in Fl. Lapp. Stam. club-shaped. Berrt/ of several large 
grains, of a purplish amber colour, partaking of the flavour of 
the Raspberry and Strawberry, highly fmgrant, and much 
esteemed in Sweden for making, a kind of wine, reserved for the 
tables of the great. Seeih large, kidney -shaped, very obscurely 
wrinkled. 

14. R. Chamamorus. Mountain Bramble, or Cloud- 
berry. 

Leaves simple, plaited, lobed. Stem without prickles, 
simple, single-flowered. ^Segments of the calyx ovate. 

\\. Chamjemorus. Linn. Sp. PL 708. Fl. Lapp. n. 208. ed. 2. 173. 

t.h.fA. Ji'illd.v. 2. 1090. Fl.Br.54r^. Engl. Bot.v.\0.t.7\(i. 

Liirhff. 206. f. 13./ 2. Huok. Scot. 161. Lond. 1. 136. Dicks. 

IL Sk-c.fasc. 2. 8. Fl. Dan. t. I. Ehrh. Phjtoph. 45. 
11. humilis palustris, fructu ex rubro ftavescente. Rudb. It. Lapp. 9. 

Act. Suec. 1720.99. 
Chamiemorus. RaiiSyn. 260. Ger. Em. 12/3./. also 1630. Clus. 

Pann. 1 17./ 1 18. Hist. v. 1 . 118./. 
Chamaerubus foliis rilx'S. Bauh. Pin. 480. 
Vaccinia nubis. Ger. Em. 1420, {not 1396.)/ bad. 
Moras Norvagica. Tillands ylb. 46. /c. 159, good. 

In turfy alpine bogs. 

On the loftiest mountains of Scotland, ^Vales, and the north of 
England. It indicates slate an the moors, according to Mr.Bi- 
cheno. 

Perennial. Juae. 

Roots .slender, cree]nng extensively, much branched, sending up 
several herbaceous, simple, lealy, single-flowered, downy stems, 
near a span. high. Leaves stalked, heart-shaped, plaited, 
.0-lobed, ruaged, sharply serrated ; a little hairy beneath. Sti- 
pulas oval, obtuse. Fl. white. Cal. downy externally only j 
partly notched. Pet. elliptical. Barren Jl.. with rudiments of 
pistils ; fertile ones on separate stems, (though, according to 
Dr. Solande.'-, from the same roots,) with rudiments of stamens, 
as described in Fl. Br. and delineated by Professor Hooker. 
Fruit large, tawny, agreeably acid and mucilaginous, with the 
flavour of tamarinds. The hard outer coat of the seed is slightly 
rugged, very minutely dotted ; imier more conspicuously so, 
according to Dr. Hooker, who represents the rudiments of 2 
kernels, in one seed, which, if constant, might more probably 
y)rove the seeds to be nuts, and the grains drapas, than any 



ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Fragaria. 413 

thing I have said to the contrary in the generic character. Yet 
there may be 2 kernels in one testa, as well as 2 yolks, by acci- 
dent, in one egg. 

2o(). FRAGARIA. Strawbeny. 

Linn. Gen. 255. Juss. 338. Fl. Br. 5 46. Sni. in Rees's Cijd. v. 1 5. 
Tourn. t. 152. Lam. ^ 442. Gcertn. t.73. 

Nat. Ord. see 7i. 254. 

Ca/. inferior, of 1 leaf, flat, permanent; limb in 10 deep 
segments, 5 alternate ones external and smallest. Pel. 
.5, roundish, spreading, attached to the rim of the calyx 
by their short claws, opposite to its outer segments. i'V- 
lam. 20, IVom the rim of the calyx, a\vl-shaj)ed, erect, 
shorter than the corolla, permanent. A?it/i» roundish, 
incumbent, of 2 cells, deciduous. Gcrmcns su})erior, nu- 
merous, roundish, small, collected into a round head. 
Stijlcs 1 to each germen, lateral, short, incurved, })er- 
manent. .S7/*if//zr/5 simple, obtuse. Z?rr;7 spurious, formed 
of the enlarged receptacle of the seech^ become pul])y, co- 
loured, ovate or roundish, abrupt at the base, finally de- 
ciduous. Seeds numerous, nakeil, scattered over the 
surface of the berry, roundish-ovate, acute, smooth and 
even. 

ILtIs more or less hairy, Avith trailing rnmiers, and short 
erect flowering stems. Leaves ternate, rarely simple, 
strongly serrated, somewhat plaited. Stipulas in pairs 
unitecl to the base of each footstalk. Fl. impeifectly pa- 
nicled, white. Fruit red, varying to a yellowish white, 
fragrant and delicious; to most })eople very wholesi)me; 
to some few an ab.s^)lute poison. The word mostly sliouKI 
be ex])unged from the second line ofy^ 3.73. 

Dr. Nestler of Strasburgh, a recent writer of great merit, 
has, in a Monograph on Potentilla^ a})plied the name of 
hracteas to the 5 outer segments of the calijx^ in the.se 
genera and their alHes. Mr. Seringue, and the jiresent 
Mr. llaller, have done the same. Ihit /^;r/r/<Y/.v U'h>ng 
properly to tlie injlorescence^ not to the fructifi'catiov ; 
and these outer segments diU'er in no I'espect Irom tlie 
inner, except a more leafy texture, in which they exactly 
agree with the leajlets^ or piuruCy of the cali/.v-.^([^ments 
in Nosa, which it would be absurd to call bracfeas^ ;uid 
which actually prove the parts in (|uestion not to he such. 
Dr. Nestler moreovt r follows several recent botanists of 
high rank in ilenominating du- .^wv/.s of tlK-.r pl:uU^ 



4 14 ICOSANDRI A— POLYGYNI A. ?ragaria. 

akenia • for it seems the French school at present do 
not allow the existence of any naked seeds. This is an 
old subject of dispute, and is chiefly a difference of words. 
Every seed^ thougli it may not have a pericarp^ must be 
protected by an integument, which is its testa, or skin ; 
see Introd, to Botany, f. 4; and in that sense mdeed no 
seed is naked. But the testa differs in texture and con- 
figuration, in plants which have a seed-vessel, as well as 
in others that have none. I agree with those physiolo- 
gical botanists, of whom it is abundantly sufficient to 
name Linnaeus, Jussieu and Gaertner, who admit of 
naked seeds in Grasses, Umbellate, the Didynamia Gy- 
7nnosj)ermia, and many others. 

1 . F. vesca. Wood Strawberry. 

Calyx of the fruit reflexed. Hairs of the footstalks widely 
spreading; those of the partial flower-stalks close-pressed, 
silky. 

F. vesca. Linn. Sp. PL 708. Willd. v. 2. 1090. FLBr.^46. Comp. 
79. Bees's Cycl. n. 1. Engl. Bot. v. 22. t. 1524. Hook. Scot. 162. 

F. vulgaris. Bauh. Pin.326. Ehrh. Beitr. v.7.2[. PL Off. 425. 

F. n. 1112. HalLHisLv. 2. 44. 

Fragaria. RaiiSijti. 254. Ger.Em.997 .f.\. Br unf. Herb. v. 2. 35./. 
Camer.Epit.765.f. Dalech. Hist. 6\4.f. Trag. Hist. 500. f. 

Fraga altera. DocL Pempt. 672./. 

Fragula. Cord. FJist. 1 73. 2./ 

Common Strawberry. Pet. H. Brit. t. 40./. 7. 

/3. Fragaria fructu hispido. Ger. Em. 998. Rati Syn. 254. 

F. spinoso fructu. BarreL Ic. t. 90. 

In groves and thickets common. 

Perennial. May, June. 

Root rather woody, blackish, with many fibres, and sending forth 
several long, trailing, haiiy runners. These fix themselves at in- 
tervals by fresh radicles, by which the plant is widely propagated. 
Stems 4 or 5 inches high, erect, slighdy leafy, clothed with soft 
spreading hairs ; panicled, or somewhat cymose, at the top. 
Leaves mostly radical, on long channelled /ootstalks, which are 
rough with spreading hairs; 2 lateral leaflets unequal at the base. 
Fl. erect ; their common stalks clothed with copious spreading 
hairs ; partial ones with erect, or close-pressed, silky pubescence. 
This cliaracter, constant in dry as well as recent specimens, is 
expressed by apparent smoothness of these partial stalks, in the 
wooden cut's to which I have referred. Fruit drooping, deep 
scarlet, gratefully acid and aromatic, esteemed by Linneeus very 
salutary for gouty constitutions. But he seems to have conceived 
this opinion chiefly from observing the effect of Straw])erries in 
removing tartar from the teeth. 



ICOSANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. PotentiUa. 415 

2. F. elatior. Hautboy Strawberry. 

Calyx of the fruit reflexed. Hairs of the footstalks, and of 
all the flower-stalks, widely spreading, somewhat deflexed. 

F.elatior. Ehrh. Beitr. v. 7. 23, Willd. Sp. PL v. 2. [09\. Rees's 
Cycl.nA. Engl. Bot. v. 31. t.2\97. Co)np.79. Hook. Scot. \62} 

Fragaria. Lob. Ic. 697. f. 1 . Ger. Em. 997 .f. 2, not the description. 
Dod. Pempt. 672. f. 1 . Lonic. Kreuterh. 242./. 

F. major et minor. Fuchs. Hist. 853. /. 

In groves in the south of England, but rare. 

In a wood to the west of Tring, Hertfordshire, certainly wild, first 
noticed, I believe, by the late Mr. Dickson. In Charlton forest, 
Sussex, Mr. Borrer. 

Perennial, Ju?ie — Sept. 

Larger than the foregoing, and rather more hairy in every part. 
The essential difference consists in the long, wide-spreading, or 
considerably deflexed, hairs of all the Jiower-slalks, as well as 
footstalks. This is liable to no variation or uncertainty, when 
properly observed. Ehrhart first used it for specific discrimina- 
tion, and has distinguished all the real species of Strawberry, 
which Linnteus confounded, by analogous marks. The flowers 
of F. elatior are generally, but not always, imperfectly dicecious ; 
those on one plant having the stamens most efiectual, whilst an- 
other bears the most complete pistils. A garden variety, noticed 
in Rees's Cijrlopcedia, is supposed always to bear perfect flowers ; 
but this is not generally the case with tlie cultivated plant. The 
fruit is the true Hautboy, known by its larger size, dark hue, 
and peculiar musky flavour. 1 have never seen it wild. 

F. sterilis of Linmeus'and FL Brit, is removed to the next genus. 

•257. POTENTILLA. Cinquefoil. 

Einn. Gen 2:>:k Juss.33S. Fl.Br.C)47. Lain.t.\42. Nestl. 

Potent. /.I. 
Quinquefulium. Tonrn. t. ir>3. ^ 

Fentaphyllum. Gwrtn. t. 73. 

Nat. Ord. see ;/. 25 1. 

('(tJ. inferior, of 1 leaf, flattisli, })ernK'iiK'nl ; linil) in 10 deep 
segments, .5 alternate ones external, and narrowest. Ptt. 
.5, roundish, or heart-shaped, spie:uling, opposite to the 
external segments of the calyx, and attaelu'd by llieii 
short claws to its rim. Filam. about 20, from the rim of 
the calyx, awl-shai)ed, erect, shorter than tln' corolhi. 
///////. ronndish, incumbent, of 2 cells, iicnn. siiperit>r, 
numerous, roundish, small, collected into a round luad. 
.SVy/t'.s- thread-shaped, 1 to each germen, lateral, ascending, 
})ermanent. Sfiinnas hhmtisli, tlowny. Stfds numerous, 



416 ICOSANDIIIA— POLYGYNIA. Potentilla. 

naked, roundish, generally more or less wrinkled, cover- 
ing the surfa.ce of a small, dry, globular, permanent, un- 
altered receptacle, to which each is laterally attached, 
below the insertion of its style. 
Mostly perennial ; rarely shrubby. Leaves alternate ; pin- 
nate, digitate, or ternate ; for the most ]:)art deeply ser- 
rated, or cut. Stiptdas in pairs, united to the base of each 
footstalk, Fl. terminal and aggregate, rarely axillary and 
soUtary ; scentless, yellow, more rarely white, very sel- 
dom recldish, never blue. Qualities astringent. 
* Leaves pinnate, 
1. V.fniticosa. Shrubby Cinquefoil. 
Leaves pinnate, entire, hairy. Stem shrubby. 
P. fruticosa. Linn. Sp. PL 709. JVilld v. 2. 1094. Fl. Br. 547. 
Engl. Bot. V. 2. t. 88. Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc. 6. 12. Ehrh. Arh. 135. 
Ntstl. Potent. 30. t. \, his.f. A. 
Pentaphvlloides fruticosa. Rail Sijn. 256. Cat. PL AngL ed. 2. 228. 

L 1. 'EngL Gard. Cat. 54. L 14. 
P. rectum fruticosum Eboracense. Moris, v. 2. 1 93. sect. 2 . t.23.f.5. 
P. fruticosa eUuior, minus hirsuta. Anim. Ruth. SS. 1. 1 7. Herb. Linn. 
In mountainous thickets, but rare. 

About Greta bridge, Mickle force, Egglestone abbey, and several 
other places in Teesdale. Ray. Found there abundantly by 
Mr. Rohson and Mr Bkheno. 
Siirub. June. 

Stem bushy, woody, 3 or 4 feet high, leafy, with a deciduous 
cuticle. Leaves stalked ; leaflets 5, rarely 7, oblong, acute, 
revolute, about an inch in length, clothed more or less densely 
with close hairs, esi)ecially at the edges ; paler beneath ; the 3 
terminal ones confluent and decurrent : uppermost leaves ter- 
nate only. FL terminal, stalked, somewhat aggregate, large, of 
a golden yellow, copiously produced during summer and autumn, 
winch recommends this shrub to the notice of cultivators in ge- 
neral. The outer segments of the calyx, taken by Dr. Nestler 
for hracteas, vary greatly in size and shape, and are sometimes 
cloven, as appears by my specimens from various countries. The 
two extremes may be seen in the figure in Engl. Bot., and Dr. 
Nestler's t. 1, bis, f. A. 1 presume to think his P. davurica 
is but a variety ; as ^. 18./. 1, of Amman is ac